Skip to main content

Full text of "Publications of the North Carolina Historical Commission"

See other formats





3 1833 02419 2434 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 





North Carolina Historical Commission 

December 1, 1918, to 
November 30, 1920 


Edwa&ds & Broughto^ Psixtino Co., 

Statz PBrN-ncas. 





BULLBT1N No. 27 







North Carolina Historical Commission 

J. Bryan Grimes, Raleigh, Chairman 
Frank Wood, Edenton 
M. C. S. Noble, Chapel Hill 
D. H. Hill, Raleigh 
Thomas M. Pittmat?, Henderson 

R. D. W. Connor, Secretary, Raleigh 

Letter of Transmission 

To His Excellency, 

Hon. T. W. Bicxett, 

Governor of Xorth Carolina. 
Sir : — I have the honor to submit herewith, for your Excellences con- 
sideration the Biennial Report of the Xorth. Carolina Historical Com- 
mission, for December 1, 1913-Xovember 30, 1920. 


J. Bryan Grimes, 

Raleigh, N. C, January, 1921. 



Secretary of the North Carolina Historical Commission 

DECEMBER 1, 1918, TO NOVEMBER 30, 1920 

To Hox. J. Bryax Grimes, Chairman, Messrs. D. H. Hill, Thomas If. 
Pittman, M. C. S. Noble, axd Fraxk Wood, Commissioi 

Gentlemen : — I have the honor to submit the following report of 
work of the North Carolina Historical Commission for the period De- 
cember 1, 1918-November 30, 1920. 


On April 1, 1919, the terms of Messrs. Thomas M. Pittman and 
M. C. S. Noble expired, but both were reappointed by the Governor for 
the term ending March 31, 1925. 

Mr. W. J. Peele, who had served on the Commission since its organi- 
zation in 1903, died on March 27, 1919, and to the vacancy thus created 
the Governor appointed Mr. Frank Wood, of Edenton, whose term will 
expire March 31, 1923. 

At a meeting of the Commission held April 3, 1919, Hon. J. Bryan 
Grimes was reelected chairman, and R. D. W. Connor secretary, for the 
term ending March 31, 1921. 

The vacancy in the office of legislative reference librarian, created 
by the death of Mr. W. S. Wilson, December 18, 1918, was fillel at a 
meeting of the Commission held July 11, 1919, by the election of Mr. 
Henry M. London, who entered upon his duties August 1, 1919. His 
term will end on March 31, 1921. 

William Joseph Peele 

In the death of Mr. William J. Peele the Commission lost nor only 
its oldest member in point of service, but also the man to whom pri- 
marily it owes its existence. The idea was his. He wrote the bill 
which created this Commission and secured its enactment into law. 
Appointed by Governor Aycock its first member, he was promptly 
selected by his colleagues as its first chairman and held that position 
until his voluntary retirement in 1907. 

G&- 6 Eighth Biennial Report. 

Under Mr. Peele's chairmanship the Commission was organized and 

began its work. It3 beginnings were modest in the extreme. With an 
annual appropriation of only $500, with a law which forbade the em- 
ployment of any salaried official, without a staff, office, or equipment, 

or any provision for them for the first four years of its i •;, the 

!N"orth Carolina Historical Commission was scarcely more than an idea. 
It was Mr. Peele's idea, and it was he who breathed into it the breath of 
life. How well he did it the history and development of the Commis- 
sion itself, its present quarters and equipment, the existence of its 
present staff, its numerous lines of activity, its rich and varied collec- 
tions, and its high reputation among its kind throughout the country, 
testify more convincingly than any words of ours. Mr. Peele's interest 
in the Commission was constant and intelligent, his service were quiet 
but invaluable, and he rarely attended a meeting which he did not signal- 
ize by some stimulating suggestion which helped to give vitality to its 

Office Force 

During the period covered by this report the following have composed 
the permanent staff of the office : 

Secretary, R. D. W. Connor. 

Legislative Reference Librarian, W. S. Wilson, December 1-18, 191S; 

H. M. London, since August 1, 1919. 
Collector for the Hall of History, Fred A. Olds. 

Collector of World War Records, Robert B. House, since June 19. 1919. 
Restorer of Manuscripts, Mrs, J. M. Winfree. 
Stenographer, Miss Marjory Terrell. 
Stenographer, Miss Sophie Busbee. 
File Clerk, Mrs. William S. West. 
Messenger, William Birdsall. 

The following were employed temporarily for special services : 

Acting Legislative Reference Librarian, Robert H. Sykes, January 8- 
April 1, 1919. 

Assistant Legislative Reference Librarian, William T. Joyner, Janu- 
ary 8-March 11, 1919; August 1-31, 1920. 

Stenographer, Mrs. W. S. Wilson, December 1-1S, 191S. 

Stenographer, Miss Alice Moffitt, since September 7. 1920. 

File Clerk, Mrs. F. M. Stronach, December 1, 191S-March 6, 1919. 

Executive Papers 

The papers of the following governors, transferred from the Gov- 
ernor's office, were properly arranged and filed: 

X. 0. Historical Commission. 

Elias Carr, 1893-1S97. 
Daniel L. Russell, 1S97-1001. 
Charles B. Aycock, 1901-1905. 
Robert B. Gleiiri, 1905-1909. 
William W. Kitchin, 1909-1913. 

They number 14,356 pieces. 

Historical Manuscripts 

The following collections of historical manuscripts were arranged and 
made ready for use: 

William A. Graham Papers. 1776-1875. 
A. L. Brooks Collection, 1758-1875. 
Rice Letters, 1811-1821. 
Joseph Graham Papers, 1813-1836. 
Lewis Letters, 1S3 5-1863. 

County Records 

As a rule marriage bonds received from the counties are without sys- 
tematic arrangement. Those received from the following counties were 
filed alphabetically by counties : Burke, Bute, Caswell, Chatham, Cum- 
berland, Currituck, Duplin, Halifax, Haywood, Johnston, Perquimans, 
Person, Rockingham, Stokes, and "Warren. 

Repair of Manuscripts 

The work of repairing, reinforcing, and mounting manuscripts pre- 
paratory to permanent binding, has been continued along the lines dis- 
cussed in previous reports and perfectly familiar to the members of 
the Commission. 

Collections so treated during this period number S,666 manuscripts, 
of which 6,208 were repaired, 2,939 were reinforced with crepeline, and 
3,205 were mounted ready for binding. 

Albemarle County Records 

Most of the manuscripts treated in the repair department were (1) 
papers of the County of Albemarle and (2) papers of Chowan precinct. 
They form, perhaps, the most valuable unpublished collection of Colonial 
documents in the State. Stored away in the courthouse of Chowan 
Countv, thev received, until verv recent vears, but little care and atten- 
tion from the local officials. They were open to everybody who oared to 
look at them, without supervision, and have been badly damaged from 
improper handling. Many important papers originally in the collec- 

8 Eighth Biennial Re pout. 

tion have been lost or stolen. It was not until Mr. Frank Wood became 
chairman of the Chowan County Board of Commissioners f hat - 
were taken to remedy this condition. It was through 1 : rhat 

the papers were finally sent to the North Carolina Historical I 
sion to be put in good shape, the Commission agreeing to do the 
without expense to the County. After the Commission, has comp] 
its work on them, the papers are to be substantially bound and returned 
to the courthouse at Edenton. 

Under all the circumstances it seems exceedingly regrettable that I 
original records, running so far back into our history, should not remain 
in the fireproof rooms provided by the State for such valuable docu- 
ments. I trust that the Commission will urge the County Commissi 
ers of Chowan County to consider two points before they finally dc 
on the disposition of these papers. The first is that a large pan of 
those records are more than the record of Chowan County — they are 
the records of the far larger county of Albemarle, and, as Albemarle 
was the parent settlement of North Carolina, they are the records of 
North Carolina. Hence, they are interesting not merely to the citizens 
of Chowan County, but to every man and woman who is engasred in 
a study of North Carolina and, in order to be available to a large num- 
ber of students of history, ought to be in the custody of the State. 

It is impossible for Chowan, or any other county, properly to care 
for and administer these historical records. In the first place, the 
courthouse is not a fireproof structure. Nor has it the space and 
equipment necessary for the proper care and administration of such 
records. Available space in the courthouse, as well as the time and 
attention of county officials, must necessarily be devoted to the rec- 
ords in current use. Such officials have not the time, and but rarely 
the inclination, to administer records of an historical value merely, or to 
exercise proper supervision over their use by others. It is a constant 
complaint of people engaged in historical research in North Carolina 
that county officials will not answer their letters inquiring as to the 
existence of such records, or requesting certified copies from them. No 
single county is peculiar in this respect; the situation prevails in every 
county in the State, and it was in recognition of this fact, and a desire 
to provide a proper remedy for it, that the Legislature wrote into the 
Act of 1907, under which the Historical Commission is at present 
organized, the following section: 

Sec. 5. Any state, county, town or other public official in custody of public 
documents is hereby authorized and empowered in his discretion to turn 
over to said Commission for preservation any official books, records, docu- 
ments, original papers, newspaper files, printed books or portraits, not in 
current use in his office, and said Commission shall provide for their perma- 

X. C. Historical Commission. 9 

nent preservation; and when so surrendered, copies therefrom shall be made 
and certified under the seal of the Commission upon application of any per- 
son, which certification shall have the same force and effect, an . / the 
officer originally in charge of them, and the Commission shall charge for such 
copies the same fees as said officer is by law allowed to charge, to be col- 
lected in advance. 

Forty-seven counties have taken advantage of this law to deposit with 
the Historical Commission their records not in current use, thus (1) 
relieving the congestion in their courthouses and making room for 
rapidly accumulating current records; (2) placing their historical rec- 
ords where they will be properly preserved and administered in a fire- 
proof structure; and (3) making them available for historical purr - - 
Incidentally, it may be observed that scarcely a day passes that some 
investigator does not call at the Commission's rooms to consult these 
county records. 

It seems to me to be perfectly apparent that Chowan County will 
consult her own interests, as well as the interests of the State, by fol- 
lowing the example of these forty-seven other counties in the disposition 
of her records of purely historical value, and I recommend that the 
Commission make a formal request to the county officials to take this 
course, setting forth the reasons upon which such request is based. 


During the period covered by this report 36 volumes of manuscripts, 
containing (approximately) 4,070 pieces, have been bound, as follows: 

Tillie Bond Manuscripts, 1690-1828, 2 vols. 
L. O'B. Branch Papers, 1861-1862, 1 vol. 
Brevard Papers, 1769-1867, 2 vols. 
John L. Cantwell Papers, 1855-1896, 1 vol. 
Papers of the Convention of 1788, 1 vol. 
Papers of the Convention of 1789, 1 vol. 

Governors' Papers; State Series, Vols. I-XV, 1777-17S7, embracing the 
papers of — 

(1) Gov. Richard Caswell, 1777-17S0, 5 vols. 

(2) Gov. Abner Nash, 1780-17S1, 1 vol. 

(3) Gov. Thomas Burke, 1781-1782. 3 vols. 

(4) Gov. Alexander Martin, 1782-1785. 1 vol. 

(5) Gov. Richard Caswell, 17S5-17S7, 5 vols. 

Thomas Henderson Letter-book, 1S10-1811. 1 vol. 

Proceedings of the Court-martial of Col. Charles McDowell, 1882, 1 vol. 

Miscellaneous Papers: Series One, 1755-1912. 4 vols. 

Onslow County Records: Wills, 1757-17S3, 1 vol. 

10 Eighth Biennial Report. 

Onslow County Records: Wills and Inventories, 1774-1700, 1 vol. 
Proceedings of the Wilmington-New Hanover Committee of Safety, 

1774-1776, 1 vol. 
Shaw Papers, 1764-1S61, 1 vol. 
Z. B. Vance Papers, Vols. XVI-XVIII, 1857-1002, 3 vols. 

The following eight volume3 of manuscript records were rebound : 

North Carolina Revolutionary Army Accounts: Receipt Book. 

Accounts of the United States with North Carolina, War of the Revolu- 
tion, Book A. 

Accounts of the United States with North Carolina, War of the Revolu- 
tion, Book C. 

Statement of Army Accounts No. 19, War of the Revolution. 

Abstract of Army Accounts: North Carolina Line, War of the Revolu- 
tion; Book of Settlements, No. 28. 

Accounts of the Comptroller's Office, War of the Revolution. 1777-1783. 

Minutes of the Commissioners of the Town of Tarborough, 1760-1793. 

Book of Registers, Collector's Office, Port of Roanoke, 1725-1758. 

Index to Revolutionary Arjiy Accounts 

Work has been continued on the card index to the Revolutionary Army 
Accounts as described in previous reports. Since my last report 
indexes have been made to the names in eight volumes, which complete 
the cards for 20 volumes. These manuscript records contain the ac- 
counts submitted by the State to the United States for settlement of our 
Revolutionary accounts after the Federal Government had assumed 
the debts contracted by the States in the War for Independence. They 
are valuable as a source for study of our Eevolutionary history and are 
indispensable to the genealogist. The task of making a card index to 
the tens of thousands of names found in them has not been an easy one. 
It has been slow, tedious and expensive, but will be justified by opening 
up to the investigator what has hitherto been almost a closed mine of 
historical material. The work is now nearing completion. 


Additions to Formes Collections 

To collections already begun of the papers of George E. Badger, 

William Gaston, L. O'B. Branch, John Branch, D. H. Hill, William R. 

Davie, John Steele, and Zebulon B. Vance a few additions, from one to 

half a dozen pieces each, have been made. 

The most important additions to such collections are as follows : 
Walter Clark Papers. — To this collection of his personal papers, 

Chief Justice Clark has added 2,770 pieces. This is now one of the 

N". C. Historical Com 11 

largest and most interesting collections of personal papers in our poi 

sion, numbering all told 3,969 pieces. 

Wtleim A. Graham Papers. — To this collection of his father's paiv 
Major W. A. Graham has added 471 pieces, daring from 1776-1875, and 
containing, besides numerous letters written by Governor Graham him- 
self, letters written to him by William Gaston, Edward 6l v. Daniel 
Webster, George E. Badger, Henry Clay, David L. Swain. Willie P. 
Manguni, John M. Morehead, William T. Sherman, and Z. E. Vance. 

Miscellaneous Papers. — From various sources the Commission re- 
ceived 40 miscellaneous manuscripts, among which are letters of Gen. 
Rufus Barringer, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, JerTerson Davis, Gen. R. F. 
Hoke, Gov. A. M. Scales, Gov. John M. Morehead, Gov. Abner Xash, 
Matt W. Ransom, R. M. Saunders, W. T. Dortch, Hinton Rowan Helper, 
and Col. John Tipton. 

Iew Collections 

World War Records. — The largest and most important of our new 
collections are those grouped under this head. More than 100,000 
pieces, consisting of both official and personal records of Xorth Carolina's 
part in the World War, have been received. For further details of 
this collection reference should be made to Mr. House's report sub- 
mitted below. 

A. L. Brooks Collection. — From Hon. A. L. Brooks the Commis- 
sion received a collection of interesting autographs. Among them are 
autograph letters of Governors Richard Caswell, Thomas Burke, Alex- 
ander Martin, William Hawkins, H. C. Burton, David Stone. John 
Owen, Edward B. Dudley, David L. Swain, John W. Ellis, Henry T. 
Clark, Jonathan Worth and Curtis H. Brogden. The collection contains 
24 pieces. 

Joseph Graham Papers. — Major W. A. Graham presented to the 
Commission a collection of 90 manuscripts of his grandfather. Gen. 
Joseph Graham, a distinguished soldier of the Revolution and one of 
the early industrial leaders in 3Torth Carolina. The collection dates 
from 1313 to 1836. 

Hillsboro Academy. — From Hon. Frank Xash the Commission re- 
ceived a small manuscript volume of 10 pages, entitled : "Aceompts. for 
Hillsborough Academy," 1784. 

Lewis Letters. — Miss Annie Lewis, of Raleigh, presented a collec- 
tion of 18 letters of the Lewis family, dating from 1S35 to 1S63, inter- 
esting because of the glimpses they give us into the social life of the 

12 Eighth Biennial Retobt. 

Moore-Waddell Papers. — This is a collection of 43 pieces ralftti] g 
to the Moore and Waddell families, presented by Mr. 0. C. Erwia of 


Regulator Records. — In 1886 Mr. Julius Brown, of Georgia, pur- 
chased from W. E. Benjamin, of New York, two manuscript volumes 
containing official records of Governor Tryon's expedition against the 
Regulators in 1771. These volumes, according to our information, were 
formerly in possession of Sir Henry Clinton and were bought by Mr. 
Benjamin at a sale of Sir Henry's papers. Upon the death of Mr. 
Julius Brown they passed into the possession of his brother, Hon. 
Joseph E. Brown, formerly governor of Georgia, who thought that, being 
important documents in the history of Xorth Carolina, they properly 
belonged in this State. Accordingly, in February, 1919, Governor 
Brown brought the documents in person to Raleigh and formally pre- 
sented them to the State through the Historical Commission. They are : 

(1). — Orders given by/ His Excellency Governor Tryon/ to the Pro- 
vincials of North Carolina/ raised to march against/ Insurgents. [Written 
on the inside cover] : Book Aide du Camp. [The last two pages con- 
tain] : Report of the Provincial Army Whilst Encamped at Husbands, Sandy 
Creek, 22 May, 1771. Quarto, bound in parchment. 108 pages. 

(2). — Journal of the Expedition agst the Insurgents/ in the Western Fron- 
tiers of North Carolina beginning the 20th April, 1771. [Contains] : A 
PLAN of the CAMP and BATTLE of/ ALAMANCE, the 16th May 1771, 
Between the Provincials of North Carolina, Commanded/ By His Excellency 
Governor TRYON, and/ Rebels who style themselves Regulators. Surveyed 
and drawn by C. J. Southier. Quarto, 50 pages. 

Rice Letters. — This is a collection of 15 letters of Rev. John H. Rice 
and Rev. Benjamin H. Rice, eminent Presbyterian ministers, all written 
to Rev. "William lEcPheeters, from 1811 to 1821, relating to the affairs 
of the Presbyterian Church in Xorth Carolina and Virginia. They 
were presented to the Commission by Hon. Benjamin Rice Lacy. 

Stringfeeld Papers. — This collection consists of three documents 
relating to Thomas' Legion of Cherokee Indians in the Confederate 
Army, written by Major TV. \T. Stringfield. They are: 

(1) Diary for 1S64 of W. TV\ Stringtield, major of the 69th Regiment 
(Thomas' Legion), Jackson's Brigade, Ransom's Division, Longstreet's 
Corps, C. S. A. ; 

(2) Major Stringfleld's manuscript, ''History of Thomas's Legion,": 

(3) "Historical Sketch of the 60th Xorth Carolina Infantry," by 
TV\ W. Stringfield, Lieutenant-Colonel, from January 1 to August 25, 

X. C. Historical Commission. IS 

George W. Swepson Papers. — This is one <>f the most valuable 
our new collections. It embraces 438 pieces, dating from L866 1 1870, 
aii 1 contains many letters from most of the lead* rs of J: Lotion in 

\<>rth Carolina. Among them are A. W. Tourgee, W. W. 1 [olden, 
Joseph C. Abbott, and Martin S. Iittlefield. There are - from 

Jonathan Worth, Patrick IT. Winston, Z. B. Vance, Thomas L. Cling- 
man, Matt W. Ransom, A. S. Merriinon, and R. F. Hoke. The collec- 
tion was presented by Mr. A. L. Baker of Raleigh. 

Tarboro Towx Records. — From Bishop Joseph B. Ch^hire the 
Commission received a manuscript volume of the original "Minute* 
the Commissioners of the Town of Tarborough, 1760-1703." 

Wake County Ladies' Memorial Association. — The Wake County 
Ladies' Memorial Association, the oldest Confederate memorial organiza- 
tion in the State, with a continuous existence since 1866, deposited with 
the Commission the following records: 

(1) Blue print of the Confederate Cemetery at Washington. 

(2) Roster of Confederate soldiers buried in the Confederate Ceme- 
tery at Raleigh. 

(3) Minutes of the Wake County Ladies' Memorial Association, 1866- 

(4) Volume in manuscript entitled: Ladies' Memorial Association; 
Lists of Original Interments; the Arlington Dead. 

(5) List of members of the Wake County Ladies' Memorial Asso- 

Confederate Muster Rolls. — Muster roll of Co. B, 1st Regiment, 
^orth Carolina Junior Reserves, R. H. Andrews, lieutenant in com- 
mand, 1865. Two copies presented by Mr. W. J. Andrews of Raleigh. 

World Wah Records 

As soon as the United States entered the World War, historical agen- 
cies throughout the country recognized the necessity of inaugurating at 
«mce systematic efforts to preserve the immense volumes of material 
which war conditions would produce of value for the history of the 
^ar. The immensity of the task was appalling, and most of the his- 
torical commissions, societies, and other organizations were not equipped 
with sufficient means to accomplish it adequately. 

Among such insufficiently equipped agencies was the Xorth Carolina 
Historical Commission, which had neither the funds nor the staff to 
Perform the task for the State of Xorth Carolina, as it ought to be done. 
1 enable it to meet the problem as effectively as possible, the Commis- 
sion sought the cooperation of the State Council of Defense, at the head 

14 Eighth Biexxial Repobt. 

of which, fortunately, was a member of the Historical Comrni-sion. 
The Council met us sympathetically and appoiute I torical < >m- 

mittee of the State Council of Defense with r i S 

torical Commission as chairman. Thus the strength of these two organi- 
zations was combined for the task. Xot much could he accou 
however, in the collection of material, hut important resul - 
effected in calling attention to the importance of pr g it and 

foundations were laid for the more permanent work that was to come. 
This more permanent work has been made possible by the law passed by 
the General Assembly of 1919, upon the recommendation of the His- 
torical Commission, and empowering the Commission to appoint a col- 
lector of World "VTar records, giving official sanction to the work, and 
providing money for its support. The chief provisions of the law are 
as follows : 

"Sec. 3. That for the purpose of putting into permanent and accessible 
form the history of the contribution of North Carolina and of her soldiers, 
sailors, airmen, and civilians to the Great World War while the records 
of those contributions are available, the North Carolina Historical Commis- 
sion is hereby authorized and directed to employ a person trained in the study 
of history and in modern historical methods of investigation and writing, 
whose duty it shall be, under the direction of said Historical Commission, to 
collect as fully as possible data bearing upon the activities of North Carolina 
and her people in the said "World War, and from these to prepare and publish 
as speedily as possible an accurate and trustworthy illustrated History of 
North Carolina in the Great World War. 

"Sec 4. The said history shall give a reliable account of the: 

(a) Operations of the United States Government in North Carolina 
during the war; 

(&) Operations of the North Carolina State Government in war times; 

(c) Operations of county and local government in war times; 

(d) War work of volunteer organizations; 

(e) Military, naval, and air service of North Carolina units and of 
individual North Carolina soldiers, sailors, and airmen; 

(/) Organization and services of the Home Defense; 
(g) A roster of North Carolina soldiers, sailors, and airmen in the war; 
(h) Services of North Carolinians in national affairs during the war; 
(i) Effects of the war on agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, 

finance, trade and commerce in North Carolina; 
0) Social and welfare work among the soldiers and their dependents; 
(fc) Contributions of schools and churches to the war and the effect of 

war on education and religion. 
(0 Such other phases of the war as may be necessary to set forth the 
contributions of the State and her people to this momentous 
event in the world's history. 
"Sec 5. That after the preparation of such history the said Historical 
Commission shall have the same published and paid for as other State print- 
ing, and said Historical Commission shall offer such history for sale at as 
near the cost of publication as possible: Provided^ that one copy of such 
history shall be furnished free to each public school library in North Carolina 

X. C. Historical CoMinmno*. 15 

which shall apply for the same: Provided also, that said Historical Commis- 
sion may exchange copies of said history for copies of other similar histories 
of the war; and Provided further, that all receipts from the sale of said 
history shall be covered into the State Treasury." 

Acting under authority of this law, the Historical Conn. 
Mr. Robert B. House Collector of World War Records, and Mr. II 
entered upon his work June 19, 1919. In the discharge of his duties he 
has shown such a clear grasp of the problems involved that he has been 
able to organize the work on a permanent and effective basis, and he has 
pursued it with an aggressive and yet tactful efficiency which has pro- 
duced rather remarkable results. His report submitted below reveals that 
he has procured a collection of war records, official and personal, number- 
ing more than 100,000 pieces and covering almost every phase of the 
subject which concerns Xorth Carolina. 

Although we must expect war records to come in more slowly from 
now on, yet we must recognize that the field has not yet been covered 
nor the sources of supply anything like exhausted, and Mr. House should 
be given the requisite stenographic and clerical help that will enable him 
to push hi3 work as vigorously as its importance deserves. 

His report, which follows, merits your careful consideration. 

Report of the Collector of World War Records 

Raleigh, X. C, December 1, 1920. 
Mr. R. D. W. Coxnor, Secretary. 

Sir: — I take pleasure in submitting my report of activities as collector 
of World War Records for the [North Carolina Historical Commission 
from June 19, 1919, through November 30, 1920. 

I was employed under the general provisions of chapter 144, Public 
Laws of 1919, which enjoined upon me the collection of data concerning 
Xorth Carolina in the World War and the preparation therefrom of 
a reliable, illustrated history. My first efforts, of course, have been 
directed to collecting as fully as possible all available data. 

On taking up my duties I found that the Historical Committee of the 
State Council of Defense, through a system of volunteer collecting in 
various counties of the State, and Col. F. A. Olds, Collector of the Hall 
of History, had already brought together a considerable amount of 
material. My wo^'k, therefore, has been largely to systematize and to 
expand the work as I found it already in progress. 

The obvious duties of my office required me to collect from the 
national archives, the State departments of Xorth Carolina, the county 
^organizations, and individual citizens, innumerable classifications of 
data. Mv means for doiner this consisted of myself and the part-time 

16 Eighth Biennial Report. 

assistance of one stenographer. Therefore, completion of thii tatk « ithin 

a short time was a physical impossibility. This fact was r 

by the Historical Commission when J began work, and my plan of action, 

with their approval, was to do as fully as possible what I could with the 
means at my disposal. The following analysis of my operations will 
indicate the trend that the work has taken during the past two years 
and the results accomplished. 


So great was the popular interest of North Carolinians in the war as 
a subject of information and study, that immediately upon its becoming 
known that a Department of War Records was in operation, I began to 
receive letters requesting information, offering help, etc., so that at once 
a voluminous correspondence was instituted, which together with my 
routine letters began to total up a large amount of office administration. 

Letter-writing and copying manuscripts, together with filing docu- 
ments received, arranging them in rough, systematic order and cata- 
loguing them, likewise roughly, began to take up a large part of my time, 
threatening to eclipse the other activities I had instituted. In this con- 
nection I have been constantly handicapped by lack of sufficient steno- 
graphic help. However, this side of my w^ork has been satisfactory 
within its limitations. 


One of my first tasks was to survey all possible sources of informa- 
tion concerning IS"orth Carolina in the World War to be found in the 
national archives, in the State departments, and among the various 
county organizations and individuals of Xorth Carolina. In surveying 
national sources of information, I found that various other states of 
the Union were engaged in a similar task. Consequently, in September, 
1919, representatives from the several states met in Washington to 
organize what became the National Association of State War History 
Organizations. This was a cooperative enterprise financed by a mem- 
bership fee of $200, paid by each member state organization. The Xorth 
Carolina Historical Commission became a member of this association. 
As a result we have in hand a complete survey of materials that will be 
necessary to our purpose from the national archives, and have a con- 
siderable number of digests of this material. 

In the State departments I found that the correspondence and pub- 
lished documents of the years 1917-1920 would be essential, but these 
documents being still of administrative value in the respective offices 
could not be released for some time to come. I, therefore, impressed 

X. C. Historical Commissi' 17 

upon each office the necessity of preserving its records foi ./ear;* 

entirely, until such time as they could be released for our archive*. In 
this way I was able to insure the eventual accession of all recor 

State departments. These records hare begun to come to us in such 
manner as I have indicated in my catalogue of accessions. 

The records produced by county organizations and individuals in 
North Carolina were found to be in a chaotic condition. In many 
officials of various war-work organizations had destroyed their records 
immediately upon the signing of the armistice, under the impression 
that these records were of no further value. In many cases, moreover, 
they had kept no complete records during the course of the war. I, 
therefore, took steps to advise these organizations of the value of their 
reports to any adequate history of the war. Moreover, while in a 
majority of the counties of the State volunteer collectors had agreed to 
bring together material for the Historical Committee and the Council 
of Defense, they had in reality done little systematic work. By letters 
and personal visits, however, I prevailed on most of these volunteer col- 
lectors to continue their connection with the Historical Commission, 
and I also effected organizations of volunteer collectors to a considerable 
extent in counties hitherto having no collectors. In addition, I secured 
in sixty-two counties of the State representatives of the colored race to 
take care of data pertaining to negroes in the war. Following up this 
effort to organize volunteer collectors, I held in Raleigh, February 4. 
192$, a conference of volunteer war records collectors in order to empha- 
size what documents ought to be preserved and methods of preserving 
them. This conference has produced definite results, which will appear 
in my catalogue below. I might note here, however, that the most nota- 
ble results in county collection of war records have been achieved in 
Orange, Guilford, Mecklenburg, Cumberland, Halifax, Hyde, TVilkes. 
and Warren counties, where the collectors in each case have checked 
over practically all available sources of information and have either 
soured complete records of each war organization and individual in 
the county or have determined that such records do not exist in par- 
ticular cases. 


In the early part of my work I prepared three bulletins outlining 
nilly the nature of war records, why they should be preserved, and how 
Hie people of the State could help preserve them. These I have dis- 
tributed widely and from them have also received beneficial results. In 
addition, I have kept the press of the State supplied with newspaper 
rtielea concerning my activities, points of interest about the war. and 
the progress of the collection of war records. The results from these 
efforts have also been concrete and beneficial. 

18 Eighth Biennial Espobt. 

preparation of war roster 

I also prepared a rosier of all individuals who held official positions 
in any war-work organization in NTorth Carolina. With tl 
a guide, I began a systematic correspondence with thoe 
an effort to secure such records as were in their possession. This effort 
was attended with varying success, but it produced concrete results that 
will be shown by ray catalogue. I am still pursuing this canvass of 


It was obviously necessary that I go out into the State to acquaint 
myself with individuals possessing war records and to secure such things 
as were available, and in the course of my work I have made a number 
of visits to counties, to the meetings of the National Association of 

State War History Organizations, to the several reunions of the Old 
Hickory and the Wild Cat divisions and to community celebrations, in 
an effort to push the collection of war records. I found, in general, that 
while such traveling always produced concrete results, it was better to 
await the occurence of such events as Armistice Day celebrations, orhcial 
meetings, etc., than to go at random on a general canvass of the State, 
since so much time, energy and money were required in other depart- 
ments essential to my work. 


Numerous individuals and organizations in the State were already 
studying the progress of the war in North Carolina and in many cases 
preparing historical sketches of certain branches of war history. These 
individuals have invariably come to me for information in their par- 
ticular line of work. I have endeavored to answer all inquiries as 
promptly as possible so that the Collector of War Records exists in the 
minds of the people of the State as a bureau of information about the 
war in general. 

It is impossible to outline in detail the actual results accomplished in 
furthering the preservation of North Carolina's war records by the 
efforts described above. Organizations have been effected in various 
localities of the State which are still in operation and the final results oi 
whose efforts it is impossible to determine as yet. The fact that North 
Carolina has a splendid war record that should be preserved in a defi- 
nite body of documentary material is growing more and more clearly in 
the consciousness of the people. In a word, it has paid to advertise this 
work to the State, so that each day now I find it easier to obtain war 
records, because of the growing idea of the importance of the work in 
the State at large. 



X. C. Histobical Commwmojt. 10 

However, the final test of the work is a survey of such document 
have been secured, and, therefore, I give in the following paragraphs 
a digest of war records received, an estimate of the Dumber of | 
each particular collection, and some indication of its value to 
history of North Carolina. 


American Legion 

ProgTam of American Legion convention in Raleigh; List of members in 
Cumberland County; Notice of meeting at Enfield. 1919-1920. 

War Department Orders, containing citations of Xorth Carolina men. 

Miscellaneous material concerning the following: Robert L. Biackwell. 
Earl M. Thompson, Major W. A. Graham, Andrew Scroggs Nelson. Capt. I. R. 
Williams, James H. Baugham, Lieut. W. 0. Smith, Lieut. James A. Higgs. 
Coit L. Josey, Capt. John R. Jones, Major Paul C. Paschal, Lieut. Robert B. 
Taylor, James McConnell, Joseph H. Laughlin, Emory L. Butler. Henry H. 
Hall, Lieut. J. H. Johnston, J. Graham Ramsey, S. J. Erwin, Jr., Lieut. 
Robert B. Anderson. 

Specimen of the diploma given by the French Government to all soldiers 
of the World War who lost their lives. 

About 500 pieces, 1917-1920. 

County Collections 

The following individual county collections, totaling in all about 5,000 
pieces, 1917-1920: 

Wilson County — J. Dempsey Bullock, Collector. 

Surry County — Miss Isabel Graves, Collector. 

Davidson County — J. R. McCrary, Collector. 

Hoke County — John A. Currie, Collector. 

Cumberland County — Mrs. John Huske Anderson, Collector. 

Gates County — A. P. Godwin, Collector. 

Halifax County — Mrs. E. L. Whitehead, Collector. 

Lenoir County — H. Gait Braxton, Collector. 

Guilford County — W. C. Jackson, Collector. 

Hyde County— Mrs. L. D. Swindell. Collector. 

Wilkes County — F. H. Hendren, Collector. 

Warren County — W. Brodie Jones, Collector. 

Pasquotank County — Miss Catherine Albertson, Collector. 

Caunty Councils of Defense 
New Hanover County: Correspondence; historical sketch; clippings from 
the Morning Star. 5,000 pieces, 1917-1919. 
Avery County: Historical sketch; correspondence. 500 pieces, 1917-1919. 

20 Eighth Blenxial Report. 

Wilson County: Three volumes of clippings, photographs, etc. 
Material from the following counties: Alamance. Guilford, Warren, Rock- 
ingham, Lenoir, Nash, Anson, Lincoln, Person, Polk, Chowan. 1917-1920. 

Economic Data 
3,000 pieces, 1917-1920, collected from various sources. 


About 3,000 pieces, 1917-1920, miscellaneous data, collected by the Collector 
of War Records. 

Histories of Xorth Carolina Units 

Histories of North. Carolina units Lave been secured as follows : 
118th Infantry, 105th Engineers, 120th Infantry. 147th Field Artillery. 
Fifth Division, 316th Field Artillery, 321st Infantry, 55th Field Artillery 
Brigade, 306th Engineers, 113th Field Artillery. 

Miscellaneous data on 113th Field Artillery, 81st, 30th, 3d, 26th, and 42d 
divisions; papers, pictures and notes of Old Hickory Reunion, 1919; con- 
gratulatory orders and papers concerning the 30th Division; operations map 
of 30th Division; record of service of 147th Field Artillery in France; letter 
and report on 9th Battalion, 156th Depot Brigade, letter relating to history of 
115th Machine Gun Battalion: roster of 113th Field Artillery: names of men 
from North Carolina now with First Division; newspaper, program and 
other souvenirs of Wildcat Reunion, 1920; address of Col. Harry R. Lee to 
81st Division; newspaper, souvenirs and other material concerning Old 
Hickory Reunion, 1920. 1917-1919. 

Individual Records — Army 

Data consisting of letters, biographies, sketches, newspaper clippings, 
pamphlets, covering roughly, IS 60-19 20, have been secured, concerning 
the following Xorth Carolina soldiers : 

Brigadier-General Campbell King, Major Frank E. Emery, Jr.; Lieut. 
Robert C. Brantley, Capt. John R. Jones, Lieut-Col. Hugh H. Broadhurst. 
Paul Ayers Rockwell, Edgar W. Halyburton, Col. Marion S. Battle. Col. Clar- 
ence P. Sherrill, Luther Clarence McKinley Enlow, Col. Gordon Johnston, 
Lawrence B. Loughran, Charles McKee Newcomb. Robert Timberlake New- 
combe, Col. Paul C. Hutton. Robert C. W T illiamston, C. D. House, Everett 
Edward Briggs, Jeoffrey Franklin Stanback, West Vick, Brigadier-General 
Henry W. Butner, Col. John W. Gulick, Major A. B. Deans, Jr., Walter E. Ray, 
Jesse Staton, Peter Spruill, Francis Marion French, J. E. Gregory, William 
S. Williams, Charlie M. Jones, Robert N. Beckwith, Col. John Van B. Metts., 
Lieut. Frederick Fagg Malloy, John B. Watson, R. B. House. Thomas Leete. 
Jimson Robinson, Lacy Edgar Barkley, James Redding Rives. Jr., Hubert 
Mahaney Whitaker. G. S. Boyd. David Smith. Major-General George W. Read, 
Brig.-Gen. Charles J. Bailey, Charles L. Coggin, Col. Holmes B. Springs, 
Brig.-Gen. E. M. Lewis. Sergt. John A. L. Moore. I. G. Wilson. Corp. C. C. 
Noble, Col. C. N. Earth; soldiers from Fayetteville, Spring Hope, Surry 
County, Wake County, Halifax County. Number of pieces estimated at 5,000. 


X. C. Historical C row. 21 

Indiv idual Records — Navy 

Data consisting of letters, biographs, sketches, newspaper clip: tnph- 

lets, covering roughly 1860-1920, concerning the following Xorth Carolina 

Rear Admiral Victor Blue, Lieut-Commander John F. Green, Lieut-Com- 
mander Walter Doyle Sharpe, Commander Rufus Zenas Johnstone. Lieut.- 
Commander W. C. Owen, Lieut.-Commander J. R. Xorfleet, Lieut.-Commander 
Paul Hendren, D. C. Godwin, James Edward Stephenson, Capt. Lyman A. 
Gotten, William Hansell Bushall, Listen Newkirk, Capt. R. W. McXeely, 
Reuben O. Jones, Commander John J. London, Lieut.-Commander William 
T. T. Mallison. 2.000 pieces. 

Individual Records — Air Service 

Robert O. Lindsay Papers: About 50 pieces, 1917-1920, concerning the 
services of Lieut. Robert O. Lindsay, the only Ace from Xorth Carolina. 

Kiffin Yates Rockwell Papers: About 3,000 pieces — letters, clippings, etc.. 
covering roughly the dates 1892-1920, concerning Kiffin Yates Rockwell, an 
aviator with the French Eseadrille, who gave his life in action in 1918. 
Donated by his mother. Dr. Loula Ayres Rockwell, and his brother, Paul 
Ayres Rockwell. 

James A. Higgs Papers: About 1,000 pieces, covering roughly the dates 
1S90-1920. Story of his war experience, diary, personal correspondence, offi- 
cial correspondence, miscellaneous personal papers, official balloon notes, 
official photographs, balloon notes, etc. Lent by his sister, Miss Mattie Higgs. 

Miscellaneous data about Lieuts. William Palmer, Harmon Rorison, John 
C. Miller. 

About 10,000 pieces. 

Jewish War Records 

About 100 pieces, 1917-1920. Compiled by the Jewish War Record office, 
Xew York City. 

Liberty Loan Campaign 

Papers of Mrs. R. M. Latham, State Chairman Woman's Liberty Loan Com- 
mittee: about 5,000 pieces of correspondence, covering dates of 1917-1920. 
Miscellaneous papers covering same dates: about 100 pieces. 

Local Exemption Boards 

Local Board reports, about 2,000 pieces, containing the lists of drafted men 
from each county, obtained by Col. F. A. Olds. 

Miscellaneous material as follows: Photographs: list of inducted men and 
letters of the Hyde County Board; Account of the Carteret County Board; 
Information concerning the draft in Hyde. Caldwell, Stokes, Chowan, Gra- 
ham and Franklin counties; History of the Draft Board for Beaufort and 
H;ilir'ax counties. 

About 2,000 pieces, 1917-1920. 

22 Eighth Biennial Report. 

Letters Pertaining to the War 

Letters from the files of Col. F. A. Olds, covering roughly the dates 1917- 
1920. 50 pieces. 

Miscellaneous Letters from the following: 

Marcelle Brunet ro Mrs. Woolicott; Henriette, of Vendome, Prin- 
cess of Belgium, to Tryon Chapter A. R. C; Kiffin Rockwell to Mrs. John Jay 
Chapman; Ambassador Jusserand to Hon. S. P. McConnell; J. Graham Ram- 
sey, James Menzies; Clara I. Cox; Mrs. K. R. Beckwith: L. S. M. I 
DeWitt Smith; Mrs. Eliza Potter Settle; Parents of Madelon Battle; Shirley 
N. White; John Y. Stokes; Lieut. Harry L. Brockmann; Mr. Charles C. Ben- 
son; and correspondence of General S. L. Faison and the War Department. 

Letter-book of Governor T. W. Bickett, about 1,000 pieces of essential cor- 
respondence relating to Governor Bickett's administration. 

Executive Papers of Governor T. W. Bickett pertaining to the war, about 
10,000 pieces, 1917-1920. Filed chronologically under headings, as for ex- 
ample the following: Draft, Desertions, Food Administration, Fuel Adminis- 
tration, Rehabilitation, etc. 

Miscellaneous Data 

In addition to collections of materials which have been outlined in this 
report, there has been brought together about 5,000 individual items bearing 
on North Carolina in the World War. These are as yet entirely unread and 
unarranged, and therefore cannot be described in detail. 

Munitions and Shipbuilding 
Records of Andrew B. Baggeriy, Navy Yard, 1917-1920. 

Negroes in the War 

About 20 pieces, 1917-1920, from W. H. Quick, and J. Dempsey Bullock, 


About 250 photographs collected by Col. Fred A. Olds and noted in his 

Additional photographs as follows: Entertainment given by Raleigh Y. M. 
C. A.; Panorama of Camp Lee, Va.; Collection lent by Xeics and Observer: 
Lieut.-Commander John F. Green; Col. Albert L. Cox; Wake Forest students 
at Plattsburg in 1918; Lieut. J. J. Sykes; Brig.-Gen. S. T. Ansell; Col. Joseph 
Hyde Pratt; Capt. Thomas Poik Thompson; John H. Howell; Lieut. William 
T. Gregory; Lieut. Samuel F. Telfair; Rufus Zenas Johnston; 90 prints of 
official photographs illustrating the 30th Division; Panorama of 119th Infan- 
try at Camp Sevier; Brig.-Gen. Campbell King; Col. Marion S. Battle; Lieut.- 
Col. Hugh H. Broadhurst; Foreign Legion; Edgar M. Halyburton; Otis B. 
Baggeriy; Col. Clarence P. Sherrill; Camp Bragg and Fayetteville; Lieut.-Col. 
W. G. Murchison; Col. S. W. Minor; 9th Battalion. 156th Depot Brigade; 
Major P. C. Paschal; Shirley N. White; Admiral Archibald Henderson Scales; 
Lieut.-Commander D. C. Godwin; Otis V. Baggeriy; Capt. Lyman A. Gotten; 
James Edward Stephenson; Peter Spruill; Collection taken by Capt. Baeley. 
321st Infantry; Capt. R. W. McNeely; Tablet erected to Lieut. Robert H. 

State Litekary ajsd Historical Associatio I ■ 

to get and hold a tooting there, which at, later time eould be obta 
only by a process of severe eompetitioiL 
Whether we do or do nor utilize the opportunity before m depe 

primarily on our business men; but not entirely. It depends to a 
able extent on the attitude of the people of the country. 
ably there are a few people in the United Sattee who would deliberately 
and knowingly block our progress in this respect. But there i re many 

who could block it by not knowing what the situation is and how their 

own views of what the government ought to do in the situation bear 
upon it. It is our good fortune to live under a government of the peopla 
Well, at this moment the people of this country are called upon to decide 
whether or not they shall block or promote the development of the United 
States in keeping with the industrial and political opportunities that 
confront us in international affairs. With the best intentions in the 
world our people cannot be expected to act prudently in the matter unless 
they understand the opportunities that confront us. 

Before 1914 the United States was a debtor nation. For years we 
had borrowed money to build railroads, canals and industrial plants, and 
to develop mining and agriculture. For the interest on our borrow- 
ings we had to pay Europe annually more than $250,000,000. What- 
ever else we did this money had to be paid. We fulfilled the descrip- 
tion involved in the biblical phrase, "The borrower is a servant of the 
lender." We had chosen, also, to put our best efforts into manufactur- 
ing, as some sections of our farmers put all their efforts in production 
of one crop, expecting to buy what they needed in other respects. Thus 
we had given up the operation of a merchant marine and were paying 
Europeans $200,000,000 a year to carry our goods to market. This in- 
terest charge and this freight bill, with the amount of money our tourists 
took abroad with them and some other items, made a grand total of 
nearly $600,000,000 a year. 

The sum was so great that it was impossible to pay it in gold, the 
only international money. To have tried to do so would have ex- 
hausted the stock of gold in the country in a few years, which means 
that our banks would have been forced to suspend specie payments of 
their notes. It was about nine times as much as the amount oi arold 
mined in this country annually. The other alternative was to pay 
it in commodities; and that is what we did. Every year we sent 
abroad $600,000,000 worth of products in excess of the value of the 
merchandise we imported. If we did not quite make the total out-go 
and the total in-come balance we called the difference the balance 
of trade. If the prices of our commodities were low the result was 
that they did not sell for enough to pay all we owed for merchandise 

24 Eighth Bienicial Rkpowi. 

Official papers of the State Council of Defense, covering roughly dates 
1917-1920, about 10,000 pieces; from Dr. D. H. Hill, Chairman. 

Miscellaneous papers as follows: Incomplete set of minutes; Home speci- 
mens of propaganda; Soldiers' Business Aid Committee papers; Certificates 
issued to R. J. Morgan, Chairman Haywood County Council of Defense; 
First Annual Report; Correspondence and press material. About 2,000 pieces. 

U. S. Food Administration 

Complete record of the U. S. Food Administration in North Carolina, 10.000 
pieces, 1917-1920, turned over by Col. F. A. Olds from Henry A. Page, Food 

Miscellaneous material, 500 pieces, 1917-1920. 

U. S. Fuel Administration 

Complete records of Fuel Administrator A. W. McAlister and R. N. Nor- 
fleet, 10,000 pieces, 1917-1920. 

Miscellaneous material, 500 pieces, 1917-1920. 

War Camp Community Service 

Reports of War Camp Community Service in Southport, Winston-Salem, 
Wilmington, Morehead City, Raleigh, Elizabeth City, Fayetteville, Goldsboro. 
Durham, Greensboro, Charlotte, Asheville, Hot Springs, Waynesville. 

History of War Camp Communit3 r Service in Southport and in Fayetteville. 

Poster, picture, several papers, and story of War Camp Community Service 
in Charlotte. 

About 500 pieces, 1917-1920. 

War Savings Stamps 
Miscellaneous material, from Colonel Olds. About 500 pieces, 1917-1920. 

Welfare Work 
About 500 pieces, 1917-1920, miscellaneous printed matter. 

War Work Fund 
Records concerning the War Work Fund, 1917-1920. 

Women in the War 

Miscellaneous data, about 2,000 pieces, 1971-1920. consisting of individual 
reports from various women's organizations in North Carolina. 

F. M. C. A. 

Material from Colonel Olds. Material concerning the Y. M. C. A. in the 
Army of Occupation. About 1,000 pieces, 1917-1920. 

Analysis of the foregoing catalogue snows, first, that some of our 
collections are already practically complete as, for example, records of 
the Food and Fuel Administrations, the State Council of Defense, and 

35". C. Historical Commission-. 25 

tho Governor's office. TLes^> collections I purpose to arrange at once, 
systematically, so as to render them available for consultation. Also 
I purpose to study them with a view to publication. 

In the second place, some of our collections can be made complete 
within a reasonable length of time, as, for example, the service records of 
our soldiers, sailors and airmen, the histories of war work organiza- 
tions, and histories of counties, military units, etc. These I purpose to 
complete systematically as soon as possible, after which I shall arrange 
them for consultation and study also. 

In the third place, some of our collections will never be completed. 
These may be described as colorful, human-interest document-, such as 
letters, pictures, diaries, etc. But they are essentially of value to the 
historian even though incomplete, because of their typical, representa- 
tive nature. These I purpose to add to by every opportunity possible. 

Therefore, for the immediate future, my plans are to continue work- 
ing along my present lines of collecting and arranging documents in 
general. But results already achieved indicate that before the coming 
year is over the emphasis will shift to systematic arrangement, study 
and publication. 

Respectfully yours, 

R. B. House, 
Collector of World War Records. 

County Records 

Seventeen counties deposited with the Commission, during the period 
covered by this report, their noncurrent records, as follows : 

Burke County. (Erected in 1777 from Rowan.) 

County Court Papers (unbound), 1783-1842. 

Wills (unbound), 1794-1866. 

Marriage Bonds (unbound), 1794-1866. 
Bute County. (Erected in 1764 from Granville.)* 

Land entries and oaths, 1778. 1 vol. 

County Court Minutes, 1767-1776. 1 vol. 

Wills and Inventories. 

Marriage Bonds. 
Caswell County. (Erected in 1777 from Orange.) 

Marriage Bond-j. 
Chatham County. (Erected in 1770 from Orange.) 

County Court Minutes, 1811-1S16. 1 vol. 
Columbus County. (Erected in 1808 from Bladen and Brunswick.) 

County Court Minutes, 1S3S-1S46. 1 vol. 

•Abolished in 1773, and territory divided into Warren and Franklin. 

Eighth Br en .vial Report. 

Cumberland County. (Erected in 1754 from Bladen.) 

County Court .Minutes, 1784-1860. 26 vols. 

County Court Road Docket, 1825-1855. 2 vols. 

Fayetteville papers, 1820-1871 (unbound). 

Marriage Bonds. 
Currituck County. (Erected in 1672 from Albemarle.) 

County Court Minutes, 1799-1830. 3 vols. 

Marriage Bonds. 
Duplin County. (Erected in 1749 from New Hanover.) 

County Court Minutes, 1784-1837. 6 vols. 

Marriage Bonds. 
Granville County. (Erected in 1746 from Edgecombe.) 

County Court Minutes, 1786-1820. 9 vols. 
Halifax County. (Erected in 1758 from Edgecombe.) 

Marriage Bonds. 
Haywood County. (Erected in 1808 from Buncombe.) 

Marriage Bonds. 
Johnston County. (Erected in 1746 from Craven.) 

Marriage Bonds. 
Perquimans County. (Erected in 1672 from Albemarle.) 

Inventories and Sales, 1715-1815. 

Wills, 1711-1803. 

Marriage Bonds. 
Person County. (Erected 1791 from Caswell.) 

Marriage Bonds. 
Rockingham County. (Erected in 1785 from Guilford.) 

County Court Minutes,. 1786-1803. 3 vols. 

Marriage Bonds. 
Stokes County. (Erected in 1798 from Surry.) 

Marriage Bonds. 
Warren County. (Erected in 1778 from Bute.) 

County Court Minutes. 1783-1855. 8 vols. 

County Court Trial Docket. 1787-1805. 1 vol. 

Minutes of Courts Martial (militia). 1791-1815. 1 vol. 

Marriage Bonds. 
Wake County. (Erected in 1779 from Dobbs and Craven.) 

County Court Minutes, 1787-1788. 1 vol. 

Wills and Inventories, 1782-1808. 1 vol. 


The following maps have been received: 

Map/ of the/ United States/, Exhibiting the/ Post-Roads, Situations, 
connexions, & distances of the Post Offices/ State Roads, counties. & Principal 
Rivers/ By Abraham Bradley Junr. 38x52. 1S04. Insert: Map/ of North 
Carolina. — Presented by Miss Maude Waddell. 

Photostat copies of Coilett's map of North Carolina. 1768-1770, and of 
Jeffrey's map of St. Christopher and Nevis, from the originals in the British 
Museum. — Presented by Prof. Charles M. Andrews of New Haven, Conn. 

2s. C. HlSTOElCAL Commission'. 27 


In the early part of the present year a systematic effort wu begun to 
secure either original or photostat copies of all North Carolii 
papers prior to 1800 which could be located. The accom] i t of 

this undertaking has been made possible by the publication in the Pro- 
ceedings of the American Antiquarian Society of Mr. Clarence 8. 
Brigham's "Bibliography of American Newspapers." An arrangement 

with the Massachusetts Historical Society has made it possible for us to 
procure positives of such prints at the cost of negatives. We send the 
negatives to them from which they furnish us the positives without 
charge, on condition that the negatives remain with them, they being 
permitted to furnish from them prints to any other historical society, 
commission, or library that may desire them. This agreement enables 
us to procure positives of our early newspapers at almost half the price 
they would otherwise cost us. 

To the courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society, the British 
Public Records Office, the Library Company of Philadelphia, the Library 
of Congress, the Xew York Historical Society, and the Louisiana State 
Museum, we are indebted for permission to have such prints made of 
early Xorth Carolina newspapers as follows: 

From the American Antiquarian Society: 

Edenton Intelligencer. April 9, 1788. 

State Gazette of North Carolina. Forty-six issues of various dates 
from March 30, 1792. to February 20, 1799. 

North Carolina Chronicle; or Fayetteville Gazette. Six issues in 1790. 

Fayetteville Gazetta. Ten issues in 1792. 

North Carolina Minerva, and Fayetteville Advertiser. Issues of No- 
vember 17, 1798, and November 26, 1799. 

North Carolina Gazette (New Bern). Two issues, October 18th, 1759; 
June 24, 1768. 

Wilmington Sentinel, and General Advertiser, June 18. 1788. 

Wilmington Chronicler, and North Carolina Weekly Advertiser. Octo- 
ber 22, 1795. 

Martin's North Carolina Gazette (New Bern). August 15, 17S7. 

North Carolina Gazette (New Bern). Three issues in 1790 and 1794. 

From the British Public Records Office : 

North Carolina Gazette (New Bern). Four issues from 1757 to 1775. 
North Carolina Gazette (Wilmington). Three issues in 1765 and 1776. 
Cape Fear Mercury. One issue in 1773 and three issues in 1775. 

From the Library Company of Philadelphia : 
State Gazette of North Carolina, October 4, 1787. 

North Carolina Gazette (New Bern). Twenty issues from October 
12, 1793, to July 16, 1796. 

28 Eighth Biennial Report. 

From the Xew York Historical Society: 

North Carolina Gazette (New Bern). Seven issues in 1775. 
State Gazette of North Carolina, Fehruary 7, 17SS. 

From the Library of Congress : 

Post-Angel, or Universal Entertainment (Edenton). November 12, 1800. 
Newbern Gazette. Seven issues of various dates from November 24, 

1798, to March 16, 1799. 
State Gazette of North Carolina, October 4, 1787. 
North Carolina Minerva. December 23, 1800. 
North Carolina Journal. Complete from January 4 to December 12, 

1796, except for the issues of January 11, February 29, May 9. June 

13, and July 26; of October 17, and December 12, we have only the 

second and third pages. 

From the Louisiana State Museum: 

Martin's North Carolina Gazette. Issues of July 11 and December 19, 

By purchase we procured the originals of the 

North Carolina Journal. Six issues of various date in 1794-1795. 

As a gift from Mr3. Henry A. London, we received 
The Chatham Record, 1S78-1920. 42 vols. 

History of the King's BoDYGrARD of the Yeomen of the Guard 

In connection with the commemoration of the Tercentenary of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, Col. Sir Reginald Hennell, colonel in command of the 
King's Bodyguard of the Yeomen of the Guard, the oldest military 
organization in the world, presented to the State of Xorth Carolina 
through the Historical Commission, the last copy in his possession of 
his history of the Guard which was written by him at the command of 
the King. This copy Colonel Hennell had handsomely bound in the 
colors of the Guard, and inscribed to the State of Xorth Carolina in 
commemoration of the fact that Sir Walter Raleigh, whose colonies 
settled on the shores of Xorth Carolina, was formerly a captain in the 


Since my last report the Commission has issued the following publi- 
cations : 

Bulletin No. 24. Seventh biennial report of the North Carolina Historical 
Commission, December 1, 1916-November 30, 1918. Paper. 17 pages. 

Bulletin No. 25. Proceedings of the State Literary and Historical Associa- 
tion of North Carolina for 1918; Addresses prepared for the Conference on 
Anglo-American Relations in commemoration of the Tercentenary of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, October 2S-29, 1918. Paper. 146 pages. 

'X. C. Historical Commission-. 29 

Bulletin No. 26. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Session of the Btatl 
Literary and Historical Association of North Carolina, November 20-21, 1919. 
Paper. 137 pages. 

North Carolina Manual for 1919. Compiled and edited by R. D. W. Connor. 
Cloth. 459 pages. 

Papers of Thomas Runin. Compiled and edited by J. G. de R. Hamilton. 
Vol. II. Cloth. 625 pages. 

Volumes III and IV of the Ruffin Papers are now in the press and 
their publication mav be expected at an early date. 

Moravian Records 

One of the largest and most important unpublished collections of 
manuscript material bearing on the history of Xorth Carolina are the 
records of the Moravians in Wachovia, preserved in the Wachovia His- 
torical Societv at Winston-Salem. These records are continuous from 
the beginning of the Wachovia settlement in 1752 to date. From 1752 
to 1857 they were kept in German, but since 1857 the English language 
has been used. They are in the form of church minutes, journals, 
diaries, and ''Memorabilia" prepared by the pastors and read annually 
to the several congregations, and relate not merely to the affairs of the 
Moravians but to events of general interest throughout the colony and 
the continent. 

The Commission has been fortunate enough to make arrangements 
with Miss Adelaide L. Fries, archivist of the Wachovia Historical 
Society, to translate and edit these records for publication by the Com- 
mission. Miss Fries' thorough knowledge of the history of Wachovia 
and her familiarity with these records make her especially competent 
for this difficult task; indeed, she is probably the only person living 
who is competent to do it. The first volume of the series, "The Records 
of the Xorth Carolina Moravians, 1752-1771," is ready for the press 
and will be sent to the printers as soon as other volumes now in their 
hands are out of the way. 


[The General Assembly of 1919 reenacted the Act of 1917 which appro- 
priated $2,500 annually to be used by the Historical Commission to aid 
in commemorating by suitable markers events of interest in our history. 
No change was made in the conditions under which the fund can be used, 
which were explained in my last report. Conditions have not been 
favorable during the period covered by this report for raising money for 
such historical memorials and but little aid has been requested from this 

30 Eighth Biennial Report. 

fund, but we can, I feel sure, look for a revival of such activities in the 
near future. During this period we have aided in erecting the follow- 
ing markers : 

1. Henry Irwin Tablet. 

This is a tablet erected in the courthouse at Tarboro in memory of 
Henry Irwin, colonel of the 2d Regiment, North Carolina Continental 
Line. Erected by the Miles Harvey Chapter, D. A. R. 

2. Confederate Navy Yard. 

A tablet marking the site of the Confederate Navy Yard on the Cape 
Fear River near Wilmington. Erected by the New Hanover County 
Historical Commission. 

3. Sugar Loaf Battlefield. 

This is a tablet marking the site of Sugar Loaf battlefield, about 
fourteen miles below "Wilmington on the Cape Fear River, where was 
fought in 1725 the last battle between the whites and the Indians on 
the Cape Fear. Erected by the New Hanover County Historical 

4. Site of Fort Anderson. 

A tablet to mark the location of Fort Anderson on the Cape Fear 
River opposite Fort Fisher, which, with Fort Fisher, formed the de- 
fense of the city of Wilmington during the Civil War. Erected by the 
New Hanover County Historical Commission. 

5. Site of Charlestown. 

This tablet marks the site of Charlestown on the Cape Fear, founded 
in 1665 by Sir John Yeamans, and afterwards abandoned. Erected by 
the New Hanover County Historical Commission. 

6. Historical Sites in Wilmington. 

A series of tablets marking the sites of events of historic interest in 
the city of Wilmington. Erected by the New Hanover County His- 
torical Commission. 

7. Ramsgate Road Tablet. 

A tablet to mark the location of the old Ramsgate Road in Wake 
County, built in 1771 by Governor Tryon, when on his expedition 
against the Regulators. Erected by the Bloomsbury Chapter, D. R. 

8. Ramseur Tablet. 

A tablet erected to mark the location of the Belle Grove House near 
Winchester, Va., where died, October 20, 1S64. Major-General Stephen 
Dodson Ramseur, of a wound received at the battle of Cedar Creek, 
October 19, 1864. Erected in conjunction with the North Carolina 
Division, U. D. C, and the North Carolina Division, U. C. V. 

9. Pettigrew Tablet. 

A tablet erected to mark the location of the Boyd House near Win- 
chester, Va., where died, July 17, 1S63, Brigadier-General James John- 
ston Pettigrew, of wounds received at the battle of Falling Waters, 
July 14, 1S63. Erected in conjunction with the North Carolina Di- 
vision, U. D. C. and U. C. V. 

K". C. Historical Commissi 

Tho Ramseur and Pettigrew memorials are bronze tablets affixed to 
Isome granite columns, trio columna being gifts to the I 
of the late Cel. Peter H. Mayo of Richmond, Va. They were imvi 
on September 16 and 17, 1020. In the exercises in connection with the 
unveiling of these memorials we received such cordial cooperation 
hospitality from the Confederate veterans, Daughters of the 
eracy, and other citizens of Winchester and vicinity, as made the occa- 
sion a notable one. 


I submit herewith the report of the Collector for the Hall of History, 
and desire to call your attention especially to the fine collection of World 
War relics and photographs which have been secured during the period 
covered by this report. Another particularly interesting feature of the 
report is the statement that during the past two years, 202 class* 
school children, representing schools in thirty-two counties, have visited 
the Hall of History and heard lectures on the history of Xorth Carolina 
as illustrated by the collections there exhibited. 

Report of the Collector for the Hall of History 

Raleigh, K C, December 1, 1920. 
To Mr. R. D. W. Coxnor, Secretary: 

I beg leave to submit herewith my report as Collector for the Hall of 
History for the biennium, December 1, 1918-Xovember 30, 1920: 

During the period covered by this report, December 1, 1918-Xovember 
30, 1920, the collections in the Hall of History have been greatly en- 
riched and enlarged. Many of the counties in the State have been 
visited in the search not only for relics but for documents, letters, 
record-books and any other material, which could be obtained. 

From many counties much original material was secured, including 
marriage-bonds, county court minutes, wills, inventories of estates and 
other documents. So many courthouses have been burned and such 
extreme carelessness shown in other cases that the loss of documents has 
been immense and irreparable. The stories of the various counties, cov- 
ering existing records now in them and those brought here from them, 
have been prepared and are on file for instant reference. 

When Mr. R. B. House took up his duties as collector of material 
relating to the World War there were turned over to him many thou- 
sands of documents and great numbers of photographs. The documents 
included the records of the draft in Xorth Carolina ; records of the food 
and fuel administrations; reports on war industries in the State, ^hic-h 
had been made by me as the unpaid representative of the War De- 

32 Eighth Biennial Report. 

partment and the United Stares Shipping Board; posters issued by the 
United States and the State during the war; and many other reports, 
orders, maps, etc. This collection was begun as 900n as the World War 
began, as some Xorth Carolinians entered it as early as September, 
1914, and was continued to the end of the war. 

The additions to the collections in the Hail of History are set out 
below, in what may be termed historical periods, for the .sake of 

Colonial Period 

An engraved portrait of Martin Howard, last Chief Justice under the 
Crown, presented by Mr. Alexander B. Andrews, of Raleigh ; portrait 
and letter of Bishop Augustus Gottlieb Spangenberg; portrait of Col. 
William Polk; 97 steel engravings of notable English men and women; 
tablecloth brought here by the Mendenhall family in 16S2 ; commission 
of Joseph Montfort as Grand Master of Masons for America, signed by 
the Duke of Beaufort, Grand Master of England, this being deposited 
by the Grand Lodge of Xorth Carolina; engraving of Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh, as Captain of the Archers of the King's Body Guard of the Yeo- 
men of the Guard, 1592, presented by Col. Sir Reginald Hennell, the 
present commanding officer of the Guard. 

Revolutionary Period 

Watch worn by Capt. John McDowell at the battle of Cowpens; 
picture of a ISTorth Carolina soldier, by Howard Pyle; bullets and glass- 
ware from the battlefield of Ramseurs Mill; clock of Zebulon Baird, the 
grandfather of Gov. Z. B. Vance, presented by the teachers' association 
of Transylvania County; map of Sew Bern; many Indian relics; medal 
struck in honor of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham; and watch worn by 
Sarah Marcy, lent by Mr3. Jonathan Worth Jackson, in memory of Mr. 
Jonathan Worth Jackson. 

Federal Period 

Chair of the old House of Commons, saved when the first State capitol 
at Raleigh was burned in 1831; bronze medal given by Congress to 
Cyrus Field for the first Atlantic cable; medal given by the people of the 
United States to Henry Clay. 

Ctvtl War Period 

Sword and sash of Capt. Frauds Xash Waddell; flags of the 11th 
Regiment, Xorth Carolina State Troops, presented by Capt. Edward R. 
Outlaw of Elizabeth City and the children of Col. W. F. Martin ; flag of 

X. C. Historical Commission. 32 

the 16th Regiment, North Carolina State Troops, presented by Emanuel 
Itudasill of Sherman, Texas; sword and spurs of Col. Francis M. Parker 
of the 30th Regiment, Xorth Carolina State Troops; shell from the 

Held of South West Creek, near Kinston; photograph of G 
Junius Daniel; bust in marble of Governor John W. Ellis, transferred 
from the Executive Mansion; photographs of Gen. William MacRae 
and Capt. James Iredell Metts of Wilmington, presented by Cape Fear 
Chapter, IT. D. C, Wilmington. 

Oil Portraits 

Gen. William Euffin Cox, C. S. A., painted by Martha M. Andrews, 
presented by Mrs. Kate Cabell Cox, of Richmond, Ya. ; Dr. Stephen B. 
Weeks, painted by Paul Emil Menzel, presented by Willie P. Manguin, 
Weeks, Washington, D. C. 

Period Since the Civil War 

Group portrait of William A. Graham and his seven sons ; the original 
of the famous telegram sent by William R. Cox, Chairman of the State 
Democratic Executive Committee, to W. Foster French. Democratic 
Chairman of Robeson County, during the election of delegates to the 
Constitutional Convention of 1875, reading: "As you love your State 
hold Robeson/' presented by Mr. D. D. French; photographs of all the 
members of the State Constitutional Convention of 1875; photograph 
of Dr. Bartholomew W. Durham, for whom Durham County was named ; 
the Supreme Court on the hundredth anniversary of its establishment: 
photograph of Lieut. William E. Shipp, tJ. S. A., killed in the War with 
Spain; part of the Wright brothers' airplane, which made the first suc- 
cessful flight, at Kitty Hawk, Dare County, K C, May 8, 1908, and the 
first telegram announcing that flight. 

The World War 

The flags of all the Xorth Carolina regiments in the United States 
service, these being the 105th Engineers, 115th Field Artillery. 115th 
Machine Gun Battalion, 119th and 120th Infantry, all of the 30th or 
"Old Hickory" Division; 316th and 317th Field Artillery, 321st and 
32^cl Infantry, all of the Slst or ''Wild Cat" Division, with the battle 
ribbons and also silver bands for the staffs; the headquarters dag of 
Gen. Samuel L. Faisou, commanding the 60th Brigade, 30th Division, 
presented to him by the Xorth Carolina Chapter of the Sons of the 
American Revolution; flag of Base Hospital Unit Xo. ^oo, presented by 
th»; surgeons and nurses composing it. 


34 Eighth Biexxiat. Rsrosr. 

Two cannon and an anti-aircraft gun from the German ship Crown 
Princess Louise, from the Navy Department; German anti-tank rifle 
and automatic fifty-shot pistol, presented by Col. S. W. Minor, 120th 
Infantry; German machine gun, captured and presented by the 113th 
Field Artillery; number of relics of service in France and Delirium, 
presented for the 113th Field Artillery by Col. Albert L. Cox. including 
the last shells fired by each of the six batteries of that r-'.-iriment, the 
moment before the armistice began, November 11, 10 13; testament 
struck by German shrapnel, which saved the life of private Curtis Ben- 
ton of the 113th Field Artillery; imperial German telephone captured 
by that regiment, presented by Maj. A. L. Bulwinkle. 

The collection of the photographs is large and varied. Sets were 
made of Red Cross work at Raleigh and the reception of the 113th Field 
Artillery here on its return from France. There are nine views of 
Raleigh from an airplane ; many of the shipyards at Wilmington, NV-v 
Bern and Morehead City; the hospital at Oteen and Kenilworth: the 
naval aviation station at Morehead City and of all the regiments from 
North Carolina above referred to in connection with their flags ; together 
with pictures of officers and men of these and other commands. 

The autograph photographs include those of President \Vilson, 'Slav- 
shall Foch, Field Marshal Haig, who commanded the army of which 
the 30th Division was an important part; King Albert of Belgium, 
General Pershing, General Mclver, General Lewis. General Faison, 
and General Campbell, all NTorth Carolinians; Colonel Minor, Col- 
onel Metts, Colonel Pratt, Colonel Wooten of the First IT. S. Engineers, 
the first American force to enter England : Lady ATadelon Battle Hancock, 
formerly of Asheville, who was at the Front in the British Red Cross 
Service in France and Belgium from August 10, 1914, until the armis- 
tice, who received twelve decorations from Great Britain, Belgium and 
France, and is widely known as "Glory" Hancock; Robert Lester Black- 
well, 119th Infantry, the only North Carolinian ever awarded the Con- 
gressional Medal of Honor, America's highest military decoration ; John 
E. Ray, 119th Infantry, who received the Victoria Cross. 

There are many other relics from the battlefields of France and Bel- 
gium; twenty-five commemorative medals struck by France and lent by 
Col. Albert L. Cox; thirty-one military medals of the various counties, 
lent by Lt. E. F. Wilson ; part of the airplane in which Kiffin Rockwell 
made his last flight, he being the first North Carolinian killed in the war. 

There are the uniforms of Kilfin Rockwell with three French decora- 
tions, those of the Legion of Honor, Medaille Militaire and Croix de 
Guerre ; of James McConnell and James H. Baugham, also of the Esea- 
drille LaFayette, decorated with the Medal Militaire and the Croix de 
Guerre; John E. Ray, of the 119th Infantry, decorated with the Victoria 

X. C. Historical Commission. 35 

Cross and the Distinguished Service Cross; Robert B. Bridgers, of the 

British ambulance service, decorated with the honor medal of that 

*' mCe ' s v e l 1733090 


During the period the battlefields of Guilford Courthouse, King's 
Mountain, Ramseur's Mill, Moore's Creek, Alamance and Bentonville 
were visited. At the battlefield of South West Creek, near Kington, an 
address was made and appropriate relics exhibited. The Confederate 
reunion at Fayetteville was attended. Memorial Day addresses were 
made at Elizabeth City and Henderson. 

Nearly 300 college and school addresses were made, in almost all the 
counties in the State. 

During the period 202 schools or classes in schools visited the Hall of 
History, representing thirty-two counties. 

A great deal of care has been given to the arrangement of relics 
chronologically in the Eastern Hall and when possible episodes in the 
State's history have been set out. These include the First Settlement on 
Roanoke Island; the Lords Proprietors; the Stamp Act episode at Wil- 
mington, 1765; the Moravian Settlement; the Scotch settlements; the 
battle of the Alamance ; the Revolutionary War from beginning to end ; 
the naming of the counties, with portraits of persons for whom they 
were named; Colonial and Revolutionary notables; the ^"orth Carolina- 
born Presidents of the United States; the University and the earliest 
colleges; early transportation; the World War. 

The collections in the Western Hall were already arranged chrono- 
logically. The addition of so much fresh material has made it possible 
to effect both of these arrangements, which prove of great value to teach- 
ers and students, who compose a large part of the visitors, and also to the 
general public as well. Many lectures were delivered and students took 
notes easily because of this arrangement by periods. 

Acting in cooperation with the Sulgrave Institution, at its request, 
the special attention of the public was called to the exhibits of objects 
relating to the First Settlement in Xorth Carolina territory, 1584-1587. 
This material includes in the Eastern Hall engravings of Sir Walter 
italeigh and his wife, born Elizabeth Throgmorton; his autograph, his 
home, Hayes-Barton; the room in the Tower of London, in which he was 
80 long a prisoner; John White's narrative of the 15S6 settlement on 
Roanoke Island, with map and engravings, 1590; letter from Joshua 
Lamb, whose father, of Boston. Mass., bousrht Roanoke Island. April 
l*i 1076, from Sir William Berkley of Virginia: map of Roanoke 
Wand, made bv Survevor-General William Maude. 1710. In the West- 
em I fall are the portraits of Queen Elizabeth and Raleigh, engraving 

36 Eighth Biexxial Report. 

of Raleigh as Captain of the Archers of the King's Bo - • .. t the 
Yeomen of the Guard, 1592 ; Sir Walter and his half-broth< \ mn- 

phrey Gilbert; the inscription on the slab upon hie grave 
garet's Church, Westi ■ ibbey; his knightly arms; another pic- 

ture of his home in Devonshire, Hayes-Barton; harquebus or hand-gun 
of that period; ballast from the vessels of Whirr's expedition; charcoal 
from the fire-pit in Fort Raleigh; oil paintings of Roanoke Island t< 
Jacques Busbee; engraving of King Edward VII, autographed by 
Majesty and specially sent because of the first English settlement in 
is now the territory of the United States, with letter from Viscount 
Bryce, setting out this fact. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Fred A. Olds, 
Collector for the Hall of History. 


Below will be found the biennial report of the Legislative Reference 
Librarian. Considering the serious handicaps under which the library 
has been compelled to function during the past two years, the report 
shows a record creditable to it. 

It should be borne in mind that the greater part of the library's work 
is of an intangible character which cannot be adequately described in 
such a report as this. For instance, merely to say that 424 of the bills 
introduced into the General Assembly of 1919, and 150 of those intro- 
duced at the Special Session of 1920 were prepared for members in the 
Legislative Reference Library, does not give an adequate idea of the 
amount of labor required in investigations preliminary to the prepara- 
tion of the bills in the numerous conferences with the members for whom 
they were drawn, and in the many drafts which are frequently necessary 
before they are ready for introduction. The library has functioned 
effectively during the sessions, but its attention needs to be directed to 
a more systematic and thorough expansion and development of its 
activities between sessions. For this purpose the Librarian needs more 
stenographic and clerical assistance. 

The report of the Librarian follows : 

Report of the Legislative Refrexce Librariax 

Raleigh, X. C, December 1, 1920. 
Mr. R. D. W. Cox'xor, Secret ary : 

Following the death on December IS, 19 IS, of the Former Legislative 
Reference Librarian, Mr. W. S. Wilson, the services of Mr. R. H. Sykes, 
of Durham, were secured for the session of the General Assembly of 
1919. Mr. Svkes was assisted bv Mr. W. T. Jovner. 

1ST. C. Historical Coumissiojt. .07 

Assistance was thus furnished the members of the General Assembly 

reparation and drafting of bills, in a similar way to the •erricee 

§o efficiently rendered by the late Mr. Wilson to the General Assembly 

of 1!»17. 

Upon assuming my duties as Legislative Reference Librarian on 
August 1, 1919, I at once entered actively into the work of ascertaii 
the needs of State and county officials as to information desired touching 
legislation in this and other states and in promptly supplying this 
information. In order to acquaint myself with present and prospective 
problems of legislation I attended meetings of the State Bar Association, 
State Social "Welfare Workers, the District Library Association and 
other important gatherings in the State. 

During Xovember, 1920, after conferring with the Chairman and 
Secretary of the Commission, I went to Baltimore, Albany and Hartford 
and inspected the Legislative Reference Libraries at those places. 
I was shown every courtesy and had placed at my disposal all the 
facilities of those well-equipped reference libraries for making a study 
of the work done and the methods used. This trip was deferred until 
after the Special Session of the General Assembly in August, in order 
that I might be in better position to ascertain more clearly just what 
particular line of study and investigation it would be best to pursue. 


Among the first of the activities of the Legislative Reference Library 
<:uring the past year was the compilation and publication of a booklet 
of 63 pages entitled, "''Directory of State and County Officials of Xorth 
Carolina." It contained a complete list of Xorth Carolina's congress- 
men, State officers, heads of the State departments, boards and com- 
missions, judicial officers, district tax supervisors, members of the Legis- 
lature and of county officials with their postoffice addresses. For each 
county it gave the name and address of the clerk of the court, sheriff, 
treasurer, register of deeds, coroner, surveyor, superintendent of health, 
superintendent of schools, superintendent of public welfare, county tax 
supervisor, county and highway commissioners. So great was the de- 
mand for this bookies that the supply of the first edition was quickly 
exhausted, necessitating the publication of a second revised edition. 
Copies were mailed to State and county officials besides being furnished 
to a large number of other people upon request. 

At the instance of the Southern Headquarters of the American Red 
Cross in Atlanta, during the spring and summer of 1920. I assembled 
and compiled material for the "Handbook of Information of the Social 
Resources of the State of Xorth Carolina." This publication was edited 

38 Eighth Biennial Report. 

and published under the direction of the Social Service Department of 
the American Red Cross, all the expense hai 
organization. By cooperating with our various 9 
agencies, the Legislative Reference Library ring 

so to speak, for the several chapters in the boo:: assig . 

handbook will furnish to social service workers comprel informa- 

tion as to the agencies that they may call upon to assist them in their 
work. The Eed Cross in planning extension of its social work in Xorth 
Carolina, felt that the handbook would be of invaluable aid. If a case 
should arise that requires a knowledge of the correctional institnti 
in the State, the location and all available information can be h;< . 
reference to the handbook. All child welfare laws, educational I 
and institutions, labor legislation, private and public institutions tor the 
care of the feeble minded, health work, home demonstration, etc., are 
listed in the book with detailed information as to how ro make the 
services of the institutions available. Copies of this handbook will be 
available on request to the .Red Cross authorities. 

In September, 1920, I prepared and published a digest of the election 
laws relative to the requirements of registration and voting as especially 
affecting new voters. This was mailed to every newspaper in the State 
and wa3 also sent to various women's clubs and equal suffrage organiza- 
tions, it being of especial interest and value to the prospective women 

Shortly after the election in Xovember, 1920, I compiled and pub- 
lished a complete list of the members-elect of the Legislature of 1921, 
together with their postothce addresses. 

Special Session of 1920 

During the sixteen days' Special Session of the Legislature in August, 
1920, about 150 bills were drafted in the Legislative Reference Library. 
In this work I was assisted by Maj. W. T. Joyner, who had rendered 
valuable assistance in a similar capacity to Hr. Sykes during the regular 
session of 1919. Information on a wide range of subjects was furnished 
both before and during the session to the legislators. Several weeks 
before the Special Session convened, I forwarded the following self- 
explanatory letter to each member: 

You have doubtless in mind some legislation of a public or private nature 
which you think should be enacted at the approaching session. 

If the Legislative Reference Library of the Historical Commission can be 
of any service to you in collecting infor.mation in this or other states on the 
subjects of proposed legislation, please advise us. It will be our pleasure 
to serve you in this or in any other matter. All that is asked is that sufu- 
cient time be given to collect the data required. For that reason, if you will 


communicate with this office, making known your needs and desires. some 
[n advance of the session, the information will be assembled and fur- 
.1 you in anmle time. 
The Legislative Reference Library desires at all times to serve the pe 
of North Carolina and especialy to offer its services to the men I Hie 

State Legislature. It is hoped that you will avail yourself of our assistance, 
both now and during the approaching session. 

Tn response to the above letter a number of replies was received from 
which some idea was acquired of the character of legislation likely to be 
introduced and the information was secured accordingly. A similar 
letter has already been sent to the members-elect of the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the General Assembly of 1921. 

It has been my constant effort to make the Legislative Refer* 
Library a place where the legislator and man of public affairs can study 
easily, intelligently and fully the trend of legislation at home and abroad 
a lid learn something of the reasons for and against the several move- 
ments. The benefits of the Library are being recognized more and more 
and there are many regrets that it was not established many years ago. 
Every effort has been made to make the library useful and satisfactory 
and as its advantages are understood and appreciated it is confidently 
predicted that it will steadily grow in importance and usefulness to the 
citizens of the State. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Henry M. London, 
Legislative Reference Librarian. 


The following summary, although clearly inadequate, may enable the 
members of the Commission to get a clearer idea of the scope of the 
Commission's work as covered by this report. The report shows that 
during the past two years — 

1. Five official and five unofficial collections, containing 15,014 pieces, were 
arranged and filed for use; 

2. S,fi66 manuscripts were scientifically treated for permanent preservation; 

3. 44 volumes of manuscripts were bound; 

4. Index cards to the names in eight volumes of Revolutionary Army 
Accounts were made, and cards to 20 volumes, numbering upwards of 75.000, 
were arranged alphabetically; 

• r «. 3.2S1 manuscripts were added to collections already begun; 11 new col- 
lations were secured; 

f >- The work of collecting the records of the World War was organized and 
I : re than 100,000 documents, covering 31 different subjects, were procured; 

7. Noncurrent official records, in 60 bound volumes and thousands of 
unbound papers, were brought in from 17 counties; 


40 - f- t- Eighth Biennial Report. 

8. Photostat copies of 169 issues of North Carolina newspapers of various 
dates from 1757 to ISOft. were secured; 

9. Five publications were issued; 

10. Nine historical markers were erected; 

11. To collections In the Hall of History were added 178 different exhibits, 
embracing hundreds of portraits, photographs, battle flags, medals, uniforms, 
and other relics illustrating every period of our history; 

12. The Legislative Reference Library, in addition to its general activities, 
prepared 574 bills for members of the General Assembly, published one valu- 
able bulletin, and collected data covering a wide range for an important 
publication on the social service resources of the State. 

Although the above summary very inadequately covers the work of 
the Commission, most of which is incapable of being expressed statis- 
tically, it is not, I think, unimpressive. 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. D. W. Connor, 

Raleigh, North Carolina, December 1, 1920. 

~No Man is Fit to be Entrusted With Con- 
trol of the Present Who is Ignorant of the 

Past; anb INFo People Who Are Indiffej 
to Their Past Keed Hope to Make T 
Futtt2e Great. 






Twentieth &nd Twenty-First 
amial Sessions 


State Literary and coricd Association 
of N ■ aa 


DEC 1920 

DECEMBER 1-2, 1^21 





Twentieth and Twenty-First 
Annual Sessions 


State Literary and Historical Association 
of North Carolina 


DECEMBER 2-3, 1920 
DECEMBER 1-2, 1921 

Compiled by 


R. B. HOUSE, Secretary 


Edwards * Broughtox Printing Compaxt 

State Printers 


The North Carolina Historical Commission 

J. Bryan Gsimes, Chairman, Raleigh 
D. H. Hill, Raleigh T. M. Pittman, Henderson 

M. C. S. Noble, Chapel Hill Fbank Wood, Edenton 

D. H. Hill, Secretary, Raleigh. 

Officers of the State Literary and Historical Association 


President J. G. deR. Hamilton, Chapel Hill. 

First Vice-President Mrs. S. Westray Battle. Asheville. 

Second Vice-President T. T. Hicks, Henderson. 

Third Vice-President .Mrs. M. K. Myers, Washington. 

Secretary-Treasurer R. D. W. Connor, Raleigh. 

Executive Committee 
(With above named officers) 
W. K. Boyd, Durham. W. C. Smith, Greensboro. 

MR3. H. G. Cooper, Oxford. F. B. McDowell, Charlotte. 

Marshall DeL. Haywood. Raleigh. 

President D. H. Hill, Raleigh. 

First Vice-President Mrs. H. A. London, Pittsboro. 

Second Vice-President C. C. Pearson, Wake Forest. 

Third Vice-President Miss Gertrude Well, Goldsboro. 

Secretary-Treasurer R. B. House, Raleigh. 

Executive Committee 
(With above named officers) 
W. W. Pierson, Chapel Hill. W. H. Glasson, Durham. 

A. B. Andrews, Raleigh. Josephus Daniels, Raleigh. 

Burton Craige, Winston-Salem. R. D. W. Connor, Chapel Hill. 

Officers For 1921-1922 

President W. K. Boyd, Durham. 

First Vice-President S. A. Ashe, Raleigh. 

Second Vice-President Mrs. D. H. Blair, Greensboro. 

Third Vice-President John Jordan Douglas, Wadesboro. 

Secretary-Treasurer R. B. House, Raleigh. 

Executive Committee 
* (With above named officers) 

W. C. Jackson, Greensboro. D. H. Hill. Raleigh. 

J. G. deR. Hamilton, Chapel Hill. Clarence Poe, Raleigh. 

C. C. Pearson. Wake Forest. 


"The collection, preservation, production, and dissemination of State litera- 
ture and history; 

"The encouragement of public and school libraries; 

"The establishment of an historical museum; 

"The inculcation of a literary spirit among our people; 

"The correction of printed misrepresentations concerning North Carolina; 

"The engendering of an intelligent, healthy State pride in the rising 


All persons interested in its purposes are invited to become members of 
the Association. There are two classes of members: "Regular Members," 
paying one dollar a year, and "Sustaining Members," paying five dollars 
a year. 

(Organized October, 1900) 

Fiscal Paid-up 
Years Presidents Secretaries Membership 

1900-1901 Walter Clark Alex. J. Feild 150 

1901-1902 Henry G. Connor Alex. J. Feild 139 

1902-1903 W. L. Poteat Geobge S. Fraps 73 

1903-1904 C Ajlphonso Smith Clarence Poe 127 

1904-1905 Robert W. Winston Clarence Poe 109 

1905-1906 Charles B. Aycock Clarence Poe 185 

1906-1907 W. D. Pruden Clarence Poe 301 

1907-1908 Robert Bingham Clarence Poe 273 

1908-1909 Junius Davis Clarence Poe 311 

1909-1910 Platt D. Walker Clarence Poe 440 

1910-1911 Edward K. Graham Clarence Poe 425 

1911-1912 R. D. W. Connor Clarence Poe 479 

1912-1913 W. P. Few R. D. W. Connor 476 

1913-1914 Archibald Henderson R. D. W. Connor 435 

1914-1915 Clarence Poe R. D. W. Connor 412 

1915-1916 Howard E. Rondthaleh R. D. W. Connor 501 

1916-1917 H. A. London R. D. W. Connor 521 

1917-1918 James Sprunt R. D. W. Connor 453 

1918-1919 James Sprunt R. D. W. Connor 377 

1919-1920 J. G. deR. Hamilton R. LX W. Connor 493 

1920-1>21 D. H. Hill R. B. House 430 

1921-1922 W. K. Boyd R. B. House 

The Conditions of Award OFFICIALLY Slt Forth by Mas. Pattlk-.o< 

To the President and Executive Committee of the Literary and Historical 

Association of Xorth Carolina: 

As a memorial to my father, and with a view to stimulating effort among 
the writers of North Carolina, and to awaken among the people of the State 
an interest in their own literature, I desire to present to your Society a 
loving cup upon the following stipulations, which I trust will meet with 
your approval, and will be found to be just and practicable: 

1. The cup will be known as the "William Houston Patterson Memorial 

2. It will be awarded at each annual meeting of your Association for ten 
successive year3, beginning with October. 1905. 

3. It will be given to that resident of the State who during the twelve 
months from September 1st of the previous year to September 1st of the 
year of the award has displayed, either in prose or poetry, without regard 
to its length, the greatest excellence and the highest literary skill and 
genius. The work must be published during the said twelve months, and no 
manuscript nor any unpublished writings will be considered. 

4. The name of the successful competitor will be engraved upon the cup, 
with the date of award, and it will remain in his possession until October 
1st of the following year, when it shall be returned to the Treasurer of the 
Association, to be by him held in trust until the new award of your annual 
meeting that month. It will become the permanent possession of the one 
winning it oftenest during the ten years, provided he shall have won it 
three times. Should no one, at the expiration of that period, have won it so 
often, the competition shall continue until that result is reached. The names 
of only those competitors who shall be living at the time of the finr.,1 award 
shall be considered in the permanent disposition of the cup. 

5. The Board of Award shall consist of the President of the Literary and 
Historical Association of North Carolina, who will act as chairman, and of 
the occupants of the Chairs of English Literature at the University of North 
Carolina, at Davidson College, at Wake Forest College, and at the State 
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts at Raleigh, and of the Chairs of 
History at the University of North Carolina and Trinity College. 

6. If any of these gentlemen should decline or be unable to serve, their 
successors shall be appointed by the remaining members of the Board, and 
these appointees may act for the whole unexpired term or for a shorter 
time, as the Board may determine. Notice of the inability of any member 
to act must be given at the beginning of the year during which he declines 
to serve, so that there may be a full committee during the entire term of 
each year. 

7. The publication of a member of the Board will be considered and passed 
upon in the same nifuner as that of any other writer. 

Mrs. J. Lindsay Patterson. 


According to a resolution adopted at the 1908 session of the Literary and 
Historical Association, it is also provided that no author desiring to have 
his work considered in connection with the award of the cup shall com- 
municate with any member of the committee, either personally or through 
a representative. Books or other publications to be considered, together with 
any communications regarding them, must be sent to the Secretary of the 
Association and by him presented to the chairman of the committee for 


1905 — John Charles McNeill, for poems later reprinted in book form as 

"Songs, Merry and Sad." 
1906 — Edwin Mims, for "Life of Sidney Lanier." 
1907 — Kemp Plummer Battle, for "History of the University of North 


1908 — Samuel A'Court Ashe, for "History of North. Carolina." 

1909 — Clarence Poe, for "A Southerner in Europe." 

1910 — R. D. W. Connor, for "Cornelius Harnett: An Essay in North Caro- 
lina History." 

1911 — Archibald Henderson, for "George Bernard Shaw: His Life and 

1912 — Clarence Pos, for "Where Half the World is Waking Up." 

1913 — Horace Kephart, for "Our Southern Highlanders." 

1914 — J. G. deR. Hamilton, for "Reconstruction in North Carolina," 

1915 — William Loris Potkat, for "The New Peace." 

1916— 'No award. 

1917 — Mrs. Olive Telford Dargan, for "The Cycle's Rim." 

1918— No Award. 

1919 — No Award. 

1920 — Miss Winifred Ktrkland, for "The New Death." 

1921— No Award. 


1. Rural libraries. 

2. "North Carolina Day" in the schools. 

3. The North Carolina Historical Commission. 

4. Vance statue in Statuary Hall. 

5. Fire-proof State Library Building and Hall of Records. 

6. Civil War battle-fields marked to show North Carolina's record. 

7. North Carolina's war record defended and war claims vindicated. 

8. Patterson Memorial Cup. 

Proceedings and Addresses of the State Literary 

and Historical Association of 

North Carolina 

Minutes of the Twentieth Annual Session 
Raleigh, December 2-3, 1920 

THURSDAY EYEXIXG, December 2nd. 

The twentieth annual session of the State Literary and Historical 
Association of North Carolina was called to order in the auditorium 
of the Woman's Club, Raleigh, X. C, Thursday evening, Dei-ember 
2nd, 1920, at 8:00 o'clock, President J. G. deR. Hamilton in - 
chair. The session was opened with an invocation by Rev. W. W. 
Peele, Pastor of Edenton Street Methodist Church, Raleigh. Dr. 
Hamilton then read the president's annual address. His subject Iras 
"Vitality in State History'. He was followed by Dr. John Spencer 
Bassett, Professor of History, Smith College, Northampton, Mats., 
whose subject, was "What the World Wants of the United Stat - 

At the conclusion of Dr. Bassett's paper an informal recept 
was held for the members of the State Literary and Historical Asso- 
ciation, the Xorth Carolina Folk Lore Society, and the Xorth Car- 
olina Librarv Association, in the club building. 

FRIDAY MORXIXG, December 3rd. 

The session was called to order in the Hall of the State Senate by 
President Hamilton, at 11 o'clock. The President presented Dr. 
H. M. Wagstaff of the University of Xorth Carolina, who read a paper 
on, "Davie and Federalism." Dr. Wagstaff was followed by Mr. Frank 
Nash, Assistant Attorney General of Xorth Carolina, who read a paper 
entitled "An Eighteenth Century Circuit Rider". The president then 
presented Miss Mary B. Palmer, Secretary of the Xorth Carolina 
Library Commission, who read "Xorth Carolina Bibliography, 1919 — 

At the conclusion of the exercises Dr. D. T. Smithwick of Louis- 
burg, presented the following resolution: 

To the members of the State Literary and Historical Association: 

I find no provision for the election of honorary members of our Asso- 
ciation, and thinking- there are a number of people who are eligible and 



Minutes of the Twentieth Annual Session 9 

Vitality in State History. By J. G. deR. Hamilton 11 

What the World Wants of the United States. By John 

Spencer Bassett 20 

Patriotism. By John Erskine 33 

William Richardson Davie. By H. M. Wagstaff 46 

An Eighteenth Century Circuit Rider. By Frank Nash 58 

North Carolina Bibliography, 1919-1920. By Mary B. Palmer 72 

Minutes of the Twenty-First Annual Session 72 

Confederate Ordnance Department. By D. H. Hill ■ 80 

An Ode. By Benjamin Sledd 92 

North Carolina Bibliography, 1920-1921. By Mary B. Palmer 94 

The Historian and the Daily Press. By Gerald W. Johnson 97 

An Old Time North Carolina Election. By Louise Irby 102 

Raleigh and Roanoke. By John Jordan Douglass 112 

The Bread and Butter Aspect of North Carolina. By D. D. Carroll 119 

Members 1,920-1921 124 

<X-10 Twentieth Annual Session 

have gained distinction, maybe native North Carolinians in other states, 
whose connection with us would be of great value, I feel it would be 
wise for us at this meeting to make some provisions for election of honorary 
and life members. 

Therefore, make this motion, that the newly elected President and 
executive committee to be constituted a committee to make a report to 
our next meeting, with suitable provision for election of honorary mem- 
bers and the qualifications of such persons proposed for membership. 

D. T. Smithwick, Louisburg, N. C. 

The resolution was passed. The president then appointed a nomi- 
nating committee with instructions to report their nominations of 
officers for the succeeding year at the evening meeting. This com- 
mittee was as follows: Mr. Frank Nash, Dr. C. C. Pearson, and Dr. 
J. M. McConnell. 

FRIDAY EVENING, December 3rd. 

President Hamilton called the meeting to order at 8 :30 in the 
auditorium of Meredith College. He then introduced Dr. John Ers- 
kine, of Columbia University, who read an address entitled ''Patriot- 

At the conclusion of Dr. Erskine's paper the nominating committee 
reported the following nominations, which were unanimously carried: 
President, D. H. Hill, Raleigh ; First Vice-President, Mrs. H. A. Lon- 
don, Pittsboro; Second Vice-President, C. C. Pearson, Wake Forest; 
Third Vice President, Miss Gertrude Weil, Goldsboro ; Secretary Treas- 
urer, R. B. House, Raleigh. 

The Association then adjourned sine die. 



Vitality in State History * 

By J. G. deJI. Hamilton 
President State Literary and Historical Association 

Almost from tiie time that conscious historical study began \. 
has been argument as to the nature, value, and content of hie 
which has not yet resulted in any agreement universally accepted. it 
still means to many people one or another of a large number of fchi . .-. 
many of which it is not. Doubtless there are many persons pi 
who can recall a time when the name denoted nothing save a dreary cata- 
logue of wars and battles, of dynasties and administrations, of isolate! 
and perfectly insulated names and dates. To one who has never reached 
conceptions of history more advanced than this, my subject could have 
little or no meaning, for if that be the only content of history, truly 
there is no vitality in it. 

Of great interest and intensity has been the discussion on the sub- 
ject of the purpose and value of history. Opinions have ranged from 
that which has held it a purely cultural subject, full of scholarly 
detachment from the supposedly tainting touch of anything practical 
and useful, but replete from interest to many individuals properly 
educated up to it, all the way to the various views of a more utilitarian 
character. These are many. Probably the most widespread is that the 
value of history lies in its service as a guide of conduct in matters of 
statecraft. Other claims made for it have been that it is calculated 
to discipline the memory, stimulate the imagination, and develop the 
judgment; to give training in the use of books; to furnish entertain- 
ment; to set up for conscious imitation ideals of conduct and of social 
service; to inculcate practical knowledge that can be turned to account 
in the daily concerns of life; to illuminate other studies; to enrich 
the humanity of the student, enlarge his vision, incline him to chari- 
table views of his neighbors, to give him a love of truth, to make him 
in general an intelligent well-disposed citizen of the world by making 
him a citizen of the ages. 

Another, widely prevalent for a time in the recent past, is that 
history teaches* patriotism and should be written and taught with that 

* The author desires to express his sense of obligation for aid received in the preparation 
of this paper from the following works: James Harvey Robinson, "The New History: 
Dewey, "Reconstruction in Philosophy;" Frederic Harrison, "The Meaning of History;' 
and Henry Johnson, "Teaching of Hiatory." 

12 Twentieth Annual Session 

end almost solely in view. Let mo turn aside briefly from my subject 
to remark that history made to order for the teaching of patriotism is 

likely to bear as little relation to truth as its resulting efl 
bear to essential patriotism. An outraged world has, in the greatest war 
of history, repudiated and punished the most striking example of this 
sort of history teaching and this sort of patriotism. It remains for 
patriotic Americans to see that we do not err in the same direction. 

From the beginning of history writing to the point where a broad 
conception of values in history in relation to man's environment and 
daily life appeared was a slow development. In the beginning history 
was held to be literature, art. poetry, which preserved the record of 
certain dramatic events, chiefly the heroic actions of kings, warriors, 
and statesmen. It sought to paint a picture, ''to consecrate a noble 
past,' 7 rather than to guide or furnish a key to the future. But in 
the eighteenth century a fresh point of view influenced historical study. 
The aim was no longer so much to paint a picture as it was to solve a 
problem — to explain the steps of national growth and prosperity or 
their reverse. Under the influence of this ideal every factor of 
national importance came to be regarded as valuable as a field for 
investigation and study, and thus was ushered in the day when history 
was generally held to be the story of people rather than of kings. 
The same period has seen likewise the steady increase of emphasis upon 
social factors other than political and religious, and the consequent 
rise of the group emphasized — in some cases overemphasized — the 
economic interpretation of the development of the human race. Here, 
too, received a mighty impulse that synthetic process of associating 
cause and effect which transformed history from mere annals into a 
connected whole. 

!N"one of these views of history are as a whole true or yet untrue. 
In every point of view there are clear values, but in no one of them 
is the whole truth found. Take for instance the cultural aspect of 
historical study. The usual view of this fits with the most selfish 
view of education ever held, and has in its extreme form little truth, 
for knowledge that does not connect with life and its problems, that 
does not tend to give sounder notions of human and social inter 
is meaningless. Bolingbroke thus describes it : 

"An application to any study that tends neither to make us better men 
and better citizens is at best but an ingenious sort of idleness .... 
and the knowledge that we acquire by it is a creditable kind of ignorance, 
nothing more. This creditable kind of ignorance is. in my opinion, the 
whole benefit which the generality of men. even the most learned, reap 
from the study of history." 

State Literary and Historical Association 

Still, viewed from another light, it is in individual culture, trai: 
and education that history yields its richest values. Bo 
this, and continued: 

"And yet, the study of history seems to me of all others the most pr 
to train us up to private and public virtues." 

Nor, to go to the other extreme, does the utilitarian claim 
validity, except in so far as it claims too much. For in the last 
analysis, if history is to have values for the average man, and it is 
in relation to the average man or the mass of men that I discu— 
subject, it must be practically useful and in a social sense it can he 
considered important only in so far as it meets that requirement. 

If the values of history be estimated rightly there is really little 
or no conflict between the cultural and utilitarian views. But 
what is the value of historical study and knowledge? Is an acquain- 
tance with the events, men, and ideas of the past of benefit to those in 
the world today? There is little difficulty in answering these questions. 
There is widespread agreement that the study of history does cultivate 
the mind, develop clear thinking, and give capacity to estimate the 
character of social movements and forces. It does fulfill almost every 
claim made for it. Knowledge of history lifts its possessor to a 
height from which, detached and aloof from the turmoil and uproar 
of his immediate environment, he can comprehend the nature of exist- 
ent institutions and conditions, and can trace the forces which operate in 
the life and progress of nations and of the world for good and evil. 
As few other acquirements it tends to the development of wholesome 
tolerance. It enables him to play a constructive, positive part in 
the formation and maintenance of effective public opinion, that compel- 
ling social and political force. But a widespread belief that from the 
study of past events sufficient knowledge may be acquired to meet the 
new problems which arise is true only as far as this : experience in the 
analysis of past movements and conditions develops a capacity to analyze 
similarly the movements and conditions of the present. In the words of 
Lecky : 

"The same method which furnishes a key to the past forms also an 
admirable discipline for the judgment of the present. He who has learnt 
to understand the true character and tendencies of many succeeding ages 
is not likely to go very far wrong in estimating his own." 

In other words, the past does not furnish exact precedents for conduct 
in meeting similar situations, because similar situations rarely or 
never arise. History cannot accurately be said to repeat itself. But 

14 Twentieth Annual Session 

historical study has value because through it we may gain such a know- 
ledge of the past that our conduct may be based upon complete under- 
standing of existing conditions. 

As concrete examples of the value of historical study, take the cases 
of Jefferson and Madison. Both were profound students of history 
and both applied practically their knowledge in striking fashion and 
with such success that their names are held in honor and the world 
would have been a far poorer place had they been less informed on the 
sulbject. Yet the conditions which they faced had never had any par- 
allel in history. Their use of history lay in the capacity which it gave 
them to analyze situations and conditions accurately and, while adapting 
themselves to their environment, at the same time shape it for the 
future. A not less significant example is that of a living American 
who has won the moral leadership of tha world and a glorious immor- 

If there be here present any who doubt the value of historical 
knowledge, let them remember that out of history have come our daily 
life, our laws, our customs, our thought, our habits of mind, our beliefs. 
our moral sense, our ideas of right and wrong, our hopes and aspir- 
ations. Let them conceive, if it be humanly possible, of a world 
from which has been swept away every vestige of what may properly be 
called historical knowledge, from which was gone, not alone the know- 
ledge of the great events, but all records and the very memory of the 
great movements and achievements of the past in literature, art, science, 
and industry; of all customs, traditions, laws, and institutions; of 
religion; of all human hopes and human beliefs. Can imagination 
create a picture of greater and more hopeless confusion and woe ? 

History, rightly employed, contains the alkahest of the present and 
of the futura 

So much for the values of history. What of its content? 

History has been defined as "All we know about everything man has 
ever done, or seen, or thought, or hoped, or felt." There are many 
definitions still more inclusive, as, "History is the sum total of human 
activity," or, "History in its broadest sense is everything that ever 
happened. It is the past itself, whatever that is." Accepting for the 
purposes of this discussion the first and narrower definition, it is 
clearly an impossibility for any man to acquire knowledge of all history, 
and the mass of men must be content with far less. What of all the 
things that man has done, seen, thought, hoped, or felt, have values 
for the average man? The dramatic? The unusual? The heroic? Or, 
on the other hand, the normal? The customary? The humdrum con- 

State Literary and Historical Association 15 

ditions of life for the mass of men? What is the test — the acid test — 
which shall determine what is pure metal and what is mere dro • 

As I see it, vitality is the final test to be applied, and by vi* 
I mean that character in event or movement which makes It a del 
mining factor, for good or for evil, in the shaping of the conditions, 
present and future, of the generation in which one lives, wi 
gives sounder notions of human and social interests, which relates 
man to the business of living. It is no narrow definition. It covers 
a multitude of meanings. It may consist, for example, in satisfying 
the natural human curiosity as to the deeper relationships of the 
things about us, the facts of our environment, and their connection 
the past — "that power which to understand is strength, which to re- 
pudiate is weakness". Vital events, vital movements, vital conditions. 
are the only ones which are worthy of widespread study and assimilation 
so far as the generality of men are concerned. 

Applying this test, it will be found that the dramatic, the unusual, 
and even the heroic events of the past have far less vital importance 
than is usually attributed to them, while the normal conditions of life 
lie at the heart of all the great movements which have shaped the past 
and through it the present. And so the man who uses history rightly 
values events not for their dramatic interest but for the light they 
cast on the normal conditions which lay back of them and caused them. 
And knowledge of these conditions is chiefly valuable for the grasp 
it gives of the ways in which society functions and of their influence 
upon the present. The aim is not the knowledge of the past ; knowledge 
is a mere means towards the end of full living. The end of it all is 
that, through a more perfect understanding of our environment, we may 
develop sounder notions of human and social interests and the capacity 
to "cooperate with the vital principle of betterment," both in enriching 
our environment and adapting ourselves to its necessities, in order 
that we may grow. For, here as elsewhere, growth is the moral end. 
The value of the past lies not in itself but in our todays and tomorrows. 
Thus those things which touch directly the life of the world of today 
or of the future and which may bring or retard growth are vital 
to us. 

John Richard Green saw this, and in his "Short History of the 
English People" said: 

"If I have said little of the glories of Cressy, it is because I have dwelt 
much on the wrongs and misery which prompted the verse of Langland 
and the preaching of Ball. ... I have set Shakespere among the 
heroes of the Elizabethan age and placed the scientific inquiries of the 

16 Twentieth Annual Session 

Royal Society side by side with the victories of the New Model. If some of 
the conventional figures of military and political history occupy in my pages 
less than the space usually given them, it is because I have had to find 
a place for figures liule heeded in common history . . . the figures of 
the missionary, the poet, the painter, the merchant, or the philosopher." 

If these conclusions are true, as I earnestly believe they are, it 
is clearly apparent that there has been a vast waste of time and energy 
in the effort to instil historical knowledge into the minds of the mass 
of men. Anyone who is familiar with history as it is generally written 
and taught will bear me out in the statement that it has too often 
emphasized the unusual at the expense of the normal; that it has 
been long on events and short on movements; that it has, more often 
than not, lacked any clear distinction between the vital and the 
meaningless; that it has not given the student the type of training 
and knowledge which he can apply to the problems which he must con- 
front. In short, we have been too often content to attempt to give in- 
formation and have not sought to stimulate the development of real 
knowledge capable of practical application to life. 

^Nowhere have the misconceptions as to the place, function, and 
value of historical study been more apparent and more striking than 
in the field of the history of the States of the American Union, and 
this in spite of the £a?t that the span of years of the oldest of them 
has been so short that it is not beyond the power of anyone to acquaint 
himself with its whole course to the present. Ko¥ are the sources 
of their history lost and their origins wrapped in doubt and mystery. 
In the case of every one of them it is the brief story of the develop- 
ment of a people, so simple to be mastered that it is almost true 
that he who runs may read. It is also a fact easily to be proved, 
I think, that widespread knowledge of state history among its cit- 
izens is not only practicable, but that its possibilities in the way of 
good results to the commonwealth are boundless. 

Take the case of our own commonwealth, ]STorth Carolina. If the 
things which I have indicated constitute the vital in history, must 
we not revise our past attitude towards the history of the state as we 
have taught it and chiefly emphasized it ? Let us ask ourselves frankly 
if we have not been inclined to emphasize in that history the things 
which, are, if vital at all, of secondary importance in reaching correct 
judgments concerning the things which have made us what we are, or 
concerning the problems of the state today. As a result of the teach- 
ing of our history does the average North Carolinian have any back- 
ground of knowledge and training by which he can analyze existing 

State Literary and Historical Association* 17 

situations in order to base opinion concerning them and c 

relation to them upon a sure foundation? Have we not, in a too • 
desire for primacy, too frequently selected for emphasis happenings 
which have had little or no real influence on the later life of our 
people, which play no part in our life today? Similarly, have we not 
ignored the conditions, movements, and tendencies which have vitality, 
which would serve to explain to us why we are what we are, an analysis 
of which might render us more capable of shaping our destiny for the 
better? Frankly, have we not sought to write and teach the things 
calculated to develop a sort of purposeless ancestor worship, to breed 
perfect contentment, a smug satisfaction with what we are and have been, 
rather than to emphasize the larger and more significant facts calcu- 
lated to breed dissatisfaction, a divine discontent which might lead 
us faster along the paths of progress \ 

For the evidence is overwhelming that our past has not been all 
glorious, and that its inglorious features rather than their reverse 
have constituted a large part of the normal conditions which have 
shaped our present. 

We are reminded at every sight of the state flag that we claim 
certain primacies in the struggle against the mother country in defense 
of the principle of no taxation without representation. It is a fact 
far more vital to our present that from 1776 to 1920 — nearly a cen- 
tury and a half — we have lived under a self-imposed system of tax- 
ation which in iniquity has far surpassed anything that the Crown 
and Parliament of Great Britain in their most arbitrary and supposedly 
tyrannical mood ever dreamed of imposing on us. 

Again, we emphasize the individualistic tendencies of our people 
as indicating a love of liberty, hut we fail to show that it has man- 
ifested itself most notably in our inability to organize effectively 
for the common good, to develop any widespread civic consciousness 
and civic responsibility, to see in taxation a method of cooperative 
support of a cooperative undertaking for the general welfare. Rather 
Tve have viewed taxes as an imposition which it was right at any cost 
of morals to evade, and, as a result, have lived for most of our years, 
through the denial of opportunity to the majority of our citizens, 
in a state, of servitude. Perhaps you ask, ''Liberty loving Xorth 
Carolina in servitude?" Yes, the servitude which is of all those of 
the ages the most grinding* depressing, and enduring, the servitude 
imposed by ignorance, which throughout our history has held us. as a 
commonwealth, tied and bound in its chains. It has not been confined 

IS Twentieth Axxiwl Session 

to the ignorant. Those it hag cruthed utterly, cutting them off from 
their God-given heritage of freedom, and denying to them and their 
children liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and in many eases life 
itself, all three of which we have solemnly declared in the Declaration 

of Independence to be inalienable rights of mankind. It has imposed 
upon the rest — the enlightened — as well, a heavy burden — that of 
carrying the dead weight of the whole, and of seeing all their ambi- 
tions for Xorth Carolina's swift advancement die as the gravity of 
the load irresistibly held them back on the paths of progress until 
in many cases hope itself died. 

In the same wav, we have constantlv reminded ourselves and the 
world that Xorth Carolina was first at Bethel, farthest at Ge r tysburg 
and Chickamauga. and last at Appomattox. I yield to none in my deep 
pride and reverence for those men who so nobly and heroically carried 
the banners of a lost cause, but I submit in all seriousness that their 
achievements are not so vital in our history as are the facts that Xorth 
Carolina has been at times first in mortality from typhoid fever 
and homicides, farthest for a long stretch of years in white adult 
male illiteracy, and at least close to last in recognizing the over- 
whelming importance of the great social purposes for which modern 
government may he said to exist. 

We have all heard of late constant hoisting of our fine economy 
in government. It is a far more vital fact that we have spent less 
for the larger social aims of government than any other state save one, 
for there lies the explanation of illiteracy, poverty, the steady loss 
of population that drained our life blood through a large part of our 
history, the failure to develop the almost fabulous natural resources 
of the state, the loss of opportunity to millions among whom were doubt- 
less innumerable unhonored and unsung ATurpheys, Vances, and Aycocks. 
We have needed desperately all of these millions, trained and equipped 
for constructive citizenship, but more desperately still have we felt 
the lack of missing leaders. Their loss is irreparable. 

Finally, we have heard much within the last few years of the start- 
ling figures of our Federal taxes as illustrative of our prosperity. 
The flsrures are indeed startling when the vital fact is presented that 
the Federal taxes paid in the state during the last year amounted to 
more by twenty-five million dollars than the state has spent in its 
whole historv for the compelling duty of educating its children ; and 
the further fact that the amount paid in the last two years to the 
United States in taxes is cheater than all that has been expended in 
Xorth Carolina for both public and private education combined since 
Amadas and Barlowe first saw the green island of Koanoke. 

State Literary ajtd Histobk pio» 19 

These are characteristic instances — extreme ones, if you will — of 
the tendency I hare indicated, of our failure to apply the tes 
validity. All of these and many, many more are vital factors i. 
history. For every one of them touches us clog lay; all have 

had significant effects upon our environment, our opportunity, our 
character as a people, upon our whole life. The burden of them will 
rest upon our children do what we will. 

Do not misunderstand me. The day will never come, and n< 
ought to come, when we shall fail to recognize and be properly proud 
of the deeds and lives which are the spot lights of our history. But 
their brightness must not so dazzle us as to blind us to the exi~- 
of the skeleton in our closet. The dead past cannot in such a case 
bury its own dead; that is our task. Growth and progress demand 
that we face the fact of their existence, and seek for them burial and, 

I it may be, through our reformation and expiation, final oblivion. 

But until we recognize their vitality even in death, history cannot 
through the training of our citizens pour out upon us its richest bounty. 

To those of the past we owe, perchance, a debt which we can never 
pay; but no payment is demanded other than that of emulation of their 
virtues and of being warned by their faults ; of remedying the wrongs 
they committed, of rectifying their errors, and of fulfilling the things 
that they omitted to do. Our great debt is to those who are yet to 
come, and it is in the light of history that we must pay that debt. 
In behalf of your children and mine, of the generation yet unborn, 
let us in Xorth Carolina learn the vital things, and so far as in us 
lies, set about righting of the wrongs, the undoing of the mistakes, 
and the doing of all the things that have been left undone in the 
achievement of liberty and justice. 

But the task of emphasizing the vital things is not one merely of 
the historical specialist or even of the teacher; it is rather the 
responsibility of all who love Xorth Carolina. The objective of all 
our historical study of the state must be refixed and restated. In 
our schools, in our colleges, among our people generally, emphasis 
must be laid upon the vital, and the past thus linked with the present 
for the sake of the future. 

The end of it all should be to show T , not alone wherein North Car- 
olina is first, but rather the reason for her lagging anywhere, that 
the means for improvement may be found; to give to her sons and 
daughters, not only information as to how great she is. but, more vital 
still, the knowledge of how through their efforts and their lives she 
mny become far greater. 


What the World Wants of the United States 

By John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D., LL.D. 

Professor of American History, Smith College 

The elections of 1920 have come and gone. They always come and go 
once in four years in this country of ours, whether we need them or not. 
We have heard the results, and if we are good Americans we have accept- 
ed them, whether we wished them or not. This is our country, the 
country of all the people, and when the people have spoken in their elec- 
tions the individual citizen accepts the result. If he is a good citizen 
he ceases to debate the execution of the decision of the voters. It is 
only when the election comes around that he can again bring the matter 
into question and debate the wisdom of the policy that has been followed, 
or that is proposed for future adoption. I make this plain statement 
in the beginning because I wish you to follow me into the discussion 
of the evening with minds clear of any party leanings. 

Since the war with Spain, twenty-two years ago, the foreign relations 
of the United States have steadily enlarged. Much has been said 
recently about "entanglements with foreign nations." But for twenty- 
two years we have been steadily entangling ourselves with other nations, 
binding up our future in certain well defined policies which we cannot 
change at this time without seriously compromising our honor and 
interests. "We have announced our support of an "open door" in the 
East in such terms that we should be deeply humiliated as a nation 
if we had to give it up at the demand of other nations. * We have 
steadily tied ourselves up in the Caribbean Sea by assuming what are 
in fact the relations of protectorates over Cuba, Santo Domingo, 
Haiti, Nicaragua, and Panama. We have become responsible for 
the development of the Philippine Islands into a country capable of 
self government; and in doing so we have undertaken to protect them 
while under our own control ; and if we are able to carry out our announc- 
ed purpose of making them independent in due time, we shall have to con- 
tinue that protection as against the designs of ambitious neighbors. 
In all these respects the United States have accepted obligations in 
keeping with the powers of a great nation. What has been done has 
alarmed nobody. It has come about gradually, and the states imme- 
diately concerned with us are not strong enough to be dangerous. But 
no one knows how soon the obligations we have taken may run counter 


State Literary axd Historical AmoCIATXOB 21 

to the interests of a great power in such a way that our utmost sttf 
would be necessary to sustain us if the worst came to worst ii 
course we have mapped out. 

It is also noteworthy that in assuming protectorates over \ 
states we have acted for our own interests only in an ideal - - That 

is, there is no immediate necessity for establishing a protectorate 
over any of the states named, except Panama, where the protection 
of the canal is a matter of immediate policy. In regard to the other 
states we have acted because sagacity shows us that in the long run 
it is for our interests to have Cuba, Santo Domingo, and the Philippines 
exist in a state of enlightened prosperity, and for that reason we feel 
justified in lending our strength in promoting and guiding with a firm 
hand, if necessary, the development of these states. Xo one objects to 
this policy, so far as I know. 

Our latest notable extension of our relations with the rest of the 
world was in entering the world war. We did not do it because we 
wished to, but because it was forced upon us 'by the bald necessity 
of the case. The origin of the struggle was not of our making. It 
grew out of a rivalry as old as the centuries. Its seeds were planted 
and replanted in the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Treaty of San 
Stefano, the Congress of Berlin, 1S7S, and in the negotiations con- 
nected with the end of the Balkan war of 1012 — 1913. The desire 
for Constantinople, the jealousies of the Great Powers, the cultiva- 
tion of national chauvinism, the false theory that Balance of Power 
can preserve peace: all these things were not things of our making, and 
they were fundamentally connected with the origin of the war. "We 
came into it when it had become a life and death struggle for world 
empire on the part of Germany. If she won no state's life was safe : so 
we believed in 1917, and when she played her last card — ruthless sub- 
marine warfare — we were called to strike or eat words that only a 
coward could swallow. And so we fought and gave a decisive turn to the 
war. When we entered it with energy, in the summer of 1915, the 
two sides were near the point of exhaustion, but the advantage was 
with Germany. We changed the odds by throwing our fresh and 
unexhausted strength into the struggle; and the world was made secure 
from the Teutonic threat. 

Then rose a situation no one had expected in a very definite man- 
ner. The tenseness of the struggle, the exhaustion it created in all 
the belligerent states, the misplacing of business and political inter- 
relation, and the threatening rise of a proletarian regime all had to be 
dealt with. What was going to be the position of the United States 

22 Twentieth Annual Session 

in this settlement \ Many of us have asked the question and - 
have tried to ans vev it, some on one side and some on another. it .has 
been two years and more since th< ilei - of pe 
Xo Man's Land, but to this day it is not determined what shall be 
the attitude of the United States to the problems that fa<- orld 

in its hour of restoration. We have been so lost in the meshes of the 
great political debate that we have forgotten to consider the fundamental 
situation that lies behind all our contention. It is a situation that 
would exist, with or without a League of Xations. It would exist 
with, an Association of Xations : It would exist if we set up a world 
court without the power of coercion. It would exist, but in another 
way, if it was decided that no formal attempts at international cooper- 
ation would be made. It is always there, in the fringes of the present, 
where today runs into tomorrow, and we cannot know too clearly what 
claims it has upon our sympathy and interests. The people are the 
rulers. It is we who have to understand so that we may decide. In 
its largest and most apparent phase it is closely connected with the 
world's industrial life; and we cannot do better than consider for a few 
minutes in what respect international industry stands today in a situa- 
tion of abnormality, and in what respect our own interests are involved 
in its critical condition. 

The mechanism of international commerce is the product of long ex- 
perience. It depends upon the proper adjustment of international fi- 
nance, trade, credits, the supply of raw materials, hopefulness, transpor- 
tation, and various other activities. One of its noticeable qualities is 
its tendency to go in the channels in which it has been in the habit of 
going. For example, when the people of a certain state have become 
used to buying and using the merchandise of a certain other state, it is 
very difficult to get them to drop what they have been using and begin 
to use mechandise that comes from a third state, even though it may 
be possible to prove that the merchandise of the third country is better 
in itself. It is not often in the history of industry that we encounter 
a general shaking up of trade conditions, giving us the possibility of mak- 
ing new adjustments without a long period of struggle to capture markets. 

But it is just at such a situation that the world has arrived today, 
not through its choice, but through its necessities. Countries that form- 
erly were firmly established in all the phases of industry are now in severe 
straits. The manufacturing, transportation and credit facilities of the 
continent of Europe are in a confuse! condition. It will take them 
several years to regain the state of equilibrium, and while they are com- 
ing to that happy state the United States have a wonderful opportunity 

State Literary axd Histobical Associat] 

to get and hold a footing there, which at later time could he oht;. 
only by a process of serere competition. 

Whether we do or do nor utilize the opportunity k 

primarily on our business men; but not; entirely. Ir depends to a 
able extent on the attitude of the people of the country. 
ably there are a few people in the United Sattea who woul rately 

and knowingly block our progress in this respect. But ther 

who could block it by not knowing what the situation i.^ and how 

own views of what the government ought to do in th 
upon it. It is our good fortune to live under a government of the p 
Well, at this moment the people of this country are called upon to de 
whether or not they shall block or promote the development of the 
States in keeping with the industrial and political opportunities that 
confront us in international affairs. With the best intentions in the 
world our people cannot be expected to act prudently in the matter unless 
they understand the opportunities that confront us. 

Before 1914 the United States was a debtor nation. For years we 
had borrowed money to build railroads, canals and industrial plants, and 
to develop mining and agriculture. For the interest on our borrow- 
ings Ave had to pay Europe annually more than $250,000,000. What- 
ever else we did this money had to be paid. We fulfilled the descrip- 
tion involved in the biblical phrase, "The borrower is a servant of the 
lender.'' We had chosen, also, to put our best efforts into manufactur- 
ing, as some sections of our farmers put all their erforts in production 
of one crop, expecting to buy what they needed in other respects. Thus 
we had given up the operation of a merchant marine and were paying 
Europeans $200,000,000 a year to carry our goods to market. This in- 
terest charge and this freight bill, with the amount of money our tourists 
took abroad with them and some other items, made a grand total of 
nearly $600,000,000 a year. 

The sum was so great that it was impossible to pay it in gold, the 
only international money. To have tried to do so would have ex- 
hausted the stock of gold in the country in a few years, which means 
that our banks would have been forced to suspend specie pay] ts E 
their notes. It was about nine times as much as the amount of gold 
mined in this country annually. The other alternative was T o pay 
it in commodities; and that is what we did. Every year we sent 
abroad $600,000,000 worth of products in excess of the value of the 
merchandise we imported. If we did not quite make the total out-go 
and the total in-come balance we called the difference the balance 
of trade. If the prices of our commodities were low the result was 
that they did not sell for enough to pay all we owed for merchandise 


24 Twentieth Axnual Session 


imported and for the stated obligations, and we said that the balance 
of trade was against us. If they sold for more than we owed the 
balance of trade was in our favor. When it was against ua wo sent 
gold abroad to pay it, when it was in our favor we received gold 
to make up the balance. There were times of great uneasiness when 
the balance against us was large and the drain of our gold outward 
was heavy. 

The day Europe broke into war our long period of bondage began 
to mend. Europe now began to buy from us far more heavily than 
we were buying from her. Desiring to keep her gold in Europe she 
began to send back to us the bonds we had sold her, and on which 
we were paying interest. During the first three years of the war 
she more than canceled the debt we had owed her before the war be- 
gan. At the same time we were forced to think of our own ship- 
ping. We built it up until we ceased to rely on other countries, and 
thus we saved in our own pockets the larger part of the freight bill 
we had formerly paid. But the steady stream of orders for Amer- 
ican merchandise continued to pour into our offices, and by the time 
the third year of war was beginning Europe was forced to go on a 
borrowing basis. We now became the lender, and Europe became 
the borrower. Erom having been forced through many years to 
wait upon the pleasure of others, we were in a position to have others 
wait upon our pleasure. 

In Alay, 1917, the United States had been in the war one month. 
Great men from London, Paris, Rome and other cities, some of which 
we had to get down atlasses to know where they were, began to arrive 
in Washington. They told us many important things about how to 
carry on the war into which we had entered ; but they were all urgent 
for loans. The big states wanted big loans, the little states would 
take anything we had to offer. And to all of them our government 
lent according to their necessities. The British came first, and 
the newspapers announced that they wished to borrow £50,000,000. 
The response in the press was favorable and it was announced that 
they wished £100,000,000. After a few days it was stated that the 
United States government had decided to lend them $500,000,000. 
Probably some of us did not at the time notice the change in terms. 
The value of the pound is determined bv the British parliament: 
the value of the dollar is determined by the congress of the United 
States. It was thought just as well that the borrower did not 
have the power to fix the value of his own debt symbol. The incident 
marks the change of position that had occurred in the financial rela- 
tions of the two nations. Eor the first time in manv years Great 

State Literacy and Historical Association 25 

Britain was not in the position to dictate. She had to aceept 

tat ion, which is the ordinary fate of the debtor. 

At last the war ended. The horrible wound on the fa e 

earth, running from the borders of Switzerland to the North 3 
ceased to bleed. Through it humanity had been yielding up its life 
for more than four years. It remained to be seen if the pa 
had been reduced to such a state of weakness that death would come 
of sheer weakness. For more than two years we have been watcl 
with anxiety the struggle between exhaustion and the recupera- 
tive powers of nature. It is only with the approach of a new sprins: 
season, that we are beginning to feel that the crisis is about to pass 
favorably; but the patient is greatly in need of nourishment, and if 
he does not get it ugly complications are possible. 

The situation of the world today may be summed up as follows : 
In 1913 the aggregate debt of the nations of the world was $43,200.- 
931,000; since the war, by the best available information it is $27! .- 
014,903,000, an increase of about $236,000,000,000. The United 
Kingdom of Great Britain, which was believed to be heavily in debt 
in 1913 at $3,485 millions, now owes $39,314 millions. France 
owed then $6,346 millions : she now owes $46,025 millions. Italy 
then owed $2,921 millions: she now owes $18,102 millions. Germany, 
including the German states, before the war owed $5,04$ millions: 
she now owes on the same basis $59,561 millions. The smaller of 
the belligerent nations have, in general, been forced to increase their 
indebtedness in the same relative manner. Xarions that were be- 
lieved to be burdened to the limit of prosperity in 1913 have in- 
creased their obligation from six to eleven times as much as they 
then owed. With industry prostrate they have to assume the in- 
creased burden. On a population filled with discontent they have 
to lay new and heavy taxes, with the danger that a despairing elector- 
ate may run into the extremes of radicalism and solve their difficul- 
ties by repudiating the whole obliga-tion. It is a situation demand- 
ing patience and wise assistance from whatever source available. 

From this distressed condition of Europe turn the eye to the United 
States. In 1913 their debt was $1.02S millions: in 1920 it was 
$24,299 millions. For the time we were in the war the rate at 
which it plunged us in debt was exceedingly high. If we had been 
in from the first, and the same rate ratio had maintained through the 
whole war, which is not probable, we should have increased our debt 
by more than $62,000,000,000, the interest on which at five per 
cent, would have amounted to $3,100 millions a year. And this 

26 Twentieth Annual Session 

would mean that every man, woman and child in the country would 
pay on an average of $30 a year in taxes merely to pay the interest 
on the war debt. Such a burden, heavy as it seems, would nor, be 
heavier than the burden before which Europe shudder-. 

The United States, however, came out of the war without having 
impaired seriously their powers of production. In fact, so Ci 
fully had those powers been stimulated during the war that we are 
today, as respects manufacturing plants and the mastery of the re- 
sources of nature, in a better position than ever before to meet the 
demands on our processes of production. During the war we im- 
proved the processes of agriculture, so that a man with the same 
amount of land can make more of a given product than before the war. 
At the same time we have materially enlarged our manufacturing 
plants, drawing into them rapidly the working population at the 
expense of rural industries. By the census statistics just made public 
51 °c of the population of the country now live in towns and cities; that 
is less than half of the people in the country are producing the food 
on which the 51 c ; 'c of the population must live. "We are thus about 
to arrive at the stage of development to which Alexander Hamilton 
looked forward in his Report on Manufactures — when we can more 
is, less than half of the people in the country are producing the food 
its wants in food products. 

For a time after peace came to the world, the demand for our 
commodities came freely from the utmost parts of the world. We 
could sell all we could produce, and more. We have never been able 
to satisfy the demand. Today there are people in Europe who are 
in dire distress for merchandise that we can make, although our 
mills are closed down or on part time, because they cannot sell 
to those who have nothing with which to pay. Thus it happens 
that textile mills in Xew England are closing down, while people in 
Poland are shivering in their outworn and threadbare garments. 

The outward expression of such a situation is the rate of exchange. 
In normal times nations balance their accounts by figuring the values 
of their respective units of money on a basis of the gold value in them. 
When, however, the foreign nation has not the goods to export to an- 
other nation in payment, for what it imports, nor the gold with which 
to settle the balance of trade, it stops buying from that nation. When 
it sees such a cessation as a possibility, it tends to check its advance 
by raising the rate of exchange. For example, in normal times, when 
France buys from us about what she sells to us, she counts five francs 
as approximately equal to our dollar. When her citizens find that 

State Literary a.yd Historical Association 27 

it is hard to get bills on Xew York, that is bills to pay for what Fi- 
lms exported to the United States they begin to offer bigh< 
five francs for a dollar, They may offer six or ten if :.. 
sities are great, in these days they are offering, and p. . - laily, 

more than sixteen francs for a dollar. American :. 
ing the French people very dearly. They arc costing them so much 
that there has been a great shrinkage of orders fur them, h is not 
likely that there will be a change until the French are able to .-end us 
their own goods more freely than they can now send them. Our 
industrial relations with France are similar to our relations with . 
other countries. Everywhere, despite the fact that we are not run- 
ning factories on full time we are sending out vastly more than we 
sent before the war, and more than we are receiving. The world's 
balance of trade is in our favor to a large amount. 

At the same time we have a large account against the rest of the 
world for interest on the loans made by our government during 
the war. 

The amount of these loans in round numbers is .$9,711,000,000 al- 
though a slight reduction has been made in some of them through read- 
justments. At the same time increased borrowing in private accounts 
in our money markets has increased still more the amount of our in- 
terest account against Europe. Combining the two items it is esti- 
mated that we are in a position to demand about $600,000,000 annually 
from Europe in payment of interest. At present we are not collect- 
ing the interest on our public lendings. If that were demanded it 
would put the rate of exchange still higher. While we forego it, how- 
ever, it is being paid by the faithful American taxpayer to the amount 
of about $405,000,000 a year. 

Such is the business situation today in the world. Europe is wound- 
ed to the quick, the United States are full of life and energy and ready 
for greater achievements than ever before, but suffering just at this 
moment because the purchasing power of the rest of the world is so 
badly reduced that orders are not being received. \Yhat does Europe 
want of the United States under these circumstances? And what reply 
should we make to her requests \ Is it not that she wants what every 
distressed man wants of his strong and prosperous neighbor \ It is 
not charity to enable her to live in a state of dependence, but aid in 
recovering economic independence. For if one of two neighbors lives 
in poverty and distress and the other lives in luxury and does not try 
to help him who suffers, the happiness and prosperity of each will be 

28 Twentieth Annual Session 

Two methods of meeting the case and rendering help to the suffei 

are possible. One is to wipe off the debts and let Europe ma 
new start, so far as we are concerned. The other is to adopt and carry 

through a wise plan of helpfulness to enable Europe, our customer, to 
get on her feet and pay her debts as she becomes self-supporting again. 

The objections to the first plan may be summed up as follows : 
(1) It is not scientific. It is no real help to Europe to make her a 
gift, since in accepting it she would lose that sense of self-reliance 
which is the basis of good national as well as of good personal character. 
The individual is better off when he pays his own debts. (2) Assum- 
ing that the bonds are to run for 35 years at four and a quarter per cent, 
interest the ultimate sum paid by our taxpayers would be $23,252,000,- 
000. That is too much burden to assume unless its assumption is 
inevitable. In this case it is not inevitable. Europe is not bankrupt 
utterly: she is bankrupt temporarily. There is a way to put her on 
her feet again, and that way is to accept the second of the two plans 
just mentioned. 

When a business concern falls into temporary disaster, it goes into the 
hands of a receiver, whose function is to take direction of operations, re- 
duce unnecessary expense, cut off unprofitable features of the business, 
reform the direction of sales, manufacturing and other departments and 
generally re-establish the life and energy of the enterprise. While he 
operates he holds in abeyance, if necessary, the payment of obligations 
incurred in the past ; and to obtain money to carry on the business in its 
new form he issues certificates of receivership, which have status of 
preferred obligations over old debts. By this means the receiver is 
able to relieve the business of its embarassnients, if it is fundamentally 
sound, and to put it in a way to pay off its obligations. 

There is every reason to believe that the nations of Europe are today 
fundamentally sound. They have the working population necessary 
to resume their ante-bellum operations, they have the plants they once 
had, except in the districts in which the ravages of war occurred in 
their worst forms ; they have the facility to manufacture developed 
through long periods of skilful production ; and they have the willingness 
to come back. Their great need, like the need of an embarassed cor- 
poration, is capital to tide them over the period of re-organization. 
If they could be put through some such process as I have indicated 
the capital could be obtained- It is only necessary to offer as security 
something more than the general pledge of the governments concerned, 
since in such case the security is nothing more than the security 

State Literary axd Historical Association 1'.) 

behind the general debts of these governments, and that is a security 
deeply impaired by the weight of debt that the war has produced. 

Of course it is difficult to induce the nations of Europe to place th 
selves into the hands of a receiver. Their instincts are agai;. 
up their full control over their aifairs. Certainly, they could not I 
pected to place themselves in the hands of any other power, ho 
great and good. It is not desired that they place themselves under the 
supervision of the United States. Xor is it desirable that we should as- 
sume any such obligation. Our form of government, our domestic 
lems, and our national habits are such as to make it inadvisable to set 
ourselves up as the sole guardians in such a matter. 

But it would be a different thing if there were an international 
commission, in which the nations themselves should have representative?, 
to take over the functions of adjustment ; and in this commission our 
government could have representation. The plan of the League of 
Xations looked forward to such a commission. It does not yet 
appear what is to be the future of the League. But it is not necessary 
to have the League in order to have the Commission. It is only ne- 
cessary for the governments to pledge their faith to organize it and carry 
it through in good faith. It should be endowed with power to tell the 
nations concerned what they ought to do in order to restore their finan- 
cial health, to enforce during its existence the necessary economies 
in public expenditures, and to give direction to the development of 
national industry in so far as it is necessary to direct it in order to get 
the best possible results out of it. It is an enterprise that would not 
involve any of the co-operating stages in war, or in any obligations 
that would lead to war. It would rest solely upon the world's sense 
of good business, a thing which has never failed the world in the past. 

iSTow the basis of confidence in such a process is the economic 
interests of the co-operating states and nations. I can think of no 
party to the plan whose happiness would not demand its success. The 
merchants of the United States would be interested because it would 
give solidity to international trade, the financiers because it would re- 
move uncertainty from international investments, the manufacturers 
because it would enlarge the markets for their products, farmers because 
it would enable foreign purchasers to take more freely of our food and 
cotton. The taxpayers of the United States would be deeply interested 
in it because it is the surest way for them to escape having to assume 
the payment of the money we have loaned to Europe. Of the p . 
in Europe I can think of none who w-ould be opposed to such a thing 
except those experimenters who declare that human happiness depends 

30 Twentieth Annual Session 

upon the entire overthrow of the existing form of .society. They do 
not desire the stabilisation of society, for their hope is in the 
of discontent and confusion. 

Besides the force that a reasonable sense of self-interest • 

to the plan, we have the power of our credit as a means of protec 
ourselves if worse should come to worse. In any normal condition of 
trade in the coming years we can expect the balance of trade to be de- 
cidedly in our favor. By calling for the interests on the loans we can 
make it necessary for Europe to send us more than four hundred mil- 
lion dollars a year on that one account. Now outside of the United 
States the world's production of gold does not exceed in value $305,- 
000,000. If Europe could command all of it — and she cannot do 
that — she would not be able to send us in money the interest she owes 
on the debt by $100,000,000. Let us say her available gold supply for 
export out of increased production in the mines is $250,000,000, which 
is liberal, she would still have to find $150,000,000 in either gold or 
products to pay her bill. And to this we must add the interest she 
will have to pay on the increasing volume of private loans she is con- 
tracting in this country. On the other hand, we could use this im- 
portant power of credit in such a way as to benefit Europe; or, if it be- 
came necessary through some unfair conduct on her part, it could be 
used to force her to do as we wished. If, for example, we called to- 
day for the interest due on the loan, it would exhaust the gold reserve 
of Europe in four years. It would not be necessary to use such power. 
The mere existence would be enough to warrant that it would not have 
to he used. 

In this discussion I have tried to keep the argument on a purely 
economic basis; but it has a moral side also. We are in a position to 
make ourselves liked in Europe as no other nation has been liked 
there, and being liked as a people will promote our business interests 
there. It seems inevitable that our capital will have to be loaned 
freely to put Europe on her feet again ; but it makes a deal of difference 
whether we lend it in a haphazard way, or in accordance with some 
scheme that commends itself to the business intelligence of the nation. 
If in the former way uncertainty and irregularity will ensue, and 
much of the good will and respect that might have been had will be 

Before Europe the United States stand- today as the rich uncle 
who has been to distant lands, accumulated a vast fortune, and comes 
hack among his impoverished relatives, all of whom are intent on 
getting some of his money, which thev need sorely. He is not a 

State Lit ebaby a.nd Historical Association 31 

selfish or mean man and he means to help In can 

his purposes he ean follow one of three courses. II< ean hand 
his money lavishly, taking no ree< rpts and asking nothing in return, 

in a truly avuncular way. In that case ho will receive many k 
and few thanks. Or he can lake the position of tin- v. - . -■ icious 
man, who doesn't mean to he hoodwinked by - who profi J8 

love and loyalty. In such a case he will have his money screwed out 
of him in parcels, some of it going to those who should have it, and 
of it going to those whose tongues are most clever. A third course is 
to take a broad view of the situation, confer in good faith with ail 
want, get the facts on the situation, lay down on the table as much as 
he can spare, and hand it out to those who wish and who will use 
it in such a way as will yield him a safe return while it enables them 
to proceed in their business in an advantageous manner. For which 
of these courses have you the proper respect \ And for which do you 
think the beneficiaries will have the greatest gratitude \ By follow- 
ing the third the wise uncle will make himself a place in the com- 
munity. He will be able to write his ideas on its future development 
and maintain some kind of control on its course. 

What does the world want of this rich and fortunate country of ours \ 
Money? Yes, it wants money — not money flung at ii in the spirit 
of a nabob, as one who should say: ''Take it ! I have plenty!" But money 
that is the expression of a broad understanding of the world's problems ; 
money that is burnished- with intelligence; money that talks because 
it understands the task it has to do. It needs the help that is an ex- 
pression of knowledge. That is the only help that is worthy of us. 
and *he only help that will yield us the permanent friendship of the 
peoples of the world. And if it is given to the world in the way that 
makes tbe world respect our leadership, the result will write the word 
"America'' across the history of the twentieth century in letters that 
shall never fade. It will make for us an influence that is only limited 
by the capacity of our country to wield it. 

Please do not misunderstand me. I do not wish to force the current 
of events. That is always unwise. But it does not seem too much to 
urge that the situation actually before the world today be turned over 
10 men who know how to meet it. When the business int-elr.gence of 
the United States has been trusted it has always proved equal to the 
demand upon it. Turn over the world's industrial crisis to it. Tell it 
to obtain first of all the confidence and co-operation of the business 

32 Twentieth Annual Session 

intelligence of the stricken countries. I think it can do that, for it 
has always been able to do it in the past. Let it, our of this general con- 
fidence and co-operation, create the group that is to direct and j 
authority to the efforts that are to be made. And while the pi 
going on let us all agree that the people of the United States will give 
their moral support to the government. Let them also remember to 
keeps hands off. There must be no throwing of monkey-wrenches. 
There must for once be a trusting of the experts in the realms of the 
technical. Whether we shall meet this crisis in some such way as this, 
or muddle through it according to the instincts of the moment, is the 
great question of the day. What the world wants of the United States 
today is business sagacity, breadth of view, and leadership. 




By Joux Euskixe, Ph.D., LL.D. 

Columbia University 

Though we cannot say that the outward circumstances of a mairs 
life are the logical projection of his character, vet we may wish that 
they were. In so far as we fan make the world over, we should like a 
. man's possessions and the scene he occupies to he, as Socrates prayed, 
in harmony with what he is. But however this harmony may be our 
desire, it seems to be no concern of the gods ; the human lot, if left to 
itself, continues to fall in curious and unequal places, for the historian 
to set down, even if he cannot explain them, and for the philosopher to 
surmount by whatever wings he may command. Only from time to 
time intelligence looks the hard fact in the face, and some strong will 
undertakes to bring about in life that order which it cannot find there. 
Then, at least for that moment, the race approaches the moral climax of 
civilization, when some man assumes responsibility for the environment 
in which he has been placed. To make so magnificent an assumption 
is once more to steal the fire from heaven. The exploit we need not 
add, is unusual; the Titan is rare. But no other assumption converts 
the stream of experience into a drama so exciting, so human and so 
significant, or opens to the imagination a career so bold. In private 
life, although we cannot measure the extent to which the accidents of 
birth and nature determine our fortunes, yet without hesitation we 
distinguish in degree of nobility between him who accepts his fate with 
resignation, as something that has happened to him, and him Avho tries 
first to see in each event some witness to his own progress or his own 
error in the art of life. Though in this world of infinite changes and 
chances we are aware how small an area of experience can ever he 
Drought under our control, yet since the area of responsibility is all the 
field we have for the exercise of character, we give our admiration to 
the man who would enlarge its boundaries. Xot only in private life, 
but in public affairs as well. There will always be men and women 
who conceive of government and of society as sections of environment 
related to them geographically, as it were, but not morally — objects for 
them to study, to criticize, and possibly to reform. But they whose 
character is most exalted, and who>e imagination embraces the widest 
arc of experience, perceive that the reform must begin in themselves, 
for they are government, and they are society — or if this is not strictly 

34 Twentieth Axxcal Session 

the fact, they desire it at once to be so. For thein patriotism is a human 
and practical religion, a pursuit of their own ideals in the image of their 

country, a moral passion urging them to the decisions of i 
and of conduct, with possibilities of heaven or hell. 

"What usually goes by the name of patriotism and takes on extra- 
ordinary value in time of war, is the natural love of the soil, of the 
place where we and our people have lived. Unless some abnormal in- 
fluence pervert us, all men have this love which clings to the world as 
it is. Yet this kind of patriotism, one of the most beautiful of instincts, 
is nevertheless an instinct, and needs to be distinguished from that rare 
moral virtue of which I now speak, which not only regards its environ- 
ment with pious affection, but assumes responsibility for it, as for the 
consequences of its own choice. The man who never to himself has 
said, "This is my own, my native land," is in some sense indeed a 
dead soul; he lacks that instinctive piety out of which what we may 
call a moral patriotism can rise. But the majority of mankind, who 
are frequently conscious of their native land, and who earn thereby the 
common name of patriots, do not, after all, deserve the exclusive 
award of the title, nor the excessive praise which poets and orators 
have lavished upon them. Why should a man be praised for having 
that which not to have is to be despicable or maimed? What virtue is 
there in having the usual two hands or two eyes? Or what high 
place in story should be ours merely for loving the children we beget? 
Do we suspect our instincts begin to fail, that we should pride our- 
selves on having one good instinct still in common with other 
animals ? The love of the soil, the love of our own place, like the 
affection for our young, is planted it seems in every heart that beats at 
all; it is not so much a grace of life as a condition on which life is toler- 
able; it is so bound up with the other rooted pieties of our nature, that 
to separate it, as I wish now to do, from a higher quality, to say that it 
is only an instinct, and to praise the virtue that rises upon instinct, 
seems to intend violence, even sacrilege, to a sacred trust. Yet without 
intending violence or sacrilege, we may properly remind ourselves of 
some half forgotten claims of the life of reason. At critical moments of 
history there have been thoughtful enquiries as to which kind of patriot- 
ism is truly a virtue, the fidelity to the environment, or the insistence 
that the environment should be faithful to our character: and twice or 
thrice great spirits have tried to dedicate even the mass of common men 
to a moral responsibility for the world about them. Such another 
critical moment we live through now and we have special need to make 
the enquiry once more. Xo single leader has arisen to dedicate us to a 

State Literary ajstd Historical Association S3 

moral patriotism, and none seems likely at this moment to arrive. All 
the more cause why scholars as a body, and men of thoughtful fa 
should make available for their fellows the wisdom that the race experi- 
ence yields. This wisdom, if known, would itself be a kind of leader- 
ship, and no other kind, as it seems to me, are we likely to have for some 

During the war and since the armistice we have listened to voices un- 
deniably great. We have been summoned to sacrifice and to unselfish- 
ness, we have had held before us a noble and, however vague, a last- 
ing vision of world peace, and we have been urged — we believe not in 
vain — to assume responsibility for the conditions of mankind outside our 
borders. But at the same time, and with an inconsistency not new in 
human annals, we have had preached at us, and perhaps we ourselves 
have preached, the desirability of only one kind of patriotism at home, 
the instinctive kind, which issues in obedience rather than in moral re- 
sponsibility. We have watched the coming on the American scene of a 
formidable apparition — the spirit which lays upon the political offender, 
upon the minority which we hope is mistaken, but which we know is 
frank, a condemnation more lasting and more severe than upon the 
weakling who hides himself at the nation's call for aid. A deficiency 
in the primal instinct to cherish and protect our kindred and the place 
of one's birth, we have seen treated by a considerable and supposedly 
solid public opinion, as a not very serious defect, perhaps even a symp- 
tom of idealism; whereas a disposition to scrutinize national policy or 
national conduct, or to sharpen the public conscience to defects in our 
social or political world, with the intent to remedy them, has come to 
be thought dangerous as a viper's fangs, not to be argued with but to 
be stamped on. The spirit which makes this distinction is. I repeat, a 
formidable apparition, fraught as I think with no good to our national 
philosophy. It is, for one thing, too much like the spectre of ruth- 
lessness against which we undertook to crusade, and it has aptitudes for 
teaching us those quick ways of dealing with minorities which we used 
to consider typical of the older Russian tyranny. Worst of all, the 
spirit which discourages the rational and moral patriotism, and culti- 
vates only the instinctive and emotional, will raise up a drasron to devour 
thoae noble dreams of world unselfishness to which, as I said, we have 
been called to dedicate ourselves. The love of the soil, so long as it re- 
mains only an instinct, has in it no element of concern for anyone 
else's land. We need not be surprised, therefore, if a nation trained 
to be patriotic instinctively and uncritically, and in no higher war. 
subscribes at last to an exclusive nationalism, with indifference, almost 
with hostility, to other people. 

36 Twentieth Annual Session 

To raise the question at all is to incur risk of misunderstanding. 

There is the risk of seeming to agree with any political offender 
may come to jour mind as illustration of the point just made. In 
suggesting that moral patriotism is more desirable than the merely in- 
stinctive kind, we may seem blind to the fact that when an instinct is 
opposed, to an idea it is usually the instinct which prevails; after 
enough instruction to convince us of the contrary we still have a feel- 
ing that the sun goes around the earth. ^Ve know further that to in- 
timate the inferiority of the instincts as guides to conduct as over 
against the reason is a curious folly in an age like ours when both the 
familiar and popular philosophies have chosen to glorify instinct. But 
this is an old battle field of intelligence, this opposition of the rational 
to the merely instinctive life. At the risk of being misunderstood and 
at the still more certain risk of accomplishing no immediate victory, all 
of us who have hope for intelligence and would choose the better things 
of the mind, must cheerfully enlist once more in the oft-defeated cause 
of reason. Though we know that the humane philosophy of Aristotle, 
of Christ, and of Aquinas has never yet been widely practised, and that 
allegiance to it is ceremonial more often than even theoretically sincere, 
yet for us it is still the best that has been said or thought in the world. 
And, however vain our championship of it may seem, yet if men will 
take even a passing interest in an idea, we may perhaps prepare in the 
public mind a greater susceptibility to those seeds of reason which when 
they fall only on the instincts, fall on very hard ground indeed. The 
League of Nations, for example, is an idea, but being an idea, it cannot 
hope to succeed as the articulation and harmonizing of purely in- 
stinctive patriotism. It can become effective only when the patriotisms 
brought under it are of the same order as itself, rational . and moral. 
There is no reason to hope, nor particularly to wish, that the various 
patriotisms of the world, even though they should become rational, 
would be identical or even in much initial harmony with each other, any 
more than we can expect the rational ideals of the individual to 
coincide with the ideals of his neighbor. But once we have raised 
patriotism to the level of reason, we shall have brought it to the 
sphere of intelligence and responsibility in which light and agreement 
can conceivably be arrived at. 


Meanwhile, it is only for the principle of patriotism as moral 
responsibility that we need to plead. The principle truly ne^ds our 
championship. There arc those in the world still who find no meaning 

State Literary and Historical Association 37 

in life, who give it up as a hard question put to us daily for our irrita- 
tion without hope of an answer. There are others, the majority among 
us, who find an answer to the question in obeying our instincts and in 
submitting to our environment. There are still a few who look for the 
answer in man himself, in his control of his instincts and his 
dedication of the environment to his own uses. The majority of us, I 
repeat, have relegated fate to the world about us ; in modern philosophy 
it is the universe, not the human race, that has the real adventure in 
morals. A few of us, however, following Greek thought as we believe 
at its best, would place the throne of fate as much as possible in our 
own nature, giving to ourselves a divine possibility, the freedom of 
choice that a god should have, and a responsibility for his actions that 
not even a god could avoid. As Herodotus and Thucydides wrote history, 
they explained their wars or their other afflictions as caused by the 
ambition or the selfishness or the unwise decision of individual men, and 
for their happiness and prosperity they gave credit not to rhe environ- 
ment but to their fellows. Wlien Peisistratus set up his tyranny in 
Athens, Solon addressed the famous verses to his neighbors: 

"If ye have endured sorrow from your own baseness of soul, impute not 
the fault of this to the gods. Ye have yourselves put the power into the 
hands of these men." 

And when Pericles in his great speech had extolled the city above all 
other states, he turned the glory into a crown for the dead: 

"The Athens I have praised is only what these men have made it." 

The difference between this Greek point of view and ours is a 
difference of philosophy, not, as we often fancy, a difference of knowl- 
edge. We need only examine Thucydides or Herodotus to be persuaded 
how modern were those old historians in their observation of economic 
or other advantages or handicaps ; they saw all that we see. Thucydides 
tells us that the richest soils are always most subject to a change of 
masters; he gives as his opinion that Agamemnon was enabled to raise the 
expedition against Troy more by his superiority in strength than by the 
oaths of the suitors to follow nim; he says that the expedition against 
Troy was small, not for lack of men but for the difficulty of providing 
an adequate commissary, and he thinks the Trojans were able to hold 
out so long only because a large proportion of the Greeks had to culti- 
vate the invaded soil or forage for supplies ; he points out the significance 
of sea power, in peace and in war ; he says that the Peloponnesian war 
was made inevitable by the growth of the Athenian power, and the fear 
which this inspired in the Lacedaemon. All this sounds modern. But 
Thucydides does not make up his history out of the environment — out 

Twentieth Annual Session 

of economic or any other external conditions; rather, he goes on to tell 
how Athena decided to protect the Corcyrans against the Corinthian*, 

and how this decision started the war; how the Spartans massacre': 
Plataeans, and how the Athenians exterminated the inhabitants of M 
and the moral results of those actions; and how at last through evil 
choices the power of Athens was destroyed. He hoped, he said, that his 
record might he prized not as a romantic chronicle of events, but as a 
storehouse of human wisdom, that it might be judged useful by those 
inquirers who desire an exact knowledge of the past as an aid to the 
interpretation of the future. With this purpose, he treats the Pelopon- 
nesian war as a series of decisions which the combatants had to make, 
and the battles and other events follow as the divine commentary on the 
decisions. He introduces the account of conduct in each instance with 
an elaborate report of the debate of which that conduct was the event. 
and we hardly needed his hint to observe that the speeches as he gives 
them were probably never made, but are his statements, rather, of the 
various points of view which converged on that issue. His interpretation 
of history, therefore, is neighbor to Plato's method in philosophy, a 
dramatizing of moral ideas, for the better observation of their implica- 

Much as we may admire this high-mindedness in Thucydides, who has 
been a long time dead, I confess I cannot perceive a tendency in living 
historians to imitate it, nor in the rest of U3 to desire it of historians now 
writing. Explain the fall of a great power as the moral consequence of 
its decisions! A British historian might so narrate the collapse of 
Germany, but would a German historian so narrate it I Or would an 
English or American historian tell the story with such a conviction of 
moral responsibility, if it were Great Britain or the United States that 
had come to disaster? And if he did, what would we do to him? But 
Thucydides was an Athenian. Writing of his own city and of his own 
day, he refused to remove from man the dignity of moral choices ; he per- 
sisted in the faith that the good and the bad of life are not causes, but 
rather things to choose between. The extremes of Aristotelian temper- 
ance, the earthly and the heavenly steeds in Plato's vision, were to come 
under the control of intelligence. Because of this locating of fate in 
human conduct, this enshrining of the god in the heart of man, the Greek 
philosophy once seemed humane, and the monuments of the Greek spirit 
were called the humanities. We have kept the word but have somewhat 
lost the old meaning. The humane person wa9 one who understood his 
responsibility for his own moral career; with us the humane person is 
one who by his 'benefactions becomes as it were the moral system of his 
neighbor. Our kind of humaneness Herodotus noticed from time to 

State Literary and Historical Association 30 

time in the character of a Persian tyrant, but we must .-earch long : 
it in portrait of a Greek, who thought it a greater benefit to incr 
the freedom of a man's moral choice than to protect him from 
altogether. Says Pericles : 

"The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our 
ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over 
each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for 
doing what he likes. Yet we obey the laws, not only the written, but 
also those which, though unwritten, cannot be broken without dishonor." 

Xot all the hearers of Pericles understood his high philosophy. •: 
that we may he sure. Doubtless many of those dead whom his oration 
immortalized, had fought for their portion of Attic soil instinctively, 
with a quite simple clinging to their hearth, and with no more complex 
patriotism. TThen the Peloponnesians began to invade the country, it 
was by the advice of Pericles that the country folk had removed to the 
city their wives and children, their household furniture, even in 
some cases the woodwork of their houses. Thucydides says they found it 
hard to move, since most of them had always lived in the country. Th°y 
were pagans in the old and. profound sense, rooted to the earth by 
immemorial pieties; the soil they worked in was one with the dust of 
their fathers. They were mindful too, of a legendary independence, of 
the self-sufficient dignity of each minute village in the days before 
Theseus made Athens a political center. From such households there 
must have been many recruits in the Athenian army who fought not 
exactly because they had made an Aristotelian choice, but because it 
was unthinkable not to defend the family hearth and the family tombs. 
Just who the invader was, made no difference — Xerxes but yesterday, 
Archidamus today. The relatives of such men, listening to Pericles, 
may indeed have felt in some dim way the difference between instinctive 
patriotism and that vaster loyalty, moral and to their minds impersonal. 
of which the political orator spoke; but they probably preferred, the 
loyalty of instinct. 

It is just because the audience may not have agreed, with Pericles in 
his immortal oration that we may turn to it now for light. On what 
subject did they disagree? TVe are often reminded nowadays that 
Pericles was seizing a dramatic, occasion to glorify Athens and the cause 
of which he was the leader. On what ground did he glorify Athens \ He 
represented it as a state for which the citizen was morally res-ponsible : 
and if some of his hearers disagreed, it was because they doubted their 
share in this responsibility, or in rheir hearts may have declined to 
accept it. The grandeur of the oration is in the attempt to dedicate a 
whole people to a moral instead of an instinctive philosophy — grandeur 

40 Twentieth Annual Session 

no whit lessened by the reluctance of the people to be so dedicated. The 
entire ceremony of which, the oration was a part, had for its purpot 
enlarge the tribal loyalty to the dimensions of a national ideal, and 
gently to bring away the ancestral religion, from merely local shrii 
and attach it to a place of common and intertribal memories. In the 
funeral procession, says Thucydides 1 , cypress coffins were borne in 
cars, one for each tribe, the bones of the dead being placed in the coffin 
of their tribe. So much concession at least, to a natural and instinctive 
patriotism. Among these coffins was carried one empty bier, decked 
for the missing — that is, for those whose bodies could not be recovered. 
Finally, the dead were laid, not in their ancestral burying grounds, 
in the ancient villages they had perished to defend, but in the public 
sepulchre, in the suburb of the city called Beautiful, where they who 
fell in war were always buried, with the exception of those slain at 
Marathon, who for their extraordinary valor were interred on the spot 
where they fell. It was over the new graves in the military cemetery 
that Pericles spoke, before mourning relatives who perhaps would have 
preferred to bury the dead sons or husbands nearer their ancestors — 
as some of us, with the same instinct, would bring them home from 
France; so much more comforting is it, in spite of all we profess as to 
matter and spirit, that they should be covered with familiar dust than 
that they should rest in an idea. 

Before such hearers Pericles made his great plea for intelligent patri- 
otism : 

"What was the path by which we reached our eminence?" [he asked.] 
"What was the form of government under which we became great? Out of 
what national habits did our greatness spring?" 

Our institutions are free, he continued ; advancement in public life goes 
iby merit, and liberty in private life is without lawlessness. We have 
leisure for the mind, and we welcome the stranger within the city. But 
most of all we are morally responsible, and we cultivate reason. We 
place the disgrace of poverty not in owning to the fact but in declining 
to struggle against it. Instead of regarding discussion as a hindrance 
to action, we think it an indispensible preliminary to any wise action 
at all. In our enterprises we both dare and deliberate, and we give the 
palm of courage to those who best know the difference between hardship 
and pleasure, and yet are never tempted to shrink from danger. 

"The Athens I have praised," [he concludes.] "is only what these men and 
their like have made her. For this offering of their lives, made in common 
by them all, they have each received that renown which never grows old 

(1) The following passages are paraphrased and adapted from the translation by Crawley. 

State Literary axd Historical Association 41 

and for a sepulchre, not so much that in which their bones are placed, but 
that noblest of shrines wherein their glory is laid up to be eternally 
remembered. For the grave of great men is the whole world. In lands far 
from their own. far from the funeral shaft and the epitaph, there if 
a wider record of them, written in the human heart." 

Those hearer? who were reluctant to leave their dead in the national 
cemetery must have known that the last great phrases were dire 
particularly at them. They probably felt that Pericles was going quite 
too far when he threw overboard altogether the genius of locality, and 
said that the grave of great men is the whole world. But they had one 
tradition even in their tribal pieties, which may have helped them to 
understand better than we do his doctrine of moral responsibility in 
patriotism. They may not have followed him in the argument that 
man's concern is with the moral world; that he must take sides in moral 
questions; that the crisis of the state is simply his problem in morality 
on its largest scale; that the state is his creation, his poetry, the last 
incarnation of his ideal life, which should sum up all his other arts. But 
every one of them, of whatever tribe, would recall in his own history 
the legend of those who had founded states — Theseus and Solon, and 
innumerable other heroes from mythical time. Some of the states 
founded turned out well, he would recall; others were bad. In either 
case the legend explained the result by the character of the founder. 
He would think of these pioneers as we think of the pilgrim fathers, 
for whom the creation of government was not an end ; but the Greek who 
listened to Pericles would also feel, as we sometimes do not. even when 
we think of the pilgrim fathers, that no state is established once for 
all, that no settlers are the exclusive pioneers, that no citizen, therefore, 
is excused from exercising the duty and the right to found the state again 
in his own moral choices. Athens had learned early to condemn all 
neutrals in public affairs. Plutarch reminds us of Solon's law that 
whenever a rebellion or sedition occurred, those who had not taken a 
definite stand on one side or the other should be disfranchised. "With 
these principles in mind, the philosophers taught that all education 
should have for its end intelligent and moral citizenship, and that 
the difference between tyranny and democracy is that the tyrant has the 
moral responsibility for the state which he alone creates, whereas in a 
democracy all the citizens share the continuous founding, and all are 
responsible for it. The Athenians from the outer villages may have 
been restive under the far-reaching phrases of Pericles, but if they 
reflected at length on the doctrine, they would recall that the heroes of 
their antiquity had practised that virtue for which the great statesman 
was now speaking. 

42 Twentieth Annual Session 


The wish to dedicate Athenian patriotism to a moral career, to raise 
it up to the region of ideas, in which conscious responsibility is pos- 
sible, is found in other Greeks than Pericles — in Socrates, in Plato, in 
Aristotle, and in the orators ; and if our modern interpretations are not 
altogether mistaken, it is the inspiration of most of the dramas 
Euripides composed. If we look at life fairly, with due allowance for 
all its difficulties and for the immense pressure in the daily routine 
that holds us, by a spiritual gravitation, to leaden-footed contact with 
familiar paths, it is not surprising that none of these prophets was per- 
manently listened to, or that Socrates and Euripides, the most out- 
spoken, were condemneel by public opinion. A similar fate has attended 
others in later centuries, who with the same loftiness of spirit tried to 
translate into terms of reason the passion for their city or for their 
land. Dante hoped so to consecrate loyalty to Florence and loyalty to 
Koine. He dreamt of a two-fold city of God and earth, the Church and 
the Empire, both implanted by divine love in the midstream of history, 
that through both at once man might enjoy here the moral career with- 
out which no soul can be disciplined for heaven. That he wrote of 
monarchy and thought in terms of the empire is of little consequence in 
comparison with the fact that his ideal state was to be a moral oppor- 
tunity, and that in his definitions of it he lays down a program for 
intelligence. Others might love their native Florence for other reasons, 
or with very differennt purposes might speculate as to the reform of 
church and state, but this is the old and rare philosophy — how familiar 
in the periods Thucydides and of Aristotle; how very unfamiliar still in 
the actual patriotisms history records ! In politics as in science, he 
begins 1 , we must do for posterity what our ancestors did for us; we 
must be ourselves in turn ancestors. For simply to be loyal to the past 
is to bring the past to an end, as the talent was buried in the napkin. We 
do not value a tree for last season's fruit. What fruit would you bear by 
demonstrating once more some theorem of Euclid I Who, after Aristotle, 
need expound the nature of felicity \ Or who, after Cicero, need under- 
take the apology of old age? 

He continues by expounding his new fruits in very old terms, yet 
they keep forever a kind of novelty, since the race has but seldom at- 
tended to them, least of all, perhaps, in the very times and places where 
they have been learned by rote. The poet was aware that his contempo- 
raries would in one way recognize the Aristotelian echoes, but in quite 

1 De Monarchic, paraphrased and adapted from Wickstead's translation. 

State Literary ajtd Historical Association 43 

another sense he hoped that these great definitions, tr 
manoeuvres of the mind, might come likr-, revelation to men I I 
passions and instincts. There are some things, he proceeds, in no deg 
subject to our power; they are for our thought and ition. 

Other things, however, are subject to our power; we can think about 
them and do them. In the case of these, which compose the world of 
our moral responsibility, the doing is not undertaken for the sake of 
thinking, but the thinking for the sake of doing. The whole fie. 
politics is eminently a part of this moral world, in which intelligence 
should precede conduct. For (passing over the special arguments for 
monarchy) the human race is best disposed when most free. This will be 
clear if the principle of freedom be understood. The first principle of 
freedom is freedom of choice, which many have on their lips but few 
in their understanding. They get as far as saying that free choice is 
free judgment in matters of will; and herein they say the truth, but 
the import of the words is far from them. What is judgment ? 
Judgment is the link between apprehension and appetite. For first 
a thing is apprehended, then when apprehended it. is judged to be good 
or bad, and finally he who has so judged it pursues or shuns it. 

With this simple capitulation of old principles Dante embarks on 
his demonstration of God's will as to the empire and the church. By 
the same principles in his great poem he judges the politicians of 
Florence, friend and foe, and assigns to them with fervent rigor their 
place in hell or purgatory, and by the same principles he judges his own 
failure to deserve the salutation of Beatrice. One who has moved in the 
true order of reason, in which judgment controls a>ppetite or instinct, 
and who yet condescends to a lower order, in which appetite or instinct 
controls judgment, has abdicated his high station, a little lower than the 
angels, and has joined the beasts. For he has surrendered his freedom, 
as the patriot surrenders liberty when his patriotism becomes only in- 
stinctive. If the judgment is moved by the appetite, which to some 
extent anticipates it, it cannot be free, for it does not move of itself, but 
is drawn captive by another. And hence it is that brutes cannot have 
free judgment, because their judgments are always anticipated by 

If we may speak of appetite and instincts interchangeably, then these 
axioms and definitions allow no room among the virtues for that kind of 
loyalty to city or state which is instinctive. The natural love for one's 
birthplace or for one's habitat is a force which judgment or reason 
should guide; it cannot be an ideal in itself. It is for this doctrine of 
freedom that Dante stands in the race memory with Pericles and the few 
other great statesmen who have seen the moral aspect of patriotism. If 

44 Twentieth Annual Session 

you protest that Dante used his axioms and definitions as a base on which 
to set up a defence of monarchy, I reply that Milton, a patriot of an 
equally reasoned morality, used much the same axioms and definition* 
to defend the idea of popular government; in either case, the political 
program they chose is far less important than the fact that the choice 
was rational. If you object again that such diversity of result is in- 
convenient or deplorable, and that a kind of patriotism which permits 
diametrically opposed conclusions cannot be sound, I must reply that 
this criticism can be brought against any system of morality which 
specifies freedom of judgment as one of its principles. The desire for 
unanimity is a deep-rooted instinct, which leads speedily to confusion 
wherever two or three are gathered together, for unless the ideal of free 
judgment tempers somewhat the demand for harmony, our instincts 
persuade us that those who disagree with us are evil. If you allow as 
much , so far as the individual is concerned, yet believe that the general 
good is best served when the citizens do not distract each other by vari- 
ous ideals, however rational, of the state they yield allegiance to, but 
simply and with single devotion love that state as it is, I reply that such 
a program of instinctive patriotism would produce harmony in the 
United States, in Great Britain and in Japan, let us say, and war among 
all three. The grace to understand and to sympathize with the stranger 
within or without our gates comes not by instinct but by the discipline 
of reason. It was a mistake for Dante to argue for unity of decision in 
the moral world; he then had to argue for one empire and only one. 
Milton, likewise, had he pressed hi3 political applications far enough, 
would perhaps have deserted the principle of moral liberty and reached 
a Puritan intolerance. Pericles in the midst of his .great vision was 
pleading for Athenian supremacy. This is to say that all three were to 
some extent caught in a natural instinct. But to all of them it would 
have seemed intelligent to use Wordsworth's image of the nobler alle- 
giance; he felt for England, he said, as the mother for her child. The 
love of the mother for her child, not the love of the child for its mother. 
If our country is only our mother, we owe it reverence and gratitude, but 
it is too late to control its career. If it is our child, however, we are 
responsible for it. 


I offer ancient examples of a constant problem. In a world shared by 
both instinct and reason, the wise man will desire both in their strength 
even though it is hard to reconcile them. The stronger the instinct, the 
harder to control it ; the instinct which begets love in us for our country 
will sooner or later, if uncontrolled, beget hate in us for other countries ; 

State Litekaky ajtd Historical Association 

yet if the instinct is not strong, what energy is there to control? In the 
United Staves we have become detached from the soil; we have d 
about from place to place, we have almost forgotten, some of us, 
the household hearth looks like; no wonder that the instinctive loyalty 
which defends particular places and neighborhoods has seemed to fail 
within us; no wonder that we have tried to fan it into new flame. I 
believe we shall succeed in rousing such fervent gratitude in the average- 
American heart for the fact that he is an American, and such unquestion- 
ing devotion to the land as it is, that unless we quickly bring our impulses 
under the control of moral judgment, we may become a menace to the 
earth. That way to madness is easier than we may think. To follow 
such a course is not only to withdraw within our appetite, as Dante would 
say, but it is also to leave the weapons of reason entirely in the hands 
of the crank, the agitator, and the radical, who whatever else may be 
their ignorance, understand the force of the old doctrine, that who most 
avail themselves of reason shall have the greatest power. The ideal st ti 
which the radical portrays seems to some of us an abomination. It has, 
however, the one great virtue of being an ideal, for which the agitator 
not infrequently goes to jail. TVe meet his ideals chiefly with our in- 
stincts. It is a natural instinct to build the jail and put him in it. But 
is there no ideal America to oppose to his, no ideal more soundly im- 
agined, which reason might successfully urge upon him? Are we less 
than he the children of Plato, dreamers of ideal states and builders of 
just republics ? If that is true, if we have surrendered to others the 
exclusive use of rational processes, then for us the monuments of liter- 
ture and history have lost their meaning; the ages have stored up wis- 
dom in vain. 

But not in vain, we believe. The country our fathers bequeathed to us 
is too precious to be interred in any of our instincts, not even in the 
noblest. Too many dreams ha^e voyaged to our shores for us to let go 
the habit of vision. And the patriotism which still dreams, has in it 
promise of the highest morality. We shall be as a guard set about the 
established city. We shall earn the right also to say with the Athenian 
envoys thousands o+* years ago, u ¥e risked all for a city that existed only 
in hope. ." 

William Richirdson Davie and Federalism 

By H. M. Wagstaff 

University of North Carolina 

Just a round century ago William Richardson Davie died upon his 
estate in South Carolina. It is fitting that the Literary and Historical 
Society of x\ r orth Carolina, the state to which he gave his greatest 
service and which has every right to claim him as her own, should at this 
time assess the value of his contribution to her life. 

Davie was born, 1756, in Egremont, Cumberlandshire, England. At 
seven years of age he was brought to South Carolina and adopted by his 
maternal uncle, William Richardson, a Presbyterian minister who owned 
an estate in the Waxhaw settlement on the Catawba. His preliminary 
education was at the hands of his uncle, then a period at Queen's Acad- 
emy, Charlotte, North Carolina. He then entered Xassau Hall, Prince- 
ton, and received his arts degree at the hands of Dr. John Witherspoon 
in 1776, having employed his preceding vacation as a volunteer in the 
American army in its unsuccessful defense of aNTew York against the 
British. vYith this youthful taste of military service, and upon the 
death of his uncle almost coincident with his graduation. Davie returned 
to South Carolina and almost immediately thereafter entered upon the 
study of law at Salisbury in JNTorth Carolina. In the following year 
he interrupted his studies to join a military force under General Allen 
Jones which was moving southward to aid in the defense of Charleston. 
In 1779 he became lieutenant of dragoons raised in the Salisbury Dis- 
trict, was attached to Pulaski's Legion, and integrated with General 
Lincoln's army of the South. In the fighting about Charleston he was 
severely wounded. During his tedious recovery he resumed his law 
studies at Salisbury and received his license in the spring of 1780. The 
rising tide of British success in the state to the south called him again 
to arms in the same year. He was now in continuous service to the 
close of the war and emerged from the conflict with a reputation for 
military skill and daring second to no partisan leader in the South. 
After peace Colonel Davie married Sarah Jones, of Halifax, eldest 
daughter of General Allen Jones, his old military commander. He 
settled in Halifax for the practice of law and swiftly made a high place 
for himself in his chosen profession. 

Davie's political activities form an intimate chapter of the state's his- 
tory for the next twenty years. His political views, however, would 


State Literary and Histobical ASSOCIATION 47 

hare scant meaning to present time unless projected upon the back" 

ground of our early republican era. The S"o I roiina of th- 
two decades after the Revolution held in solution the elements v 
though slow in precipitation, were ultimately to shape her pr< - 
character. Social democracy was more nearly a reality in North Caro- 
lina than in either her neighbor to the north or to the south. This, 
had been dictated by economic conditions less sharply marking the 
rich from the poor. State individualism, infused with the spirit of 
democracy, was the primary characteristic with which the state had 
emerged from the struggle for independence. This characteristic as 
a force now found political expression in a studied disregard of o 
tions to the Confederation government, in continued harrying of Tories, 
in new issues of paper money, in the prolongation of vicious "stay h 
and in extreme decentralization of state authority. It repre ; ented the 
tentative groping of the democratic spirit unchastened by experience. 
The theory of the Trench Revolution was already born in America be- 
fore 1780. 

It has always seemed to me that the American Revolution was pro- 
duced by two distinct sets of forces, emanating from two different group- 
of men. Of the first were the reasoned out opinion of intelligent and 
educated Americans that they were the equals of Englishmen at home, 
equal in all their rights and in all their capacities for self-government. 
They were humiliated that England sent officials to America instead of 
choosing officials in America. It was natural that these sensitive and 
high-spirited colonial-Englishmen should capitalize the blunders of 
George Ill's place-men. The other set of forces was born of the mass 
and was the product of frontier environment acting upon a naturally 
independent and individualistic race. It may be summed up as the 
spirit of democracy, a thing impatient of restraints, even of those laid 
by itself. Ultimately this spirit was to more sharply characterize Amer- 
ica in contrast to Europe than even its devotion to the theory of self- 

This influence affected the mass mind and therefore the larger group 
of Americans. Davie and most of the educated men in Xorth Caro- 
lina, as indeed in America, belonged to the first group. Inde- 
pendence beinsr won they were now more interested in an orderly re- 
construction of the political and economic edifice than in a politico- 
social rebirth of the country. This was an immediate and pressing 
need if the fruits of victory were to be enjoyed. Xot only was there 
imperative demand for practical attention to after-the-war weaknesses 

48 Twentieth Axncal Session 

of the individual state, but to the bond of union b t€ states, 

which indeed had proved barely strong enough to earry through 

their common danger. 

Hence to informed and practical men like Davie firsr attention after 
the Revolution was due to rhe wounds made by the war; then to put- 
ting the new state government in harmony with sound p< prac- 
tice — practice approved by sound political precedent; and. Thirdly, to 
strengthening the bond between the states. 

But the state had emerged from the Revolution under the control of 
the popular or democratic party, the party swayed by popular passion 
and inclined to illusTrare sharp contrasts with the past. At the same 
time this party was characterized by an intense consciousness of the 
state's individual sovereignty and an extreme disinterest in the common 
government, the Confederacy. This somewhat blatant democracy em- 
bodied in its membership most of the soldiers of the Revolution, many 
of their officers, the bulk of the state officials, and the mass of what 
Archibald Ma'claine was fond of calling "the common people." 

On the other hand the conservatives made up so small a minority 
that they may best be described as a coterie of educated men, mainly 
lawyers, who were well fitted for leadership and likely to acquire in- 
fluence and power as soon as the passions of the recent conflict began 
to cool. Among the best known names in this group were Samuel 
Johnston, Benjamin Hawkins, Richard Dobbs Spaight, James Iredell, 
Archibald ACaelaine, John Steele, and William R. Davie. Bnt in the 
years immediately succeeding independence they were able only to exer- 
cise a moderating and restraining influence in state affairs. Most of 
them found places in the legislature and there, by sheer virtue of talent, 
often turned the majority aside from ultra-radical action. Their oppor- 
tunity for control, however, was continually delayed. It promised to 
appear when, in T7S6, it was proposed to strengthen the union by amend- 
ing the articles of Confederation. This proposal found ready acceptance 
by them in that they had consistently held that the welfare of Xorth 
Carolina was indissolubly linked with her sister states. It would, if 
achieved, bring about national and international respectability, a re- 
sult that independence did not alone assure. Moreover it would doubt- 
less correct various evils from which the country at large or the states 
individually suffered. Lastly, to the conservative the movement seemed 
to promise an opportunity for public service and public honors, in state 
and nation, to those who advanced it. 

Interested alike in all these results the conservatives threw them- 
selves with zeal and skill into the work of creating sentiment for amend- 

State Literal and Historical Association 19 

ment of the articles. Davie, who had enjoyed a continue 
the lower house as borough member from Halifax, bad . 
and procured the appointment of delegates T o the Aj Horen- 

ri'Kn in 1786. In ITS 7 he was equally ins 
Philadelphia. This the majority granted, though apparenl 
erence to the invitation and the urging ot" the conservatism The pre- 
amble of the act of appointment embodied the sentiments of the con- 
servatives and bore the unmistakable stamp of Davie. 

Xevertheless three of the commission, as elected, were of the domi- 
nant democracy, Willie Jones, the unrivaled leader of his party, among 
them. Jones was a particularist of extreme type, who, long in control 
of the majority party, had confirmed it in the view that North Carolina 
was its chief and practically only concern. Though he did not oppose 
sending delegates to Philadelphia, political consistency bade him refuse 
the appointment. Richard Caswell, the governor, burdened with heavy 
responsibilities at home, also declined, and being empowered by law 
to fill the vacancies, named two friends of the movement, in which his 
own sympathies were strongly enlisted. Hence the delegation as finally 
made up consisted of one democrat, Alexander Martin, and four con- 
servatives. William R. Davie, Richard Spaight, Hugh Williamson, and 
William Blount. 

Of Davie's activity in the Philadelphia Convention we have, of course, 
no complete record, but sufficient to show that his weight was thrown 
on the side of the large state-group which proposed that representation 
in the national legislature should be on the basis of population instead 
of an equality among the states. Xevertheless he came to indorse the 
compromise of equality in the senate and proportional representation 
m the house. Further, he strongly opposed counting out the slave pop- 
ulation of the South in making up federal numbers, and finally put 
the convention on notice that the South would not federate unless at 
least three-fifths of the slaves were counted. 

Davie returned to Xorth Carolina to meet pressing engagements just 
before the convention adjourned. Nevertheless he lost no time in mar- 
shaling the sentiment of the other North Carolina conservatives for 
the new document. These now became an active working corps for its 
adoption, while the democrats looked on interested but questioning. 

Even before the convention at Philadelphia had finished its labors 
the most far-sighted of the conservatives began to plan the election of 
a state governor in harmony with their views on the matter of ratifica- 
tion. They now began to call themselves federal men, and soon there- 

50 Twentieth Annual Session 

after, Federalists. By assiduous correspondence and persoual exertions 
practical organization was effected, the old conservatives to a man rally- 
ing to the new and fortunate issue. Control of the legislature must 
be the first objective, since the legislature elected the governor, and 
would be called upon to grant a state convention to pass upon the new 
constitution. Every prominent conservative in the state became a can- 
didate for one or the other branches of the legislature. Intense interest 
was awakened as the fight became fast and furious, and much bitterness 
was engendered in many localities. The federal leaders took as their 
common theme the weakness of the old Confederation and, its corollary, 
the need of a firmer principle of union. Nevertheless it was clear, as 
the campaign developed, that they were forcing the fighting on the new 
ground as a means of gaining state supremacy, while the democrats, 
thrown upon the defensive, were struggling not so much to assure rejec- 
tion of the constitution in advance as to maintain their control. Nor, 
despite the campaign declaration of the federal men, did democratic 
victory imply that the new frame of government, when submitted, 
would not be accorded due consideration. 

The campaign was of considerable educative value and accentuated 
interest in larger affairs than the average North Carolinian had been 
wont to concern himself. Though the federalists had made a notable 
effort, and had attracted numerous recruits to their ranks, they failed 
to wrest control from the party in power. The democrats were easily 
able to organize both branches of the assembly when the body convened. 
Archibald Maclaine, beaten in New Hanover, had to solace himself 
with the reflection that 'the asembly contained some men of sense who 
would endeavor to do what was necessary.' Davie had easily secured 
his seat and appeared in the lower house as the ranking federalist 
member. Just from the scene of the constitution making at Philadel- 
phia he was prepared to exercise an even greater influence than usual 
upon the actions of the assembly. 

Now occurred in the legislature a most interesting inconsistency in 
political history. The democrats, after a most heated campaign, and 
now in full control of both branches, for the nonce held partisanship 
in abeyance, and on joint ballot chose Samuel Johnston governor de- 
spite his known opposition to the bulk of principles for which the 
majority stood. The explanation lies in Johnston's character, in Davie's 
political generalship, and in the nature of the questions which now 
confronted She state. Johnston was perhaps the best known federalist 
in North Carolina. As a most influential member in the revolutionary 
Provincial Council he was a potent force in the government of North 

State Literary a;s-d Historical Association 51 

Carolina between the abdication of Josiah Martin, th< ilgoi ernor, 

and the accession of Kichard Caswell under the state constitution. He 
served the state wisely and well during this eritical period and would 
undoubtedly have become the first governor under the constitution had 
not Caswell's military achievements suddenly brought the latter into 
■prominence as a desirable war-time executive. Though trusted by the 
whole state for his wisdom, probity, and patriotism Johnston was well 
known to be far from democratic either in personal practice or political 
theory. This explains his exclusion from political preferment since the 
.Revolution, save three years in the Congress of the Confederation. 
Equally conversant with State and confederation affairs he was regarded 
as the man of ripest mind in the State. The democracy, confronted now 
with the necessity, even against its will, of fixing attention on Confedera- 
tion affairs, began to have a sense of need of Johnston's wisdom. 

With the executive office accorded to Johnston by grace, the demo- 
cratic majority, also by grace, ordered the election of a state convention 
to consider the new plan of government which had been evolved by the 
Philadelphia Convention. The election of this convention aroused even 
greater popular interest than had that of the preceding assembly. Davie 
and James Iredell led the federalistic forces, the former clearly demon- 
strating the fact that he was the most eloquent constitutional advocate 
in the State. Together the two, at their own expense, issued a pamphlet 
in analysis of the constitution that take3 rank with the ablest of the 
"Federalist Papers'' of Madison, Jay, and Hamilton. 

The election of convention delegates resulted in the choice of the ablest 
men of both parties, this being made possible by the fact of the old 
English practice that any freeholder might be chosen by any county or 
borough town whether he was a resident of the same or of some other. 
Too, there was an appreciation of ability and character very generally 
prevalent in Xorth Carolina during the first four decades after inde- 
pendence, that made it possible and not infrequent for a constituency 
to confer public honors out of deference to those qualities, even though 
the recipient's political views may not have accorded with those of the 
electors so honoring him. 

When the balloting had closed it was soon ascertained that the federal- 
ists had secured only a respectable minority of the seats in the conven- 
tion. Xevertheless their leaders continued to hope that when the body 
met it would ratify. In this they relied upon the weight oi the ten 
states that had already ratified. This was one more than was sufficient 
to secure the new union and the abandonment, of the old Confederation. 
And among the ten was Virginia, whose influence was especially potent 

52 Twentieth Annual Session 

in the Roanoke and Albemarle regions of North Carolina, r 

at that time were the most populous, the wealthiest, and I 
most influential portion of the state. Davie wrote from ■■ ilifas in 
June: "The decision of Virginia has altered the tone of the '• i bere 
very much." But, he further states: "}fr. Jones says his object will 
now he to get the constitution rejected in order to give weight to the 
proposed amendments, and talks in high commendation of those made 
by Virginia." 

When the convention met, July 21, Jones proved to be firm in this 
purpose. He had kept his party's front quite unbroken, and so adroit 
was his one-man-leadership that he was in position to absolutely dictate 
the action of the convent ion. Nevertheless Governor Johnson, out of 
deference to his office and public character, was chosen by unanimous 
vote to preside. Davie and James Iredell bore the chief responsibility 
for advocacy of ratification. There was not a peer of either of them 
in the opposition camp. Virtual admission of this by the democrats 
was show T n in their declination to enter into debate. They were content 
to leave the issue to the test of ballots rather than arguments. Thus for 
some days the federalist leaders stood forth to analyze the constitution. 
to show the benefits to accrue from its operation, and to point out the 
ills of the old order. Sensing the chief ground of fear of the democrats 
to be an over-strong central authority Davie continually emphasized 
the point that the new constitution was, in nature, a compact between 
the states, and the government to be set up under it, their agent. Spaight 
also reiterated this view. Nor does their theory seem to have been as- 
sumed to lull the suspicions of the opposition. Both had been members 
of the Philadelphia Convention and 'presumably knew the spirit in which 
the document was drawn. 

Non-adoption, however, was predetermined. Jones finally embodied 
*his decision in a resolution which likewise asserted the necessity for a 
bill of rights and suggested the call of a second federal convention. 
To the resolution was appended a declaration of rights similar to that 
in the state constitution, together with a list of twenty-six amendments 
very similar to those suggested by Virginia. The resolution was carried 
by a vote of 184 to 84 and a motion by a federalist to substitute a rati- 
fying resolution was defeated by the same vote reversed; upon which 
the convention adjourned. New York ratified soon after, thus leaving 
only North Carolina and Rhode Island outside the federal pale. 

Public opinion now began to veer around. Even the redoubtable 
Willie Jones weakened in his stand, as appears from his disinterest 
in the succeeding assembly elections. Nor did Davie appear in the 

State Literary and Historical Association 53 

November assembly, but remained outside strii r _ r L r !ing to create - 
ro force a new convention from it. This result was achieved, but the 
democrats were able to defer its meeting until six months after the new 
federal government had been organized. 

Davie was a member of this second convention and the proponent of the 
motion which ratified the constitution, November 21, 1789, thus bringing 
to a successful conclusion the issue in which his sympathies were 30 ar- 
dently enlisted. 

By virtue of his service to the federalist cause Davie was now logically 
in line for federal honors, either at the hands of rhe people or by federal 
appointment. But in keeping with his ideas of disinterested service he 
put aside the urging of his friends to stand for a seat in congress, as 
well as the offer of a district judgeship by President Washington, and 
turned with redoubled energy to the task of stimulating Xorth Caro- 
linians to a more progressive citizenship. In this he, almost alone 
among North Carolinians of his time, sensed the fundamental need of 
the inchoate democracy rising in America. In the new Republic, the 
new state, and the new order of society which they portended, he realized 
before other men of the South that the quality of the mass intelligence 
must be raised. This only would assure a fitting use of the great oppor- 
tunities which lay ahead. 

The state legislature became his fulcrum, and during the next decade, 
and despite opposition party control, he prodded it toward the goal he 
had in mind. Thus he wrested from a reluctant legislature the creation 
of the State University. Then by personal supervision he saw to its 
erection, its opening, and guided its early years of operation. At the 
same time he was the chief patron and advocate of the few academies in 
the State. He procured the statute under which the state laws were re- 
vised and brought into intelligent co-ordination. It was through his 
activity largely that the state was brought to cede its western area to 
the federal government. He headed three successive commissions to 
settle boundary disputes with neighbor states. He sought earnestly to 
commit the state to a system of internal improvements. He found time 
from his ever-growing law practice to set an example upon his own estate 
at Halifax of the most advanced agricultural methods. 

In matters affecting the federal union during this decade Davie was 
keenly sensitive to every influence that threatened to weaken its stability. 
It was this fear for the union that led him to regard Hamilton's as- 
sumption measures as too strong for the infant resources of the republic. 
It was the same influence that caused his endorsement of Justice Ire- 
delPs state-rights view in the Chisholm-Georgia case in 1704. an opinion 

54 Twentieth Annual Session 

which the most orthodox Federalist ultimately conceded to be sound. 
This opinion was soon thereafter embodied in the eleventh amendment 
to the constitution, thus precluding the possibility of a citizen suii 
state. On the Jay Treaty Controversy in 1705 Davie was more in- 
terested in the safety of the federal principle than in the nature of the 

"The present Crisis," he writes to Justice Iredell, "appears to me to be 
the most delicate and important since the organization of the government. 
The Anti-federalists and the personal enemies of the administration have 
rallied with astonishing rapidity .... I believe they will now make 
their last effort to shake the government." 

Federalism as a set of party principles failed to develop strength in 
North Carolina during this decade, nor had Davie made this a chief 
concern in any of his tasks. The state remained under the control of 
the democracy, now beginning to call itself the Republican party and 
recognizing Jefferson as its national chief. It remained to be seen what 
would be the result, both upon state politics and upon Davie, should 
circumstances arise to threaten the principle of union to a graver degree 
than any heretofore. 

This threat came in 179S when the country was on the eve of war 
with France over the "X. Y. Z." incident and accumulated grievances. 
The Republican party, under Jefferson's inspiration, eagerly seized 
upon the Federalist measures, the Alien and Sedition Acts, as grounds 
for a strong partisan offensive against the administration of John 
Adams. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were the weapons of 
attack. To Davie they seemed utterly subversive of the principle of 
union and served as a sharp challenge to him and other Xorth Caro- 
lina Federalists to win state control. Thus they would assure its sup- 
port of the national honor in war and the integrity of the union in 
peace. To this end they were aided by the swiftly rising tide of 
national patriotism before an external danger. Davie and his lieuten- 
ants conducted an intensive campaign for mastery in the legislature. 
They secured a strong predominance in the senate and likewise a 
majority, though a small and waning one in the lower house. Davie 
was elected governor on joint ballot, 'being at the same time member of 
the lower house, though devoting most of his time to preparation of 
the state troops for war — for which purpose he had been appointed by 
President Adams a brigadier-general. He was to take his seat as govern- 
or on January 1, 1799. 

In the meantime the then Republican Governor, Samuel Ashe, sub- 
mitted the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions to the assembly in defer- 

State Literary and Historical Association 55 

ence to the requests of the governors of those states. They were tre 
with great conteiapt by the senate; but the lower house passed a r< 
to instruct the state's senators and request its representatives to move 
in congress for repeal of the Alien and Sedition Acts. This r< 
senate rejected by the decisive vote of 31 to 8. The lower house, by a 
scant majority, was convinced that repeal was the way out and in the 
bitterness aroused between the two houses over the "instruction question" 
cooperation on other questions was no longer possible. Hence when 
Davie was inaugurated he found a legislative deadlock on every Feder- 
alist measure. A bill to transfer the choice of presidential electors from 
the people to the legislature was firmly rejected by the lower house, even 
though the governor's whole strength was exerted in its support. Davie 
seems to have regarded this measure not as a party expedient in antici- 
pation of continued Federalist control of the legislature, but as a wise 
and just protection against popular passion and over-hasty judgment. 

Davie, in his official and private capacity alike, held the threat of 
disunion contained in the. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions to be a 
graver danger than the war with France and so wrote Iredell in 
June, 1799. But his party's position was based on the war scare, and 
when Adams suddenly veered round and appointed a second commission 
to France he sealed the doom of Federalism in Xorth Carolina as well 
as in the nation. The President tendered Davie an appointment on 
the Commission after a declination by Patrick Henry, but in his accept- 
ance Davie suffered no illusions as to its wisdom or its chances for 
success. Just before sailing he wrote Iredell, "The appointment of 
Envoy is highly honorable to me and, under any other circumstances 
would have been certainly agreeable; hut the unknown and ever- 
varying situation of the Government to which we are accredited, its 
strange, unparalleled character and unsettled policy, furnish no data 
upon which we can calculate the issue of our mission, and must cast the 
reputation of those concerned in it entirely upon chance." The mis- 
sion, together with the First Consul's temporary change of French policy 
toward America, averted war, but at the price of disruption of the 
Federalist party. 

In Xorth Carolina it removed Davie from the governorship at the 
most critical moment in Federalist fortunes. "We was now by far the 
most influential Federalist in the state and had he remained at his post 
would doubtless have been retained for the constitutional three con- 
secutive terms. But upon his acceptance of the French missioik his 
followers fell into panic and the Republicans of the lower house were 
able on joint ballot to force the election of a Republican successor. 

56 Twentieth Axistjal Session 

Davie returned in January, 1801, to find his 
and nation and a contested election between Jefferson and Burr in the 
House of Representatives. To John Steele be wrote, February 2, 1801: 

"The Federalists (i. e. in North Carolina) own the destruction of the 
constitution as an event almost certain under the administration of Mr. 
Jefferson; and as to the administration of Mr. Burr, although it may be 
energetic, no man knows what course it may take. I have been visited by 
a great number of the most influential and enlightened friends of govern- 
ment in this part of the country since my return and they all express 
insuperable repugnance to the election of Burr, urging his want of char- 
acter, etc." 

When the contest had been decided in Jefferson's favor and the 
Republican administration launched, Davie took the lead in North Caro- 
lina in an effort to rehabilitate his party's fortunes. Under his guid- 
ance a newspaper, the "Minerva" was set up at Raleigh to serve as the 
party organ. Its end was to be 

"the noble object of suppressing falsehood and disseminating truth, of 
subverting the wild and visionary projects and opinions of Democracy and 
advocating in their place sound, substantial, and practical principles of 

In 1803, at the earnest solicitation of his party men, he reluctantly 
stood for the seat of his district in congress. Finding many of the mod- 
erate Republicans in his support, and fearing misundertanding on their 
part, Davie issued a circular that they might know what to expect of 
him. It ran: 

"I desire that it may be clearly understood that I never have and that I 
never will surrender my principles to the opinions of any man, or description 
of men, either in or out of power; and that I wish no man to vote for me 
who is unwilling to leave me free to pursue the good of my country accord- 
ing to the best of my judgment, without respect either to party men or 
party views." 

This theory of public service is, of course, in contravention to that 
which has been accepted as the basis of representative government in 
America. But I venture to suggest that it is not yet proven that better 
results might not be achieved if Davie's principle was practice. Never- 
theless it defeated Davie, and he was content that it should be so, unless 
his countrymen could rise to its acceptance. 

The chief reason for Davie's fear of misunderstanding was that he 
had been made the object of the astute Jefferson's wooing through the 
federal patronage. As early as 1801 he had been tendered a commission- 

State Literary and Historical Association - 

ership to treat with the southwestern Indian*, which he cL lv 

11802 he had accepted a commission to treai with mnant of 

Tuscaroras in Xorth Carolina; but this was - . '■• r 'n a 
national. He never for a moment regarded himself as committed to an ? 

support of the Republican party, but remained its harsh critic. Ve] - 
mently he condemned the repeal of "Mid-night Judiciary Act," and ex- 
pressed the view that soon there would be no other than the Lilliputian 
ties of the public debt to hold the states together. 

In 1805 he retired to a valuable estate he owned In South Carolina, 
but kept up a continuous correspondence with his old Federalist friend- 
in Xorth Carolina. Xever softening toward Jefferson, he neverthel<-- 
had hopes of Madison, due likely to the position in which Madison had 
stood at the formation of the Union. In 1810, while the country was 
still smarting under the effects of the embargo policy inherited from 
Jefferson's term, he wrote: 

"I sincerely believe he (President Madison) is a man of great virtue. 
We all know he has sense and the experience of many years in public life. 
and they note say he has more promptitude and decision than any man who 
ever filled the presidential chair. May God grant that this may be true! 
Our affairs may yet do well." 

Nevertheless when Madison's administration in 1812 drifted into war 
with England and the discontent of the Xew England states had cul- 
minated in the Hartford Convention, Davie wrote : 

"The movement in the New England states and the monstrous strides 
toward despotism made by the party in power have so stunned and astounded 
me that I know not what to say or write. It really appears to me that the 
present confederacy will not last two years more and that Mr. Madison will 
finish his career amidst the ruins of his country." 

The federalism of William Richardson Davie was summed up in a 
passionate regard for the unity and welfare of America. 

An Eighteenth Century Circuit Rider 

By Feaxk Nash 

Assistant Attorney General of North Carolina 

He was not one of those who at that period were bearing the evangel 
of mercy out into the bye-ways of life as well as into its highways, to 
the pioneer on the frontiers as well as to the villager in his store or 
workshop. Instead, he was a minister of justice and a sturdy but dis- 
criminating apostle of nationalism. He was born at Lewes, Sussex 
County, England, October 5th, 1751, came to Edenton in the Province 
of Xorth Carolina in 176S, was a practicing attorney when he was nine- 
teen years of age, married when he was twenty-two, a state judge when 
he was twenty-six, a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 
before he was thirty-nine, and died when he was a few days over forty- 

Today Judge James Iredell is everywhere recognized as one of our 
great statesmen-jurists. President Washington had no personal ac- 
quaintance with him. but had read his reply to George Mason and his 
speeches in the Hillsboro Convention of 17SS, and was much impressed 
by the weight and force of his argument in favor of the ratification of 
the new constitution. When then there was a vacancy on the new 
Supreme Court bench, caused by the declination of Mr. E. H. Harrison 
of Maryland, the President sent Iredell's name to the Senate on Feb- 
ruary 10, 1790 and it was immediately and unanimously confirmed. 
He had no previous knowledge of the president's intention, indeed had 
been considering applying for appointment as district judge of Xorth 

The United States Supreme Court as then organized, consisted of six 
justices, a chief justice, and five associates. It was to convene twice a 
year at the seat of government to hear appeals from the circuit courts. 
The circuit courts were composed of three judges, any two of whom were 
to constitute a quorum; — a district judge, one of whom was appointed 
for each state, and two supreme court justices. There were three cir- 
cuits constituted : Eastern — Xew Hampshire, Massachusetts. Connecti- 
cut and Xew York, with Phode Island and Vermont to be added later; 
Middle — Xew Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia ; 
Southern — South Carolina, and Georgia, with Xorth Carolina to be 
added. The act required two justices of the Supreme Court to hold 
circuit courts in conjunction wnh the local district judge in each one 

State Literary and Historical Associathw 59 

of these circuits twice a year. Any two of these, however, would 

stitute a quorum for holding the court. The salary fixed by flu a< 
justices of the Supreme Court was $3,500 per year, with no allow 
for expenses. 

In this paper I am to try to depict some of the experiences of 
great judge as he travelled about the country in performance of ci 
court duties. In order that I may present to you some idea of his 
weightier duties understandingly, it is necessary that I should state in 
a general way the political situation in the country at that time. ] 
Federal constitution had not been adopted without vigorous, a 
savage, opposition by a large minority of the more prominent public 
men. To use a term coined recently in the political life of this cou 
there were many bitter-enders among these opponents. Indeed it may 
well be doubted whether or not the constitution would have been adopted 
at all if it had been submitted to a popular vote. This condition ap- 
pealed very strongly to the statesman in Judge Iredell, so to him 
constitution must be popularized not only by a wise administration of 
the laws enacted by congress in pursuance thereof, but also by a constant 
reiteration in his charges of its fundamental principles. The French 
Revolution had already broken out, and was to run its bloody course 
while he was on the bench. The country even at that period was 
with sympathizers with that revolution and a little later with propa- 
gandists of its peculiar tenets. President Washington's policy was one 
of strict neutrality. It became his duty then to enforce the laws of 
congress which were enacted to secure this neutrality. Congress also 
found it necessary to impose an excise tax on whiskey. This resulted 
in a furor of excitement in some sections of the country, culminating in 
the Whiskey Insurrection of Western Pennsylvania. Iredell presided 
over the trial of some of the insurgents. With the country in such a 
state, the duties of the circuit judges at that period were not only 
arduous in themselves, but also unpopular in some communities. Judge 
Iredell was peculiarly fitted for these duties at such a time. He had 
the manners and graces of the gentleman in the truest sense of the 
term. He was singularly kind-hearted and thoughtful of the feelings 
and interests of others. In social life he attracted both men and women 
and enjoyed life and association with his fellows. As a judge, he very 
soon extorted the admiration of the lawyers who practised before him, 
and made friends for himself and his cause wherever he held courts. 

To Judge Rutledge of South Carolina and him was assigned the duty 
of holding the spring courts, 1790, of the Southern Circuit. He seems 
in traveling long distances of his first circuit to have availed himself 


CO Twentieth Axnuat. Session 

of stage-coaches, entering South Carolina in a stage which ran from V - 
etteville to some point in that state. He is firs*: hoard from at Cam 
being then on his way to Columbia at whicli the court was to sit. He 
had company all the way from Fayetteville to ten miles of Camden. He 
found his journey a thousand times more agreeable than he had ex- 
pected. Of Camden he says. "This really is a very pretty town — a fine, 
high, healthy situation — and many very handsome houses in it." From 
Fayetteville to Camden he was astonished at the immense quantity 
of barren land. He arrived in Columbia on May 11th, spent about a 
week there, and went on to Charleston where he arrived on May 22nd. 
Judge Rutledge met him at Columbia, sat with him in the court, but I 
have no information as to the character of the business done. At Colum- 
bia he met most of the principal characters of the country who all be- 
haved to him with extreme kindness. He went from Columbia direct to 
Charleston in Judge Rutledge's coach and accompanied, by him, and 
was taken as a guest to his house in Charleston. In this delightful home 
he spent only a few days. 

"They have a remarkably fine family of eight children; the eldest married 
to a Mr. Kinlock, a very agTeeable young gentleman of large fortune, whom 
I saw at Columbia. Next is a son, who I believe is a very promising one in- 
deed, who has been travelling in Europe for near three years and whom his 
father and mother expect to meet this summer at New York. A younger 
daughter is with her sister Mrs. Kinlock. The other five are sons now at 

home receiving education under an excellent private tutor This 

city far exceeds my expectations. To-day I had the pleasure of attending 
a very handsome church, hearing as good a sermon as ever Crutchley 
preached, and I believe as well delivered; and also a very fine organ which 
was extremely agreeable." 

In Charleston it is probable that nothing more was done than to 
organize the court, for on May 28th in company with Judge Rutledge 
he arrived at Savannah. He was very much impressed with the beauty 
and fineness of the road from Charleston to a plantation of Judge Rut- 
ledge's about twenty-five miles from the latter place. The latter part 
of the journey was made in a canoe paddled by four of Judge Rut- 
ledge's hands. He returned probably by the same route to Xorth 
Carolina expecting that by that time Xorth Carolina would have been 
included in the Southern Circuit by congress. On his appointment as 
judge he had removed his family from Edenton, Xorth Carolina, to 
63 Wall Street, Xew York City, where he arrived the latter part of 
July. He sums up his experiences on his first circuit thus : 

"Had the weather not been so hot, my circuit would have been quite a 
jaunt of pleasure, for I have been everywhere received by everybody with the 

State Literary and Historical Associate 61 

utmost kindness and distinction, and by many of the first families in S 
Carolina with a degree of unaffected politeness which was gratifying Indi 

The August term of the Supreme Court convened in Xew York, 
having no business after Judge Iredell's commission was read, ad- 
journed sine die. On July 10th congress passed an act fixing the 
of goverment at a point on the Potomac where the city of Washingon is 

now located. The government itself was not to remove to the new city 
until December 1800. Meantime its seat was to be fixed at Phila- 

The Southern Circuit was assigned to Judges Rutledge and Iredell 
for the fall of 1790. The latter commenced his journey south in Sep- 
tember, in the public stage, breakfasting at Elizabeth Town, dii 
at Brunswick, "a pretty little town," and arrived at Princeton some I 
before dark, fifty-one miles the day's journey. He described Pri 
ton as a very pretty place, though in a high situation, level. At Eliza- 
beth Town, they picked up Gen. Thomas Mifflin, who had been one of 
the Conway Cabal, which sought the removal of Gen. Washington 
during the Revolutionary War. He was then President of the Executive 
Council of Pennsylvania. Judge Iredell found him a very agreeable 
travelling companion. The next day they arrived at Philadelphia 
about 2 P. M. 

"I have since dined with President Mifflin, our most agreeable fellow 
traveller, whose wine was so good and importunity so pressing that I could 
do nothing more since dinner but engage places in the Baltimore stage for 
Friday." [He left Philadelphia on Friday, September 17 and arrived at Balti- 
more, about 4 P. M. of Saturday, the ISth.] "I had taken my passage, without 
knowing there were two stages, in one by mistake [He does not attribute 
this mistake to the excellence of Gen. Mifflin's wine] by the eastern branch 
of the Chesapeake, so that we had to cross a ferry of 15 miles, but the wind 
was favorable, and upon the whole my time passed pleasantly. My company 
consisted of a Mr. Sharpe, a wine merchant of Philadelphia, a cheerful, 
clever man, with a modest, engaging young lady of Baltimore, who had been 
at a boarding school at Philadelphia, and a very decent seafaring man. 
Baltimore is a prettier place and more regularly built than I had expected 
to find it. There is a beautiful view from some parts of the town, but the 
finest country I have yet seen is Pennsylvania." 

He attended church services in Baltimore that Sunday and heard 
a good organ, but a bad preacher. We know nothing further of his trip, 
until he arrived at Fayetteville, X. C, October 7th. His own horses and 
vehicle had probably met him at Suffolk, Virginia, and he made the rest 
of his journey, certainly through Xorth Carolina, with them. He 
spent a whole day in Fayetteville to rest himself and to have his horses 

62 Twentieth Anneal Session 

shod. He kept the court open at Augusta, Georgia, for five d 
awaiting the arrival of either Judge Rutledge or Judge Pendleton (the 

district Judge) to make a quorum to transact business. Judge Rut- 
ledge arrived on the 20th, but as they were both back in Charleston on 
the 23rd, it is supposed that there was little business transacted in Au- 
gusta. During his stay at Charleston, he was dined and wined daily, 
attended a ball, danced with the beautiful Mrs. Kinlock, oldest daugh- 
ter of Judge Rutledge, and was not in bed until 2 A. M. 

When the seat of government was removed from Xew York to Phil- 
adelphia, Judge Iredell found it advisable to remove his family also 
to that city. 

Chief Justice Jay contended that the act of Congress which re- 
quired the Supreme Court Justices to attend the circuit courts, was 
unconstitutional. Carson in his history of the Supreme Court, says 
that John Marshall concurred in this opinion of Jay's and did what 
he could reasonably to prevent the decision in Stuart vs. Laird 
Cranch 703, which held that the opposite construction had been so 
long acquiesced in that it had. become a rule of law. 

At the August Term 1791 of the Court, a difference arose among 
the judges as to their circuits. The Act of Congress did not specifically 
fix the method, but seemed to leave it to the judges themselves. Car- 
son thus states the result : 

"Contrary to the expectation and wishes of the southern members of th 
Court, it was determined that the judges should be divided into pairs. 
and each pair be confined permanently to one circuit. Iredell, it seems, 
was taken by surprise, and Blair voted under a misconception. The burden 
of 'leading the life of a Postboy,' in a circuit of vast extent, under great 
difficulties of travel and peril of life in the sickly seasons, fell heavily upon 
Iredell, who applied to Congress for relief, but it was not until the Act of 
April 13th, 1792, providing that the judges should ride by turns the circuit 
most distant from the seat of government, that the difficulty was adjusted." 

The Southern Circuit could be faithfully attended only by riding 
1S00 or 1900 miles, in perils of waters, and in weariness and pain- 
fulness. Judge Blair, however, as a matter of kindness to Judge Iredell 
rode the Southern Circuit in Spring of 1791, while Iredell with Judge 
Wilson rode the Middle Circuit. His correspondence covering this 
period seems to have been lost. While at Annapolis in riding the Mid- 
dle Circuit, May 1791, he dined with Charles Carroll of Carrolton, 
whom he calls "the great Carroll." On his way to the Southern Cir- 
cuit in the fall of that year, he stopped at a house in Virginia, and 
was put near a room where some young fellows were drinking, gaming, 

State Literary" and Historical Association 53 

and swearing all night. When he arrived at Salisbury in this state, 
he was forced to sleep in a room with five others, and in a bed with 
a fellow of the wrong sort. On his return trip, on his way from Wil- 
mington to New Bern, his portmanteau was stolen from behind his 
carriage, and was found soon after on the road, rifled of much fine 
raiment. He rode the Southern Circuit again in the Spring of 1792. 
He went by sea to Charleston having in company Senator Butler 
of South Carolina and that gentleman's daughters. At Charleston 
he again experienced the delightful hospitality of its best citizens. 
On April Sth he writes his wife from that place: 

"I have bought a pair of horses, and, agreeable to your wishes, not 
showy, — for they are confoundedly ugly. The price is $172.00. I may per- 
haps sell them for plow horses in North Carolina." 

While in Charleston, too, he heard an excellent sermon from a Tory 
parson, who had been banished, and was preaching t his first sermon 
since his return. He seems to have left Charleston for Savannah on 
Thursday, April 23, driving his new horses, attached to a chair, a 
two wheeled vehicle with shafts for a single horse, corresponding to 
our gig. 

"Having understood that the horse in the chair was very gentle, and the 
road being a remarkably fine one, I was going on at my ease, when part 
of the rein getting under his tail, he ran away, the chair struck against a 
tree and overset, throwing me out, and one of the wheels went over my leg. 
I was able to proceed however (as the chair was not broken) about ten 
miles, but then was so much in pain, I was under the necessity of staying 
very inconveniently at a house on the road." 

He met at Judge Bee's a very respectable, agreeable old gentleman, 
and, through his means, he stopped at genteel houses the rest of the 
way, where he lived elegantly and was treated with as much kindness 
as he could have experienced at Charleston. This old gentleman's 
name was Brailsford, and he may have been a suitor in the circuit court 
at a previous term. If so, he was a party to the first cause of note 
argued in the Supreme Court — 1. U. S. (Curtis) page Jf. Judge Ire- 
dell delivered his charge to the grand jury at Savannah on Alonday, 
April 26, and this so pleased that body that they requested him to 
have it published. In that charge he states in a general but clear way 
his own conception of the dual form of government arising from the 
adoption of the Constitution: 

"The happiness of our country certainly depends, not only on the preser- 
vation of our State governments in their due sphere of authority, but in the 

64 Twentieth Annual Session 

firm union of the whole for the great purposes of the common welfare of 
the whole, which f.vt?.} experience has long since told us cannot be secured 
without an energetic government to effect it." 

He found a great deal of important business. He seems though 
to have disposed of it in a week, for he set out for Augusta on Sunday 
May 2nd, with the marshal of the district, and arrived there Tues- 
day evening. He spent a week there, resting himself and horses very 
pleasantly at the house of the marshal. He found the town one of 
the most beautiful in America, and the weather cool enough for 
blankets at night. He left Augusta on the 11th of May and arrived at 
Columbia very early the morning of the 14th. At that place he 
finished the whole business of the court in one day. He says: 

"I, everywhere, meet with great distinction and kindness, and have great 
reason to rejoice that I came southward: for otherwise the judiciary of the 
United States would have been greatly disgraced." 

He, in company with Judge Wilson, rode the Eastern Circuit in the 
fall of 1792. They left Xe^v York by stage, between three and four 
o'clock Friday morning September 21st, and had not ridden many miles 
before it was discovered that the trunks of both of the judges had been 
lost off the stage. The uniuck of commencing their journey on Friday 
did not pursue them far, for on going back for them, the trunks were 
recovered after two hours delay, an honest boy having picked them up 
and put them in a place of safety. They arrived at Xew Haven Sat- 
urday night. For the sin of travelling on Sunday they tried to atone 
by stopping along the road to attend a service. It proved to be a 
penance really, for the preacher was dull and the congregation 
not genteel. He was very much impressed with the beauty of the 
country. The roads, though, in many places were execrable; the worst 
Ttlaryland roads a bowling green to them. There was much business 
at Hartford, where they arrived Sunday afternoon. Judge Iredell did 
not find Hartford so delightful as Xew Haven and other towns in Con- 
necticut through which he had passed. 

On March 23, 1792, Congress had passed an Act providing for the 
settlement of claims of widows and orphans of soldiers of the Revolu- 
tion and to regulate the claims of invalid pensioners, and had imposed 
upon the circuit court certain duties in relation thereto, and subjected 
the action of the courts to the supervision of the Secretary of TVar, 
and finally to the revision of Congress. Some of the judges refused 
outright to obey Congress while others temporized by acting as com- 
missioners out of co^irt in carrying out the purposes of the Act. Of 

State Literary and Historical Association 65 

this number was Judge Iredell who at Hartford did all of this work, 
m positively declining to take any part in it. In less than 
a year Congress, recognizing the strength of the position a-sumed by 
the judges, imposed the duries upon an administrative body. On Octo- 
ber 4th he wrote his wife: 

"The Invalid business has scarcely allowed one moment's time, and now I 
am engaged in it by candlelight, though to go at three in the morning. I 
was at a ball the night before last, and staid until one. I danced a little, 
but it was not a remarkably agreeable one." 

He arrived at Boston Saturday afternoon, October 6. Judge Wilson 
had returned to Xew York, so he was to hold the court there with the 
aid of Judge Lowell, the district judge. He was delighted with Boston, 
and was met most cordially and hospitably by its principal citizens, 
though there was a scourge of small-pox there and the town was still 
much afflicted. The Court was opened October 12, Judge Lowell, dis- 
trict judge, assisting. Judge Iredell's charge to the grand jury "united 
elegance with extensive knowledge and liberality," so was published 
in the Columbian Sentinel. There was much fatiguing work. One 
cause alone occupied almost the whole of the time for a week, and 
court did not adjourn until Saturday night. He was much impressed 
by the character and acquirements of the men whom he met, and at- 
tributed this largely to the public school system. 

"I am satisfied that so much regularity and decency do not exist in any 
other country in the world, as in Connecticut and Massacnusetts: and I 
suppose it is much the same in New Hampshire." 

Judge Wilson joined him on the 20th, and they went together to Exe- 
ter, X. H. There seems to have been little business in Xew Hampshire. 
The only interesting incident of their trip was their visit to Theo- 
philus Parsons, subsequently a great Chief Justice of ^Massachusetts. 
Judge Iredell thought him the greatest lawyer he had met in America, 
and a very agreeable man. On his return to Boston he had the pleasure 
of dining with the Revolutionary patriots Samuel Adams and John 
Hancock, the latter then Governor of the state. At Providence, R. I. 
they found much business to do, but its character does not appear. 

At the February term 1793, of the Supreme Court, the cause of 
Chisholm vs. Georgia came on for argument. In this case Judge Ire- 
dell delivered the great dissenting opinion, which gave rise to the 11th 
Amendment. This, however, is beyond the scope of this article. He, 
with Chief Justice Jay, rode the Middle Circuit in the Spring of 1793. 


QQ Twentieth Annual Session 

Judge Wilson, however, sat with him at the April Term of the Circuit 
Court at Philadelphia, where Kavara, consul of Genoa, waa tried for 
sending threatening letters r<» Mr. Haywood, the British Minister. 
The defendant pleaded to the jurisdiction of the court that the Consti- 
tution gave exclusive original jurisdiction to the Supreme Court in 
cases concerning consuls of a foreign power, but the majority of I I 
court, Wilson and Peters, Iredell dissenting, overruled this plea, hold- 
ing that the term of the Constitution, "original jurisdiction" did not 
prevent congress from conferring concurrent jurisdiction on the Circuit 
Courts. The defendant was Tried a year later in the same court, con- 
victed, and subsequently pardoned by the President, on condition that 
he surrendered his commission and exequatur. On May 5th Judge 
Iredell was in Baltimore after passing most execrable roads. There he 
met the Attorney General of the state, whom he rather curiously calls 
the famous anti-Federalist, Luther Martin. He was then, however, 
in the process of changing his point of view, and did so change it 
afterwards, as to be called by Jefferson, the Federalist bull dog. He 
did not find Baltimore as attractive as either Boston or- Charleston. 
He met Genet, the French minister there. He describes him as a 
very handsome man, with a fine open countenance, and pleasing, un- 
affected manners. As is well known he is the man who attempted to 
go over the heads of the administration in an appeal to the people of 
the country. On May 17, Judge Jay having arrived, they set out 
for Annapolis, where Judge Iredell delivered the charge to the 
grand jury. This charge, as with all he delivered, contained a full 
and complete explication of the dual relations of state and Federal 
governments. The first of the month they were in Richmond where 
the gTeat case of Ware vs. Hilton was argued before them, the counsel 
for the plaintiff being Wickham, PLonald, Baker and Starke, while 
those for the defendant were Henry, Marshall, Innis and Campbell. 
Judge Iredell said of Henry: 

"The great Patrick Henry is to speak today (May 27th). I never was 
more agreeably disappointed than in my acquaintance with him. I have 
been much in his company, and his manners are very pleasing, and his mind, 
I am persuaded, highly liberal." 

Henry, commencing Monday, spoke for three consecutive days. On 
June 7th judgment was rendered for the defendant on his second 
plea, by Iredell and Gtfimn. Jay, C. J., dissenting. It being an action 
by a British creditor against an American debtor, on a bond executed 
before the war, the defendant pleaded that he had paid the full amount 
into the public treasury of the state of Virginia, under an Act of 

State Literary .lvd Historical Association 67 

the Legislature which authorized it. Iredell in an elaborate opinio:, 
b Ld ... . iiig been done before the Treaty of Peace, was a complete 
defence to the action. The Supreme Court rev .is. in Ware 

vs. Hilton 1 U. S. (Curtis) 16k, Iredell adhering to his original 
opinion by filing that in the report of the case, p. 201. In this he said: 

"The cause has been spoken to at the bar with a degree of ability equal 
to any occasion. However painfully I may at any time reflect on the in- 
adequacy of my own talents, I shall, as long a\s I live, rsmember with 
pleasure and respect the arguments which I have heard on this case. They 
have discovered an ingenuity, a depth of investigation and a power of 
reasoning fully equal to anything I have ever witnessed, and some of them 
have been adorned with a splendor of eloquence surpassing v.hat I have 
ever felt before. Fatigue has given way under its influence, and the heart 
has been warmed, while the understanding has been instructed." 

There was another epidemic of yellow fever in Philadelphia the 
summer of 1793, and Iredell, preferring to endure the ills of malaria 
to those of small-pox in the winter and yellow fever in the summer in 
that city, he determined to remove his family to their old home in 
Edenton. This he did in the winter of 1793. 

He rode the Southern Circuit in the Spring of 179i. His charge 
to the Grand jury at Wake Court House, June 2, is largely rilled with 
a discussion of the legal aspect of French interference with the internal 
affairs of the United States. He refused to ride the same circuit in the 
Fall of that year, and probably did no circuit duty. 

He rode the Eastern Circuit in the Spring of 1795, opening the 
court in Xew York on Monday, April Gth. There was little business 
and it was disposed of in two days. In Philadelphia he hired a young 
mulatto named David. "I am to find him in everything and pay him 
four dollars per month.'' He remained in Xew York two weeks 
after court adjourned, receiving very great civilities. He was in 
Xew Haven in time to open court on April 25th. He left that place 
on May 6th and arrived at Springfield, Massachusetts, seventy miles 
off on the morning of the 7th after travelling through a delightful 
country, passing several pretty towns, and enjoying most charming 

"I was" [said he] "certainly intended for a Xew England man. I admire 
the people and the country, as much as many of our Southern people affect to 
despise them." 

"I found Mrs. Hancock just, going to comfort herself for a slavish confine- 
ment for many years to a goutified. ill-tempered husband, by marrying a 
Captain Scott, an old captain in her former husband's employ."* 

68 Twentieth Annual Session 

As Vermont had been added to the Eastern Circuit, he went 115 
miles irom Springfield to Windsor, through a country which he found 
delightfully romantic. He was there for about a week, being shown 
many civilities by a small but genteel society. He was forced to re- 
turn to Boston to get to Portsmouth, X. H., where his next court was 
to be held, there being no stage across the mountains above. While 
en route and in Vermont, he had presented to him a little boy, three 
years old named James Iredell, for himself. Xo doubt the little fel- 
low's father had been indiscreet during the Revolution while in X. C. 
and Judge Iredell had protected him. Again in Boston, he experienced 
the delightful hospitality of the charming society there. 

He seems not to have ridden any circuit in the Fall of 1795, but 
in Xovember went to Richmond in the place of one of the other judges 
and held the court there. He found a great deal of business there. 

"The town was so full that for three or four nights I was obliged to 
lodge in a room where there were three other beds." 

In the Spring of 1796 he rode the Middle Circuit, commencing at 
Philadelphia, April 11th; but nothing of interest occurred. He was 
not on duty the fall of that year, but rode the Middle Circuit again 
in the spring of 1797. He began his courts at Trenton March 29th, 
where he continued for a week. One case took up much of the time 
of the court. He says of this case: 

"I have but this minute come out of court, having sat there without 
moving for upwards of eleven hours." 

He returned to Philadelphia April 5th and had a tedious waiting for 
the court to convene. He began hearing cases April 14, and contin- 
ued for a week, going from there to Annapolis, Baltimore, and Rich- 
mond. His charge at Richmond, though unexceptional on its face, 
provoked a reply from Mr. Cabell, a member of Congress, in which he 
assailed the character and motives of Judge Iredell. In a calm and 
temperate explanation, the judge showed that Mr. Cabell was not in his 
mind at the time the charge was prepared, concluding thus: 

"I defy him or any man to show that in the exercise of my judicial 
character, I have been ever influenced in the slightest decree by any man, 
either in or out of office, and I assure him I shall be as little influenced 
by this new mode of attack by a member of congress, as I can be by any 

For. taking any notice of Cabell's attack, his brother-in-law. Gov. 
Johnston, afterwards administered a mild rebuke to him. He seems 

State Literary and Historical Association' 69 

not to have been on circuit duty the fall of 1797. In the Spring of 
1798 he rode the Southern Circuit. He set out from his home in 
EJenton, with his own chair and horses, accompanied by a negro man. 
He, after manv trying adventures in flooded swamps, particularly 
Conetoe swamp in Edgecombe, found it impossible to cross Tar river 
at Tarboro, or to proceed in any other direction, so returned to Wil- 

Iliamston. The floods receding in a few days, he continued his journey. 
He writes on May 1st : 
"I was overtaken at the house where I staid last night by an itinerann 
Methodist preacher, who appears to be a very worthy good man, but ex- 
tremely weak. He, and hundreds more, are employed by the Society, to 
go constantly about preaching; they receive their traveling expenses and 
$64.00 a year to find them in every thing." 

There was little business in Charleston. Court was in session only 
one week, but he experienced again the delightful hospitality of its prin- 
cipal citizens. He commenced his return home, the Savannah court 
having been abandoned on account of his delay by floods, on May 14th, 
and, loitering on the way, at the country homes of friends, had not 
reached Camden four days later. 

Judge Iredell held the courts of the Middle Circuit, commencing 
at Philadelphia, April 11th. At this term the first trial of Fries oc- 
curred. The trial began on April 29, and lasted through all its 
length, 15 days, (3rd Dallas 515). The hearing of evidence and argu- 
ments of counsel occupied nine days. Judge Iredell wrote that there 
was an immense number of witnesses, and long arguments, and the 
Court sat ten hours a day. 

"The jury went out at eight o'clock, and at their request we adjourned 
until ten. Though we were punctual to a moment, the court was so full 
we could hardly get to our seats. The Jury soon afterwards were announced. 
and after the clerk put the usual question, the foreman, after a most 
solemn pause, and in a very affecting tone of voice pronounced him guilty, 
which evidently had a sensible effect upon every person present." 

The Court, however, set aside the verdict and granted a new trial, 
because one of the jurors, a man named Rhodes, had previous to his 
selection as juror expressed an opinion that the insurgents, and Fries 
particularly, were guilty of treason and should be hung. After the 
prolonged and arduous session at Philadelphia, he found at Richmond, 
June 4th, an immensity of business. Concluding the business of this 
court, he had only a few weeks at home when he commenced his return 
to be with the Supreme Court at Augusta session of that year. At 

70 Twentieth Annual Session 

Richmond, July 31st, he was taken sick and was compelled to return 
home. He saw no more judicial sendee of any kind, but died at hid 
home in Edenton, October 30, 1709. Xo doubt the arduous labors 
of the Circuits which he had been attending so faithfully, contri- 
buted to his early death. Says Mr. Carson: 

"Such was James Iredell of North Carolina, the study of whose works 
cannot fail to awaken admiration of his qualities as a judge, and his virtues 
as a man." 

This mere glance at the labors of the judicial circuit rider of the 
eighteenth century gives us some conception of their arduous character. 
The mere fact of riding great distances over the roads of the period 
and in the stage coaches of the period, exposed to all varieties of cli- 
mate and weather, must have tried the constitution of the strongest 
man. Judge Iredell in his whole judicial career never shirked a duty. 
Instead, he sat in court hearing cases, where it was necessary, eleven 
hours at a stretch without taking nourishment or relaxation. Though 
he was a man of independent judgment, and so, quite frequently dis- 
sented from the views of his brothers on the bench, he was universally 
respected for his ability as a judge and his character as a man. To 
one, however, so even tempered, so kind-hearted, in short, so full of the 
charity which suffereth long and is kind, there were many compensa- 
tions for his wearisome and sometimes dangerous journeys and his ardu- 
ous labor. In Philadelphia he was the welcome guest of President Wash- 
ington and his wife and later of President John Adams and the British 
minister. In Xew England he met and became the friend of Samuel 
Adams, John Hancock and Theophilus Parsons. In Virginia he came 
in pleasant association with Henry and Marshall and Wickham. In 
South Carolina he was received with kindness by Rutledge, Pinckney 
and Pickens. In his numerous stage coach journeys he met the casual 
passengers on the footing of a common manhood, whether they were 
senators, or judges, or statesmen, or wine merchants, or school girls, or 
seafaring men, or Methodist missionaries who were riding a greater cir- 
cuit than his at the annual compensation of $64. And then, too, the 
warm-hearted hospitality with which he was met everywhere, the din- 
ners given in his honor by cultivated men and women, the balls he 
attended and the beautiful young women with whom he danced. On 
one occassion he gives up a dance with one of these charming part- 
ners to write his letter to his wife, who through both the labors and 
the pleasures of his circuits, seemed to be ever present in his mind and 
heart. He, too, takes all these labors and pleasures in a manly whole- 

State Literary and Historical Association 71 

souled way. He never complains of hardships of the way, not i 
when he barelj fining in the flooded i >wamp of 

Edgecombe Comity, or when the gentle South Carolina horse dece 
him and threw him out of his chair, or when in Salisbury he was com- 
pelled to sleep with five other men in the same room, one in bed with 
him and not an attractive bed fellow, or in Richmond where he was 
compelled for three days to occupy a bed room with three other men 
entire strangers to him. Xowhere in his correspondence do we per- 
ceive any of the acid which so often appears in the correspondence of 
his distinguished and wise but self-sufficient and opinionated brother- 
in-law, Samuel Johnston. He was, indeed, a good man. The whole 
world now recognizes him as a great man. Only the other day; August 
25, 1920, the president of the American Bar Association, in his an- 
nual address said that his Richard Dobbs Spaight letter, written in 
1787, stated with the utmost precision and strength the subsequently 
familiar doctrine of Marbvry vs. Madison. As both good man and great 
man he belongs to Xorth Carolina, is part of its history, and his fame is 
our heritage to be cherished and protected. 


North Carolina Bibliography 1919-1920 

Br Mary B. Palmes 

Secretary North Carolina Library Commission. 

This Bibliography covers the period from November 20, 1919 to 
November 30, 1920. 

The term Bibliography is here used to include the works of all native 
North Carolinians, regardless of present residence, and the work3 of 
writers who although not born in North Carolina, have lived here 
long enough to become identified with the state. Pamphlets and period- 
ical articles are not included. 


Abbreviations and Symbols : c, copyright ; il., illustrated ; p., pages ; 
v., volume. The capital letters, D. O. Q. S. T., refer to the size of 
the books. 

Bassett, John Spencer. Our war with Germany; a history. 0.336p. 
il. Knopf, 1919. $4.00. 

Brooks, Eugene Clyde. Education for democracy; ed. by Lyman P. 
Powell. (Patriotism through literature.) D.263p. Rand, 1919. 

Connor, Henry Groves. John Archibald Campbell, associate justice 
of the United States Supreme Court, 1853-1861. O.310p. Hough- 
ton, 1920. $2.25. 

Dixon, Thomas. Man of the people; a drama of Abraham Lincoln. 
D.155p. Appleton, 1920. $1.75. 

Dodd, William Edward. The cotton kingdom; a chronicle of the 
Old South. 0.161p. Yale Univ. press, 1919. (The chronicles 
of America series.) Subs, per series of 50 v., $175.00 

Dodd, William Edward. Woodrow Wilson and his work. 0.369p. 
maps. Doubleday, 1920. $3.00. 

Douglas, John Jordan. The bells ; il. by Lieut. John B. Mallard. 
D.lOlp. Presbyterian Standard Pub. Co., Charlotte, 1919. 

Dowd, Jerome. Democracy in America. 500p. Harlow Publishing 
Co., Oklahoma City. 

State Literary and Historical Association 73 

Dozier, Howard Douglas. A history of the Atlantic Coast Line 
.Railroad. 0.197p. Houghton, 1920. $2.00. (Hart, SchaiTner & 
Marx prize essays in economics.) 

Ezekiel, Herbert Tobias and Lichtenstein, Gaston, comps. World 
war section of The history of the Jews of Richmond. 0.381-443p. 
il. Richmond, Ezekiel, 1920. $2.00. 
Ezekiel is not a ]S"orth Carolinian but Lichtenstein is. 

French, Alfred Llewelyn. A farmer's musings. D.102p. il. Ed- 
wards and Broughton, Raleigh, 1920. 

Henderson, Archibald. The conquest of the old Southwest : the 
romantic story of the early pioneers into Virginia, the Carolinas, 
Tennessee and Kentucky, 1740-1790. D.395p. il. Century, 1920. 

Johnson, Clarence Walton. The history of the 321st Infantry with a 
brief historical sketch of the 81st Division. O. il. R. L. Bryan Co., 
Columbia, S. C, 1919. 

Ktrkland, Winifred aIargaretta. The view vertical and other essays. 
D.270p. Houghton, 1920. $2.00. 

Lichtenstein, Gaston. See Ezekiel, H. T. 

Pearson, Thomas Gilbert; Brimley, Clement Samuel; Brimley, 
Herbert Hutchinson. Birds of jS'orth Carolina (Reports, v. 4). 
Q.380p. il. Xorth Carolina Gedlogical and economic survey, 
Chapel Hill, 1919. $3.50. 

Pell, Edward Leigh. Bringing up John. D.192p. Revell, 1920. 

Pell, Edward Leigh. How can I lead my pupils to Christ? Revell, 
1919. $1.00. 

Pell, Edward Leigh. Our troublesome religious questions. Revell. 

Smith, Charles Alphonso. Poe (How to know authors). 346p. 
Bobbs, 1920. $2.00. 

Smith, Charles Alphonso and McMurry, aTrs. Lida Brown. Smith- 
McMurry language series. 3 bks. D.20S ;256;270p. bk. 1, 64c; 
bk. 2, 68c; bk. 3, 70c. 79. Johnson, B. F. 

74 Twentieth Axnhal Session 

Sprunt, James. Derelicts: an account of ships lost at sea in general 
commercial traffic and a brief history of blockade runners stranded 
along the North Carolina coa&t, 1861-1865. O.304p. pri. ptd. A. 
Sprunt and Son, Wilmington, X. C, 1019. 

Sullivan, Willard P. and Tucker, Harry. The history of the 105th 
Regiment of engineers of the Old Hickory (30th) Division. Q. 
il. 466p. maps. Doran, 1919. 

Tucker, Harry. See Sullivan, Willard P. 

Turner, J. Kelly and Bridgers, Jno. L. History of Edgecombe Coun- 
ty. 0.4S6p. Edwards and Broughton, Raleigh, 1920. $5.00. 

Winston, George Tayloe. A builder of the Xew South being the 
story of the life work of Daniel Augustus Tompkins. O.403p. 
Doubleday, 1920. $3.00. 


The most important, addition to JSTorth Carolina continuations was 
the Southern Review, published at Asheville. The first number was 
issued in January, 1920. 

7-5 r/L- 



Minutes of the Twenty-first Annual Session of the State 

Literary and Historical Association of 

North Carolina 

THURSDAY EYEXIXG, December 1st. 

The twenty-first annual session of the Literary and Historical As- 
sociation of Xorth Carolina was opened at 8 P. M., Thursday, Decem- 
ber 1st, 1921, in the auditorium of the Woman's Club, Raleigh, N. C, 
with President D. H. Hill in the chair. An invocation was pronounced 
by Dr. Burton Alva Konkle of the Pennsylvania Historical Society. 
President Hill read the president's address. His subject was "The Con- 
federate Ordnance Department." 

Mr. Homer L. Ferguson, President of the Xewport Xews Ship- 
building and Dry Dock Company, who was to speak on "Shipbuilding 
During the World War," was prevented from coming on account of 
a business emergency. Dr. Benjamin Sledd, of Wake Forest College. 
kindly consented to supply the deficiency in the program. He spoke 
on "Xorth Carolina Poets." At the conclusion of Dr. Sledd's address 
there was an informal reception in the Club building for the members 
of the Association and the members of the Xorth Carolina Folk Lore 
Society, and their guests. 

FRIDAY MORXING, December 2nd. 

The meeting was called to order in the Hall of the House of Re- 
presentatives, by President Hill. The following program of exercises 
was transacted in the order named : 

Paper — "North Carolina Bibliography, 1920-1921/' by Miss Mary B. Palmer, 
Secretary of the North Carolina Library Commission. 

Paper — "The Historian and the Daily Press," by Gerald W. Johnson, Asso- 
ciate Editor of the Greensboro Daily News. 

Paper — "An Old Time North Carolina Election," by Miss Louise Irby. Pro- 
fessor of History, North Carolina College for Women. 

Reading — Original poem. "Raleigh and Roanoke" by Reverend John Jordan 
Douglass, Pastor First Presbyterian Church. TYadesboro. 

Paper — "The Bread and Butter Element in North Carolina History." by D. D. 
Carroll, Dean of the School of Commerce, University of North Carolina. 

At the conclusion of the exercises the president recognized Miss Lula 
Briggs, who introduced 'Sirs. D. H. Blair of Greensboro, Historian 

78 Twenty-first Annual Session 

General of the D. A. R. Mrs. Blair presented in the name of the 
D. A. R. to the Association, two volumes of Xorth Carolina War Ser- 
vice Records 1914-1019. 

The president appointed the following committees with instructions 
to report at the evening session : 

Resolutions: T. M. Piitma'n, F. B. McDowell, and Bennehan 

Xominations : W. C. Jackson, R. D. W. Connor, and D. T. Smith- 

The president read the following communication : 

The Managers of the Duo-Centennial of the formation of Bertie County, 
October 2, 1722, invite the State Literary and Historical Association to hold 
its next annual meeting in Windsor, N. C, during the week including 
October 2, 1922. 

Francis D. Winston, Chairman. 

This matter was referred, under the by-laws, to the incoming ex- 
ecutive committee. ( 

The president recognized Mrs. H. A. London, who presented to the 
Association a copy of the Bail Bond of Jefferson Davis. 

The matters of increasing the dues, honorary membership, and sus- 
taining members were referred to the incoming executive committee. 

FRIDAY AFTERXOOX, December 2nd. 

There was a conference of history teachers in the rooms of the Xorth 
Carolina Historical Commission. The conference was called to order 
at 3:30 P.M., December 2nd, by Dean vY. C. Jackson, of the North 
Carolina College for Women. The following were present : R. D. \Y. 
Connor, E. C. Brooks, E. G. Adams, TV. E. Stone, \Y. A. Graham, 
John Jordan Douglass, Miss L. Becker, Miss Louise Irby, T. M. Pitt- 
man, Bennehan Cameron, T. P. Harrison, Mrs. E. L. "Whitehead, Miss 
Mary Price, and R. B. House. 

There was a general discussion of materials of Xorth Carolina history, 
the use of these materials, the need of a' published source book of Xorth 
Carolina history. The discussion was concluded by a motion from 
Mr. Pittman that D. H. Hill. E. C. Brooks, and Miss Mary B. Palmer 
be appointed a committee to look into the practicability of publishing 
a source book of Xorth Carolina history. The motion was carried. 

It was recorded as the sense of the meeting that similar conferences 
should be held each year in connection with the annual sessions of the 
Lirerarv and Historical Association. 


State Literary and Historical Association 19 

FRIDAY EVEXIXG, December 2nd. 

The meeting cvas called to order at 8:30 in the auditorium of Me - - 
dith College, by the president who introduced Dr. Samuel MeChord 
Crothers, of Cambridge, Mass, Dr. Crothera addressed the -As 
on "Literacy Fashions and Literary Values." At the conclusion of 

this address the committee on nominations presented the following 
report, which was unanimously adopted : 

Officers of the State Literary and Historical Association 

The Committee report as follows: 

President— -Dr. W. K. Boyd, Professor of History, Trinity College, 

1st Vice-President — Capt. S. A. Ashe, Historian, Clerk of the Federal 
Court, Raleigh. 

2nd Vice-President — Mrs. D. H. Blair, Retiring Historian, D. A. R., 

3rd Vice-President — Rev. John Jordan Douglass, Poet, Presbyterian 
Minister, VTadesboro. 

Secretary-Treasurer — R. B. House, Archivist, Raleigh. 

(Signed) D. T. Smith wick. 

For the Committee. 

The Committee on Resolutions offered the following resolutions which 
were adopted : 

Whereas there is now a memorial before Congress for the marking of the 
scene in Alamance County, of the destruction of the Tory force organized at 
Hillsboro under Colonel John Pyle — an engagement that exerted a very 
marked influence on the campaign then in progress, 

Resolved, therefore, that the State Literary and Historical Association of 
North Carolina respectfully ask our Senators and Representatives in Con- 
gress to favor and to further this patriotic step in any way within their 

Resolved, that the best interests of society require that our youth shall 
be correctly informed concerning the history of our country. To that end we 
recommend that those in authority place such histories in our schools as shall 
be free from sectionalism and just to every part of our country. 

Thomas M. PrrrMAN, 
F. B. McDowell, 
Benkehah Cameron. 



Confederate Ordnance Department 

By D. H. Hjll 

President of the State Literary and Historical Association 

It has often been asserted that the Southern people are lacking in 
inventive genius and organizing skill. If there were no other facts — 
and there are many — to disprove this assertion, the record of the Ord- 
nance Department of tie Confederate States goes far to remove such 
an impression. 

The South in its zeal to contend for what it considered as constitu- 
tional rights went to war, as President Davis bluntly says ''without 
counting the cost." Its five million white people arrayed themselves 
against the twenty million of the Xorth. Its agricultural population 
pitted itself against a diversified manufacturing people with access at 
home and abroad to every sort of raw and manufactured material. Its 
laborers skilled mainly in farming had to vie with artisans who had 
served their apprenticeship in almost every modern trade. Its wealth, 
resting largely on cotton and tobacco, the value of which dwindled as 
soon as the northern navy cut these products off from markets, was at 
that period vastly inferior to that of the Xorth. 

In addition to these insuperable disadvantages, its newly set up and 
experimental government had to contend against an established govern- 
ment with every department already functioning with a skill born of 
experience, with a far-reaching credit, with custom duties bringing in 
large revenues, with consular agents to collect information about com- 
modities and to mould sentiment in every considerable foreign port, 
with an excellent navy to protect its mercantile vessels and blockade 
Confederate harbors, and with a regular army large enough to set a 
high standard of efficiency for its volunteers. 

Truly it took sublime confidence in its cause, stout hearts, and a 
willingness to suffer, for the South to appeal to arms under these 
circumstances, circumstances not unknown to thoughtful Southerners. 

The first opportunity — and perhaps the most favorable opportunity, 
for Confederate success came just after the paralyzing Southern victory 
at First Manassas. Could the Confederate army shortly after that 
battle have pressed into the Xorth before the Democrats, Bell, and 

State Literary and Historical Association 81 

Everett men ban become wedded tr < the Union cause, before th 
men of the North had ceased to fret over the loss of Southern trade, 
before mammoth mercantile and mechanic, corporations had taken up 
war fabrication, before the Union navy had been increased by purchases 
and conversions, before the enormous masses of raw troops that 
pouring into Washington to take the places of the three months volun- 
teers had been moulded into a grand army by the organizing genius 
of McClella'n, then most likely another signal victory on its own soil 
would have induced the Xorth to follow Greeley's advice and let the 
erring sisters "depart in peace." 

Hopes, in many ways the ablest Xorthern writer on the war, thus 
presents his views on this opportunity: 

"It is altogether probable that the Confederate army was at that time 
decidedly the superior of its antagonist in many important respects. It had 
the prestige of victory. It had the self-confidence and audacity which the 
unfortunate panic which overtook their foes after the battle of Manassas 
was over, could hardly fail to produce in the minds of the victors. It 
trusted its generals fully, — it believed in them enthusiastically. It was the 
only army in the country on either side that had won a considerable battle. 
It was the envy and pride of the Confederate soldier, .... and while 
we do not for a moment suppose that Johnston's army was equal to either 
of the Confederate armies of Antietam or Gettysburg in point of efficiency, 
yet it would have considerable advantages over any troops which McClellan 
could have opposed to it as early as October, 1S61. They must have been 
for the most part raw and undisciplined, unacquainted with their brigade 
and divisional commanders, and necessarily affected unfavorably to a greater 
or less extent by the fact of Bull Run having been a bad defeat for the 
Union forces. We may fairly say, therefore, that an invasion of the North 
undertaken, in October, 1861, held out a very fair promise of a successful 
result for the Confederate arms." 

Was the South unaware of this opportunity? !Not at all. Its three 
ranking officers at Manassas — Johnston, Beauregard, and G. "W. Smith, 
— in a conference that they sought with Mr. Davis urged this very 
step. The Confederate President makes it plain that he too was un- 
willing to wage the war "on a purely defensive system/'' but he could 
not furnish the 20,000 or 30,000 additional troops stated by the three 
generals to be necessary for such an invasion. Hence the opportunity 
so rich in promise was lost. 

This decision then raises another question. Was the South so little 
in earnest that, after setting up a government of its own, it was un- 
willing to furnish soldiers to fight for that government ? Xot so by any 
means. It may surprise you to know that at that very time the Con- 


82 Twenty-first Ann cat. Session 

federate ^^ovor^rv of W^** was declining to accept thousands of volun- 
teers. You may feel inclined, on hearing this, to ask "Was he a traitor 
or an ignoramus V 1 Neither. On August 31, 1861, Mr. Walker, the 
first Secretary of War, makes plain the reasons for this amazing fact. 
He says : 

"We have thousands of good and true men prepared for the field in camps 
of instruction, yet they are icithout arms. We could bring into the field and 
maintain there with ease 500,000 men were arms and munitions sufficiently 

In December, IS 61 Judah P. Benjamin, who succeeded Walker, writes 
to Mr. Davis as follows : 

"On (my) first entering on the duties of the Department (in September 
1861) the tenders of troops were very large, and it was not at all unusual 
for me to refuse offers of 5,000 men per day." 

Thus it appears that an inability to arm its eager volunteers precluded 
the South from seizing its first clearly discerned opportunity of achiev- 
ing its goal. It was to supply these arms, of course, that the Ordnance 
Department about which I am to speak to you, was created. 

In spite of the oft-repeated and hard-to-die misrepresentation that 
Secretary Floyd of Buchanan's cabinet, in anticipation of war, stocked 
the armories of the Southern states with small arms, the South's pro- 
portion of national arms was small. The official report of the Chief 
of Ordnance of the United States discloses the fact that in January, 
1860, there were in government armories 610,262 small-arms of diverse 
patterns and varying degrees of inefficiency. Of these 410,671 were 
distributed in the Forth, 163,806 in the South, and 33,734 in the 
divided state of Missouri. These 163,806 muskets, mostly smooth-bores 
that had been only in part altered from flint and steel to percussion 
locks, were with the exception of a few state-owned, antiquated guns, 
the only small arms available for battle. So severe were the straits 
for arms that several of the states bought fowling-pieces and sporting 
rifles for their infantry and made spears for their cavalry. 

In artillery there was the same destitution. So far as can be made 
out from the incomplete reports, there were in 1861 only 716 heavy grins 
to defend 3000 miles of sea-coast and to protect the banks of almost 
a countless number of navigable rivers. Moreover, 192 of these guns 
were in two forts and most of them were of obsolete types. Some of 
them were decrepit survivors of the War of 1812. A disgusted officer 
described one of th^m as "venerable and picturesque in appearance." 

State Literary and Historical Association 83 

The caliber of Lee's guns was so diverse that the Ordnance Department 
was driven almost to desperation to supply so many types of ammunition. 
For the third arm, cavalry, which was the natural service for South- 
erners inasmuch as they were bred to the saddle, there were not only 
no arms, but saddles, bridles, blankets, and even horse-shoes were almost 
unobtainable. The brilliant service of Stuart's small band of troopers at 
First Manassas is indicative of what might have been achieved if the 
hundreds of cavalry regiments that were offered could have joined their 
dash to the infantry. 

As scant as were arms, the supply of ammunition and soldierly 
equipage was even more disturbing. At the opening of hostilities there 
were, outside of the amount seized at Norfolk, only 60,000 pounds of 
powder in the Confederacy. Of lead there was none. The stock of 
percussion caps did not exceed a quarter of a million. Secretary Wal- 
ker's answer to pointed interrogations of the Confederate Congress 
startled desperately the complacent propounders, for it disclosed that 
before the captures at Manassas the remaining war resources of the 
Confederacy on August 12, 1861, were 3,500 flintlock rifles, 200,000 
pounds of powder, 240 tons of saltpeter, 300 tons of sulphur, and one 
contract for lead. The desperate condition may be summed as follows : 
The Government possessed none of the implements of war; second, it 
had no machinery for making these implements; third, it had no raw 
material to feed machines for making the implements. The situation 
was more graphically described than I can do it in conventional terms 
by one of the officers when he said, "We are in a h — of a fix." 

I wish time permitted a full description of the men who managed to 
supply, out of nothing but indomitable wills, the material for carrying 
on a four year war. Josiah Gorgas, a graduate of West Point, then 
just resigned from the Ordnance Department of the United States 
Army, was placed at the head of this apparently forlorn hope. Gorgas 
was a student of science and of men. He possessed an original and 
constructive mind, and deserved General Joseph E. Johnston's tribute: 
"Gorgas created the Ordnance Department out of nothing." In passing 
it is illustrative of American life to note that the name and fame of 
this officer in the Confederate Army has been perpetuated into our 
generation by the name and fame of an equally brilliant son in the 
United States army, Surgeon-General W. C. Gorgas, whose success in 
the control of yellow fever and in making our Canal Zone habitable 
has elicited the admiration of the world. 

Gorgas gathered around him a notable group of officers. These in- 
cluded such gifted minds as those of I. M. St. John, Chief of the Bureau 

84 Twenty-first Annual Session 

of Mines and Niter; Dr, John W. Mallet, Superintendent of Labora- 
tories, and afterwards widely known as a versatile and learned chemist 
in the Universities of Texas and Virginia; Colonel George W. Rains, in 
charge of powder manufacture and powder plants, a brother of General 
Gabriel J. Rains, the inventor of the torpedo, both brothers being 
natives of this state and graduates of West Point; Colonel Richard 
Morton, and others. John Mercer Brooke, the Chief Ordnance officer 
of the Navy, the designer of the Merriinac, and the inventor of the 
famous Brooke gun, worked in conjunction with this group. 

There was dire need of such men, and it is impossible to understand 
the heroism of the Confederate struggle unless we comprehend the pa- 
tience, the foresight, the ingenuity, the scientific attainments of these 
resolute men behind the guns. Gorgas thus describes the task assigned 
him in April, 1S61: 

"Within the limits of the Confederate States there were no arsenals at 
which any of the material of war was constructed. Xo arsenal except that 
at Fayetteville, North Carolina, had a single machine above a foot-lathe. 
Such arsenals as there were had been used only as depots. All the work of 
preparation of material had been carried on at the North; not an arm. not 
a gun, not a gun-carriage, and except during the Mexican War, scarcely a 
round of ammunition had for fifty years been prepared in the Confederate 
States. There were consequently no workmen, or very few of them, skilled 
in these arts. No powder, save perhaps for blasting, had been made in the 
South; there was no saltpetre in store at any Southern point; it was stored 
wholly at the North. There was no lead nor any mines of it except on the 
Northern limits of the Confederacy in Virginia and the situation of that 
made its product precarious. Only one cannon foundry existed — at Rich- 
mond. Copper, so necessary for field artillery and for percussion caps, was 
just being produced in East Tennessee. There was no rolling mill for bar 
iron south of Richmond; and but few blast furnaces and these small, and 
with trifling exceptions in the border states of Virginia and Tennessee." 

The first necessity after arms was, of course, powder. The three 
ingredients — charcoal, sulphur, saltpeter or niter — as well as the mills 
for working them up had to be provided. The charcoal was readily 
obtained from ordinary pits. An adequate supply of sulphur for early 
operations was secured from the sugar refiners of the far South, and 
subsequently some was extracted from iron pyrites. The scarcity of 
saltpeter or niter was a most serious difficulty, Niter-bearing caves 
were sought in all the region traversed by the Appalachian mountains. 
Private production was stimulated by generous contracts and by offers 
of governmental aid in financing new plants. A refinery for the crude 
material was established at Nashville, Tennessee. As the war advanced, 

State Literary a>'d Historical Association- S."» 

it became evident that, owing to difficulties arising from conscription, 
inadequate transportation, and lack of technical skill, the Government 

would have to undertake the production nor only of ordnance but of 
ordnance material, even to the mining of ores. 

"In addition, [says Secretary Benjaminl to the articles usually manu- 
factured in a military laboratory, it has become necessary to manufacture 
for the use of the war laboratories, articles usually found in the shops. Sul- 
phuric acid, nitric acid, different metallic salts, and a variety of chemicals 
can be obtained for the use of the laboratories only by our manufacturing 

Accordingly a Bureau of Xiter and Mining, with Colonel I. M. St. 
John as chief, was established. This industrious officer divided the 
niter-bearing areas into districts with an officer in charge of each 
district. When the Bureau was formed on April 11, 1862, the total 
production of niter in the Confederacy did not reach 500 pounds a day. 
Within three months after its establishment, the Bureau had sixteen 
niter caves, employing 3S7 men, in operation. By July 30, it had 
collected and refined 60,338 pounds of niter, taken over and enlarged 
two lead mines, and erected an admirable smelt ing-work at Petersburg, 
Virginia. From this humble beginning the Bureau made rapid strides 
in production. The reports at the close of 1864 show a yearly produc- 
tion from government and supervised caves of 1.735,531 pounds of niter 
and an importation of 1,720,072 — a total of 3,455,603 pounds. Of this 
amount 238,907 pounds were produced in Xorth Carolina at a cost of 
$163,083.68. This supply came from scraping nitrified soil from under 
homes, tobacco-barns, smoke-houses, barns, and hen-houses. To provide 
a reserve supply thirteen nitriaries were established by St. John at 
convenient places. The beds in these require time for ripening and the 
war closed before any niter was made from them, but Colonel St. John 
states that 2,800,000 cubic feet of earth had been collected and was in 
various stages of nitrification. 

In spite of the fact that in 1S64 ten of the Virginia and all of the 
Georgia iron furnaces and the principal copper mines were captured or 
destroyed by the Federals, and that in the last quarter of 1864 there were 
no returns from Alabama, South Carolina, and Tennessee, the Bureau's 
report for the same two years as above shows that it supplied the 
munition workers with 27,189 tons of iron, 823.349 pounds of copper, 
and 4,795.331 pounds of lead, arid that the sulphuric acid chambers of 
its chemical works at Charlotte, Xorth Carolina, were turning out an 
average yield of from 4,000 to 5,000 pounds a month. 

86 Twenty-first Annual Session 

Coincident with its development of the Niter Bureau, the Ordnance 
Department pressed dgorouslj the manufacture of powder at govern- 
mental and at private mills, and the development of armories and ar- 
senals for making cannon, small arms, ammunition, and all military 
equipment. Under the superintendence of Colonel George W. Rains, fa 
most accomplished ordnance officer,) the Department built at Augusta, 
Georgia, a central powder mill that Gorgas describes as "far superior 
to any in the United States and unsurpassed by any across the ocean." 
This establishment with its twelve grinders had a daily capacity of 
5,000 pounds. The Richmond mill, starting later than the others, was 
designed to produce daily about 1,500 pounds. The mill at Selma, 
Alabama, made up 500 pounds a day. The State of Xorth Carolina 
aided TVaterhouse & Bowes to erect near Raleigh a mill with a daily 
yield of 600 pounds. The state was furnished with niter and sulphur 
by the Confederate Government and sold the entire production of powder 
to the Ordnance officers. These four mills furnished, therefore, 7,600 
pounds each day. The Confederate Navy owned an excellent mill at 
Columbia, South Carolina. There were a few private mills — one at 
Charlotte, Xorth Carolina, and for a time one at Xew Orleans, and a 
few state-aided mills. With the output from these mills supplemented 
by the cargoes which came through the blockade, there was always less 
anxiety about powder than there was about lead and copper. 

After the capture of the Ducktown copper mines and the Wytheville 
lead mines the Ordnance Department was desperately straightened to 
keep the munitions plants in copper and lead. From the beginning of 
the war the country and the battlefields had been gleaned for lead. The 
city of Charleston, by the sacrifice of its window-weights, water pipes, 
and odds and ends, contributed 200,000 pounds. Mobile, digging up the 
pipes of a discarded water system, furnished nearly the same amount. 
The State Ordnance office in Raleigh, which accepted only such as was 
offered and tried not to compete with the regular Bureau officers, bought 
27,885 thousand pounds of scrap lead in amounts varying from 5 to S0O 
pounds. The state also transferred to the Ordnance Bureau 36,017 
pounds from importations through the blockade-runner, the Advance. 

After the Confederate calamities on the Mississippi River, the three 
main sources of what Gorgas calls "this precious metal" were all in 
jeopardy: first, the supply of scrap lead was constantly diminishing; 
second, the importations through the blockade were seriously imperilled 
by the los3 of Southern ports; third, the Wytheville mines, the only 
largely productive ones, were constantly menaced by the enlarged opera- 
tions of the Federal armies. 

State Literary and Historical Association 

In his annual report for the year closing September 30, 1864, ( I g 
after calling att< ntion 10 the fact that hia reserve of 1< ad had been ex- 
hausted by the fierce fighting from Chancellorsville through Cold B 

bor, was impelled to warn the Secretary of War that he ''felt more 
uneasiness on this point than on all others." 

The Ordnance Department was always confronted, too, with a shortage 
of copper, a metal almost as necessary to munition shops as lead. The 
supply was fairly sufficient as long as the Duektown mines were held by 
the Confederates and as the ever-useful blockade runners could make 
Southern ports. Wheiij however, the Tennessee mines passed into 
Union hands and the activity of the blockade traffic was checked, the 
ordnance officers had to resort to every sort of shift to secure copper 
or find substitutes for it. As the pressure for copper became greater, 
cities gave their clocks, churches their bells, and women stripped their 
homes of brass kettles, andirons, and candle-sticks. The country was 
searched with inquisitive eyes and forceful hands for the copper worms 
of turpentine and whiskey distilleries. The turpentine distillers were 
paid for their material ; that of the whiskey-makers was confiscated as 
part of an illegal traffic. The chief of the Ordnance Bureau, in his 
December 31, 1864, report points out the scarcity of copper and steel. 
He says: 

"These articles must be obtained chiefly from abroad, and the stock on 
hand is very small. The Bureau is constantly making substitutes of iron 
in every possible way to diminish the consumption and eke out the supply/' 

Iron was never so scarce as lead and copper. Although the Southern 
people had never been widely drawn to mining, there were some well- 
equipped mines and furnaces. Fortunately, this ore smelted with wood, 
had an unusually high tensile strength. This toughness of texture 
offset in a measure the defects which arose from the inexperience of 
the early gun-makers, but until skill had been attained frequent burst- 
ings caused a ''Richmond gun" to be viewed with apprehension. As the 
manufacture of cannon and projectiles increased, it became necessary 
to stimulate iron production in Virginia, Xorth Carolina, Tennessee, 
Georgia, and Alabama. 

"To this end contracts were made with iron-masters in these states on 
liberal terms and advances of money to be refunded in products. These 
contracts were difficult to arrange, as so much had to be done for the 
contractor. He must have details from the army and the privilege of trans- 
porting provisions and other supplies over the railroads. Then, too, the 
question of the currency was always recurring." 


Munition plants as well as all private industries had to rely largely on 
detailed soldi ps n'pts for all skilled or even trainable 

workmen. Most of the men above conscript age, even if they could 
have acquired skill at their ages, were required on the farms. Negroes 
could be relied on for the rough work, and disabled soldiers and women 
for the clerical duties, but the army had to furnish the competent 
artisans. These men were, of course, subject to instant recall. When- 
ever a Federal raid or a general advance into the neighborhood of a 
mine or furnace impended, or whenever the Confederate armies were 
gathering for serious fray, all the detailed men and conscripts in reach 
would have to drop spades and hammers and take up muskets. Pro- 
duction, of course, declined in proportion to the duration of their 
withdrawal. As the Confederate armies dwindled from wounds and 
deaths, the demand for soldiers stripped the shops and arsenals of most 
of their vigorous workmen. During the last twelve months of the 
contest practically, only superintendents, foremen, and a few indis- 
pensable mechanics in each plant were left to stagger forward with the 
burden as best they could. The managers had to employ boys under 
eighteen and such men over forty-five as could be spared from some farm. 

By overcoming innumerable difficulties the Ordnance Bureau was 
delivering some arms and munitions from eight arsenals and four 
supply depots before the close of the first trying year of the war. 
Owing to the vicissitudes of war, there were other plants added and 
some discontinued. Those west of the Mississippi were practically 
closed after the capture of Xew Orleans. The plant at Xashville was 
removed to Atlanta, and then, on Sherman's approach, to Columbus. 
The one at Mount Vernon, Alabama, was transferred to Selma. This 
arsenal was later turned over to the Confederate navy and there Com- 
mander Brooke "made many of his formidable banded and rilled guns." 
The strain-resisting castings made from the tough iron of this section 
gave to the completed batteries of field artillery from this arsenal a 
special value. The shops at the Montgomery arsenal were mainly used 
for the repair of small arms and for the manufacture of leathern 
articles. A factory for harness for arrillery horses was set up at 
Clarksville, Virginia. The arsenal at Charleston was enlarged in order 
that it might do varied repair work. The Bureau located a combination 
plant, consisting of foundry, shops, and ordnance laboratory, ar Salis- 
bury, Xorth Carolina. The private arsenal at Asheville, after being 
taken over by the Government, was moved to Columbia for greater 

State Literary and Historical Association B9 

The same vexations and expense that prevailed in preparing and 
distributing artillery t >roj ti] i^v guns of widely different calibers, 
existed in the small arm ammunition. The Confederate infantry, id 
first months of war, bore into battle as motley an aggregation of arms 
as ever distressed an ordnance train. Xot infrequently a regiment that 
had exhausted its ammunition could not borrow from a neighbo 
regiment, nor be supplied from the nearest wagons, because of a differ- 
ence in the calibration of arms. 

As early as circumstances would permit, the War Department took 
steps to obviate this harassment and at the same time to effect an im- 
provement in the quality of the ammunition, which in some of the 
arsenals had been very unsatisfactory. The first step was to appoint 
Major J. TV Mallet, an accomplished chemist, superintendent of all 
the laboratories. By a rigid system of supervision which secured more 
uniformity of processes, Mallet "produced marked improvement in the 
ammunition fabricated, in spite of deficient labor and materials." The 
second step was to begin two central plants at Macon, Georgia; one 
under Colonel Burton, to manufacture standard rifles; the other, under 
Colonel Mallet, to produce standard ammunition. The machinery for 
both the armory, which was to have a capacity of 10,000 arms a month, 
and for the arsenal, was bought in Europe and was in Nassau and Ber- 
muda when the war ended. A third step was to set up factories in 
Europe under private names and import the output. 

The first two armories to begin the making of small arms were those 
that grew out of the arsenals at Fayetteville, Xorth Carolina, and at 
Richmond. Both began operations with seized machinery. TVhen the 
United States Armory at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, was set on fire by 
the evacuating Federal troops, the gun-making machinery was saved by 
the Virginia soldiers, who entered on the heels of the retiring Unionists. 
All the machinery used for making the Mississippi rifles (caliber 54) 
was sent to Fayetteville where there was a small, but well appointed 
arsenal, with a newly-installed steam service. The other machinery was 
transferred to Richmond. 

After the installation of its rifle-making machinery, the Fayetteville 
armory's production, when running full-handed, was 10,000 rides a year; 
it rarely ran to its capacity. The Richmond arsenal and armory, work- 
ing in conjunction with the Tredegar Iron Works and with private 
contractors, grew into an establishment of very large proportions. While 
its capacity output of small-arms was reckoned at only 25,000 a year, 
it contributed a wide variety of military necessities. The small arsenal 
at Columbia, using the machinery removed from Asheville, was counted 

90 Twenty-first Annual Session 

on for 4,000 rifles each year. The armories at Tallahassee, Alabama, 
arid ai Athens, Georgia, had a productive power respectively of 6,000 

carbines and 10,000 rifles. By the close of 1864 these five armories then 
could, when provided with laborers, make up 55,000 riiies a year. 

The duties of the Ordnance Department included the importation as 
well as manufacture of war material, but time will not permit any 
discussion of the invaluable foreign blockade-running operations of the 
Department. Suffice it to say that loans, based on cotton, enabled the 
department to supply the Confederacy by September 30, 1863, 113,504 
excellent small arms. The number was subsequently increased, including 
state importations, to 185,000. This number, to which must be added 
the 63,000 produced to that date, and the 150,000 captured, brings the 
total Confederate supply of small arms to 423,000. This is the entire 
supply with which the Confederates fought for four years. To Xov. 
16, 1863, 677 pieces of field artillery, with their carriages, caissons, 
harness, etc., were bought and made. The same oiflcial report (Official 
Records IV, 2,958) shows that the following articles were either re- 
paired, purchased, or fabricated: 209,910 rounds of ammunition for 
heavy guns; 446,719 for field artillery; 37,553,654 rounds of small-arm 
ammunition; 46,972,599 musket caps; 1,457,057 pounds of powder; 
226,450 haversacks; 163,522 cartridge-boxes; 85,291 canteens, and a long 
array of other articles. 

A world of ingenuity was lavished on substitutes for unprocurable 
material as well as on labor-saving and time-saving devices. When 
copper, with which Brooke and other ordnance scientists banded their 
rifled guns, could no longer be secured, an excellent substitute was found 
in tough iron bands. When the supply of mercury failed the chemists 
found that a mixture of chlorate of potash and sulphuret of antimony 
made just as good musket-caps as fulminate of mercury. Cloth stitched 
into several folds and coated with shellac took the place of leather in 
belts, bridle-reins, saddle-skirts, haversacks, etc. Rains introduced a 
method of making powder that vastly improved that article. Captain 
R. S. Williams invented a multiple firing gun. The Department devised 
ways of using Reed's process for improving rifled shells, for developing 
a shell with polygonal cavities, for the better timing of fuses, for the 
fabrication from cotton cloth of a rain-proof material for coats, blankets, 
etc. When the linseed oil for thi3 process became scarce, a fishery for 
making the oil was established at the mouth of the Cape Fear River. 

When we recall these achievements and others that might be men- 
tioned, we feel that we can join Gorgas in his tribute to his fellow 
workers : 

State Literary and Historical Associate 91 

"We began in April, 1861, without an arsenal, laboratory or powder 
of anv capacity, and with no foundry or rolling mill except at Richr. 
and before the close of 1863, in a little over two years, we had built up, 
during all the harassment^ of war, holding our own in the field 
and successfully against a powerful and determined enemy. Cripple 
we were by a depreciated currency; throttled with a blockade that de- 
prived us of nearly all means of getting material or workmen; obliged to 
send almost every able-bodied man to the field; unable to use the slave 
labor with which we were abundantly supplied, except in the most unskilled 
departments of production; hampered by want of transportation even of the 
commonest supplies of food; with no stock on hand even of the articles such 
as steel, copper, lead, iron, leather, which we must have to build up our 
establishments; and in spite of these denciencies we persevered at home as 
determinedly as our troops did in the field against a more tangible opposi- 
tion, and in a little over two years created almost literally out of the 
ground foundries and rolling mills (at Selma, Richmond, Atlanta, and Ma- 
con), smelting works (at Petersburg), chemical works (at Charlotte;, a 
powder mill far superior to any in the United States and unsurpassed by 
any across the ocean, and a chain of arsenals, armories, and laboratories 
equal in their capacity and their improved appointments to the best of 
those in the United States, stretching link by link from Virginia to Alabama. 
Our people are justly proud of the valor and constancy of the troops who 
bore their banners bravely in front of the enemy, but they will also reflect 
that these creations of skill and labor were the monuments which re- 
presented the patience, industry, and perseverance ot devoted and patriotic 


An Ode 

[Read on Armistice Day, 1921, at the dedication of the Memorial to Wake Foreat 
students fallen in the Great War 1 ] 

America, on this proud day, 

Thy loyal children, we 

With lips and heart would pay 

Tribute of lore and homage unto thee. 

By Benjamin Sledd 

Peace, Peace ! with victory 
Of Honour and of Eight 
Over old Wrong and Tyranny 
ISTew-risen in this primal, brutal night. 

Peace, peace, with more than victory! 

For now, America, at last 

Those years of difference they are past: 

Peace between thee 

And thine own kin beyond the sea ; 

Brothers, henceforth are we 

Thrice strong with strength of unity; 

Fearless to reach a brother hand 

To raise the fallen in whatsoever land, 

To right the wrong wherever wrong may be. 

America, on this proud day, 

While many a land, at last made free 

From time-long tyranny, ( 

With lips and heart shall pay 

Tribute of homage unto thee, — 

While on the waiting ^Mother's breast 

Her Unknown Soldier Dead is laid to rest, — 

Here, where they walked in life, we come to raise 

A votive stone and speak the praise 

Of our own dead. Their all they gave 

The cause of all, when all seemed lost, to save. 

Was it too great, the price they paid? 

(1) Doctor Sledd read this poem at the conclusion of his interesting lecture on Narth 
Carolina poets. — Ed. 

State Literary and Historical Association 

What price bad been too great? — i 

Once to have freed all Europe from the weight 

Of nightmare years of armed hate; 

Forever to have laid 

The spectre of the Red Right Hand 

And Blazing Brand, 

Still overshadowing sea and land : 

To have made once more the patriot's word 

In councils of the people heard ; 

And given rhe world a peace that saith 

aSTation with nation shall keep faith. 

And he, our Chieftain and our guide, 

Lying stricken today by the Potomac side, 

His hour of triumph still denied ; 

Shall we the tardy years await 

To show all honor to the man, 

So sternly just, so singly great, 

So brave to bear the hand of Fate \ 

And shall it fail, the goodliest plan 

That patient-striving wisdom can? 

Or shall it be the dawning's tremulous ray 

Broadening at last into the perfect day 

Of peace on earth, goodwill to men? 

Peace, peace again ! 

jSTot builded for To-day upon the sand 

But reared with patience, toil and pain ; 

Broad-based, deep-founded, fitted to withstand 

To-morrow's stress and strain, 

"When blow the winds and falls the rain : 

Pea're, peace, by land and sea, 

With more than Peace to be ! 

North Carolina Bibliography, (1920-1921) 

By Mary B. Palmer 

Secretary North Carolina Library Commission 

This Bibliography covers the period from November 20, 1920 to 
November 1, 1921. 

The term Bibliography ia here used to include the works of all 
native North Carolinians, regardless of present residence, and the 
works of writers who, although not born in Xorth Carolina, have lived 
here long enough to become identified with the state. Pamphlets, con- 
tinuations, and periodical articles are not included. 


Abbreviations and Symbols : c, copyright ; il., illustrated ; p., page3 ; 
v., volume. The capital letters, D. O. Q. S. T. F., refer tc* the size of 
the books. 

Bacon, William James, ed. History of the Fifty-fifth field artillery 

brigade. 1917, 1913, 1919. F.335p. il. The author, Goodbar 

bldg., Memphis, Tenn., 1920. $6.00. 

The history of the 55th F. A. brigade proper as used in this volume 

was prepared by Walter Chandler; the 105th Ammunition train by 

W. W. Lewis; the 113th F. A. by Arthur L. Fletcher. 

Bassett, John Spencer, Short history of the United States. 1492- 
1920. 0,942p. il. Macmillan, 1921. $3.90. 

Bost, Mrs. Emma, (Ingold). Songs in many keys. O.SOp. il. The 
author, 740 10th Ave., Hickory, X. C, 1920. $1.25. 

Brooks, Eugene Clyde and Carmichael, W. L>. Xorth Carolina. 
0.32p. il. Rand, 1921. 65c. 

Gibson, Julia Amanda and Mathews, Maud Craig. Lineage and 
tradition of the family of John Springs III, ed. by and cover and 
title designed by Maude Craig Mathews. 0.41Sp. Foote and 
Davies Co., Atlanta, 1921. 

Gilbert, Chester Garfield, and Pogue. J. E. America's power 
resources; the economic significance of coal, oil and water-power. 
D.326p. il. Century, 1921. $2.50. 
Mr. Pogue is a North Carolinian. 

State Literary and Historical Association 95 

Harper, William Allen. Reconstructing the church; an examine 

of the problems of the times from the standpoint of a layman of 
the church; introd. by F. Marion Lawrence. D.lS8p. He 

1920. $1.25. 

Hulse, E. G. History of the great world war . . . illustrated with 
photographic reproductions of the men from Granville county 
who took part in this unparalleled conflict. Q.214p. il. Oxford 
Orphanage, Oxford, X. C, 1920. 

Jones, Gilmer Andrew. Jones quizzer, consisting of Xorth Carolina 
Supreme Court questions and answers from September term, 1899 
to August term, 1920. 2d ed. O.230p. The author, Franklin. 
X. C, 1921. $5.00. 

Klrkland, Winifred AIargaretta. Christmas shrine; or, the makers 
of peace. S.30p. Wonians Press, 1920. 85c. 

Koch, Frederick Henry. Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean, desigi.-r-i 
to commemorate the tercentenary of the execution of Sir Wal r er 
Raleigh, with a foreword by Edwin Greenlaw. 0.9 5p. il. Ral- 
eigh Woman's Club, Raleigh, 1$. C, 1920. $2.50. 

-Morehead, John Motley. The AEorehead family of Xorth Carolina 
and Virginia. F.147p. il. Priv. printed DeYinne Press, 1921. 

Xorth Carolina Sorosis. A pageant of the lower Cape Fear wriuen 
in collaboration by citizens of Wilmington in Xorth Carolina, 
with the supervision of Frederick Henry Koch. O.loOp. il. Wil- 
mington Printing Company, Wilmington, X. C, 1921. $2.50. 

Pell, Edward Leigh. What did Jesus really teach about prayer ? 
D.203p. il. Revell, 1921. $1.50. 

Price, Xatalie Whitted. Sketches in lyric prose and verse. O.SOp. 
bds. Seymour, 1920. $2.00. 

Saunders, William O. Concept of life and other Saunders editorials : 
being some editorials and epigrams as written from time to time 
by W. O. Saunders himself and now gathered into a book and 
printed in the shop of the Independent. 0.6Sp. The author, 
Elizabeth City, X. C, 1921. 60c. 

Scherer, James Augustin Brown. Tree of light. D.125p. il. Crowell, 

1921. $1.35. 

Smith, Charles Alphonso. O. Henry. O.40p. Martin and Hoyt 
Co., Atlanta, 1921. 40c. 

96 Twenty-First Annual Session 

Smith, Henry Louis. Your biggest job, school or business: some 
words of counsel for red-blooded young Americana who are get- 
ting tired of school. R79p. Appleton, 1020. $1.00. 

Stephenson, Gilbert T. The business relation between God and 
man a trusteeship. D.llSp. Sunday School Board. Southern 
Baptist Convention, 1021. 

Turner, Joseph Kelly and Bridgers, John Luther. History of 
Edgecombe county, Xorth Carolina. 0.4S6p. il. The author, 
Rocky Mount, X C, 1920. $5.00. 

Williams, Charles Burgess and Hill, Daniel Harvey. Corn book 
for young folk. D.250p. il. Ginn, 1920. $1.20. 


The Historian and the Daily Press 

By Gerald W. Johnson 

Associate Editor of the Greensboro Daily News 

What is a historian? Webster answers, "A writer of history; a 
chronicler; an annalist." If that definition were exhaustive, I should 
have no subject ; for rhe chronicling of events, the notation of dates and 
characters in the drama of the world, is but the routine of my own 
craft. The newspaper is the greatest of annalists, and if the historian 
were no more, then historian and daily press would be one. But if 
history is more than merely the repository of facts, even of carefully 
adjusted and correlated facts, the historian must be more than a sub- 
limated newspaper reporter. The technical definition is not exhaustive. 

Xor is the popular definition appreciably more encouraging. It varies 
with the populace, of course, but in Xorth Carolina I do not believe that 
I am satirizing it in giving it utterance as follows : a man whose mem- 

Jory is a storehouse of irrelevant information, a man who can tell you 
the date of the battle of Fontenoy, or when Richard Dobbs Spaight 
died, but whose interest in the activities of the human race includes 
none more recent than those of, say, the year 1870 ; except, perhaps, 
that the more active and inquiring minds among them may have brought 
their catalogue of exciting events down as far as Xovember 11, 1918. 
In short, the popular conception of a historian is that of a man who 
deals definitely, and exclusively, with the past. Popular definitions are 
rarely, if ever, without some foundation in fact ; I leave it to you to 
determine how much basis of fact there is in this one. 

But it is not exhaustive. If it were, I should still have njo subject, 
for the newspaper's is the most ephemeral existence imaginable. Noth- 
ing is deader than yesterday's newspaper. Nothing is more remote than 
its relation to things that pertain exclusively to the past. Its pre- 
occupation is with today; and until the historian projects himself and 
his science into today's affairs, his professional relation to the daily 
press is non-existent. 

^ot that the daily press has any objection to historical material in 
itself. The freshness of a news story, generally speaking, constitutes 
its chief newspaper value. But that is not its only value ; and when its 
other qualifications are sufficiently high, age, contrary to the general 
impression, will not bar it. It used to be said that President Roosevelt 

98 Twenty-First Annual Session 

could, and did, restate the Ten Commandments in such novel and strik- 
ing form that every newspaper in the country printed them. But that 
was Roosevelt, not the Decalogue. Mr. \V. T. Bost once wrote a story 

of a congressional convention that had occurred, not the previous day, 
but four years before; and the story was so good that the Greensboro 
Daily Xews printed it on the front page. The value of that srory lay in 
its superlatively fine reporting. A historian who can speak like Mr. 
Roosevelt, or write like Mr. Bost, could no doubt turn in an account 
of the battle of Gettysburg, and get it printed. But his relation to the 
newspapers would be that of a clever publicist, not that of a historian. 
And it is the historian and the daily press that this paper is supposed 
to discuss. 

If there is no intimate and mutually profitable relation between them, 
it must be because neither historians nor daily newspapers have reached 
the ideal toward which both should strive. That ideal, I take it, is the 
position of an expositor to the public of the truth about men and events 
which the average man is not in position to observe for himself. Time 
and space are the deterrents of humanity's acquirements of all knowl- 
edge ; it is the historian's business to reduce the handicap of time ; it is 
the newspaper's business to reduce that of space. Their common object 
is, immediately, to furnish men with accurate information in order that, 
ultimately, men may know the truth which will make them free. So, 
in the final analysis, the historian who is true to his science, and the 
newspaper that is true to its pretensions, pursue a common ideal — the 
discovery, and the transmission to others, of as much of the truth as 
it is humanly possible to apprehend. 

Therefore, no matter how far apart their starting points, since they 
work toward a single goal it is a logical necessity that their paths 
should converge. The point of contact is reached when the incident 
of the day, which it is the newspaper's business to handle, cannot be 
interpreted aright except in the light of something that has gone before, 
something that lies in the province of the historian. Then, if the people 
are to know the truth, the historian's special knowledge must buttress 
the journalist's general information. Then the profession and the 
trade supplement each other to admiration — the newspaper man has the 
fact, the historian has the knowledge to illuminate it. By their joint 
effort, and only by their joint effort, can they set it forth to the world 
in its true relations, can they make men estimate it at its true value. 

But immediately the question arises as to the necessity of the his- 
torian's dependence upon the newspapers. Granting the importance of 
the historian's special knowledge in these critical times, and granting 

State Literacy and Historical Association 99 

the imperiousness of his summons to place his knowledge at the service 
ot ins country, one may still inquire, why should he resort to the col- 
umns of the daily press? Way should he not adhere to the time-honored 
method of inclosing his information in books? 

The answer. is obvious: because it is the age of democracy, and the 
daily press alone has the ear of DEMOS. Did our national policies 
depend upon the will of a small class, a leisurely and cultured class, 
such as actually ruled the country far into the nineteenth century, it 
might be feasible to reach them with books and reach them in time. 
But the fate of the nation no longer rests in the hands of studious and 
cultured gentlemen. It is directed by the will of the multitude, swayed 
by the passions of the multitude, and may be wrecked by the mistakes 
of the multitude. Information, to be of value to the nation, must be im- 
parted to the multitude; and therefore it must come through the chan- 
nels that reach the multitude, or come not at all. The daily press 
furnishes the only reading matter of enough people to swing the balance 
in any election. Therefore it is only through the daily press that the 
historian can reach the people, and reach them promptly. 

Moreover, how many books could be produced if Xorth Carolina were 
their sole market? Yet Xorth Carolina, no less than the nation, has 
need of the services of some of you. Xorth Carolina, also, is in a 
transitional period. She is changing her status and her whole outlook 
on life swiftly, almost suddenly. Therefore she is confronted with new 
problems that yet are in some measure old; and she needs desperately a 
true historical perspective if she is to understand them; and understand 
them she must, if she is to deal with them competently, and thereby 
clear the way to the leadership that appears now to be in sight. 

Leadership is to be achieved by people who make mistakes, else none 
of us ever could qualify. But it is rarely, and with immense difficulty, 
to be achieved by people who make the same mistake twice. And how 
is the repetition of errors to be avoided by a people that is uninformed. 
or misinformed, as to the mistakes it has made in the past ? 

One of the thankless tasks that devolves upon you, as keepers of the 
records of the past, is the duty of warning the present generation lest 
it walk into ancient pitfalls. But if we must occasionally drag into the 
light of day the mistakes of our fathers, surely it is better to do it in 
the columns of a daily newspaper, that passes into oblivion with the 
rising of tomorrow's sun, than in the permanence of a book. If the 
warning i3 to serve for today, it must be spread where it will be read 
today; and if the display passes with the need of it, so much the better. 

100 Twenty-First Annual Session 

I should like much to see a series of articles by sortie historian of 
repute, analyzing the effects today of a certain characteristic that baa 

been prominent in the record of North Carolina since the history of 
state began. I refer to its astonishing self-sufficiency, as reflected in its 

political philosophy. The independence of Xorth Carolina, its - r itr 
refusal to bow the neck to any exterior power whatsoever, has brought us 
many, and enduring, glories — but it also brought us Appomatox. Who 
believes that the northern armies could have endured the series of dis- 
asters that marked the first two years of the war had they not been 
nerved to fresh efforts by the thought that they were fighting the insti- 
tution of human slavery? Our refusal to accept the moral judgment of 
the rest of the nation against that abomination was at last the cause of 
our downfall — a downfall that utter devotion and immortal valor could 
postpone, but could not avert. That valor and that devotion are worthy 
of honor and praise, and we do well to dwell upon them; but is there 
less significance in the singularly blind determination to run our own 
affairs in our own way that caused them to be spent in vain? 

That valor and devotion may be part of our heritage from our fathers, 
but that determination certainly is. Twice within recent years Xorth 
Carolina interests have upset federal legislation governing child labor, 
less because Xorth Carolinians are resolved to feed their children to 
the Moloch of industrialism than because they resent the interference 
of Congress with their business affairs. Is not this independence run to 
seed? Xorth Carolina is rapidly becoming an industrial state, but it has 
as yet no effective workmen's compensation law, because manufacturers 
dislike state interference in their business; and that in the face of the 
fact that the most enlightened industrial communities long ago agreed 
that the risks of industry ought not to be borne by labor alone. Our 
boasted independence is once more bringing us into collision with the 
moral judgment of the nation. On the question of schools, on the ques- 
tion of roads, most conspicuously on the question of taxation, the cry 
of "county self-government" is being raised. Yet in all these things 
the counties have been tried and it has been proved that they are in- 
capable of acting with wisdom and energy. "License they mean when 
they cry liberty." 

What better service could a historian render Xorth Carolina today 
than to attack and demolish this false independence, this much touted 
spirit of liberty which is really the spirit of obscurantism '. "Your 
goodness," said Emerson, "'must have some edge to it, else it is none." 
Put an edge to your history, gentlemen, an edge that will cut away the 
weeds of vanity and bombast that have overgrown our minds. Tip the 

State Literaey and Historical Association 101 

spearhead of your history with the point of a modern fact, and yon 
have a weapon that the daily press never can resist the temptation to 
wield. And what dragons of error you might be the mean- of slaying, 
what dangers you might be the means of removing from the path of 
this state, no imagination is able to guess. 

I have purposely touched upon the distasteful side of the historian's 
duty, as I see it, because that is the side ordinarily glossed over. There 
is small need to emphasize the pleasanter side of your work, for surely 
you must know that the daily press would be gratified to be allowed to 
assist you in your function as conservators of the accumulated wisdom 
of the past and custodians of the glories that our fathers won. I wish to 
assure you that we recognize also our duty to assist when it is necessary 
to exhibit the skeletons, and not the crowns. 

For we are engaged alike in the hopeless quest. You are a learned 
society, and I the representative of a guild ; but we both seek for the an- 
swer to the question Pilate asked Omniscience, and asked in vain: 
"What is truth P' We shall not find the answer in its entirety, but 
we may approach it if we seek diligently. But we must face all that 
we discover, whether it seems to us evil or good, for only as we tell her 
honestly and candidly all that we have found can we hope to help 
Xorth Carolina to climb that long ascent that it is our pride to believe 
will eventually lead her among 1 the stars. 

/O 2- 

An Old Time North Carolina Election 

By Louise Irby 

Associate Professor of History, North Carolina Colleee for Women 

"Then none was for a party; 

Then all were for the State; 
Then the great man helped the poor, 

And the poor man loved the great." 

Thus the poet makes the old Roman lament the decadence of his own 
times in contrast with "the brave days of old/' Such a lament is com- 
mon to every generation, each of which looks back to the generations 
of the past as superior to itself. It is human to magnify the faults 
of those nearest to us and to laud the virtues of those from whom we 
are separated by great stretches of time or space. Yet when we really 
find out the conditions in the past, we learn that many of those whose 
records are brightest often took part in proceedings that would be con- 
demned by our standards of today. For instance, no matter how demo- 
cratic we may proclaim our country to have been in the past, we find 
everywhere a cleavage based on wealth, family, or some other artificial 
distinction. It has been aptly said that a statesman is a dead politi- 
cian. So, too, the term "politician" with a slurring import is often used 
of one who in the future may be referred to as a great statesman. 

I am going to tell the story of an election in which some of the most 
eminent of the early statesmen of Xorth Carolina resorted to tactics 
which would arouse the moral indignation of a present-day Tammany 
politician. The story is well worth the telling for it involves not only 
some of the greatest names in the history of Xorth Carolina, but what 
is of more interest, it concerns the most important political campaign 
in the history of the American people, viz., the campaign of 17SS for the 
ratification of the Constitution of the United States. The campaign in 
Xorth Carolina aroused bitter class-feeling which put to shame the 
boasted democracy of our "Revolutionary Fathers/' The "Esquires" 
and the "Common People" lined up against each other in solid phalanxes 
which soon crystallized into real political parties. 

The Convention held in Philadelphia in ITS 7 for the purpose of pre- 
paring a new form of government for the United States, after com- 
pleting its work, adopted a resolution expressing the opinion that Con- 
gress should submit the Constitution to a convention of delegates in 
each state, chosen by the people thereof, "under the recommendation of 

State Lxtebary and Historical Association 

its Legislature." A copy of the proposed Constitution, accora] an! 
an open letter from Washington, president of the Convention, 

to the legislatures through the governors of the several states, i i - 
diately the advocates and the opponents of the new scheme of - 

ment marshalled their forces for the contest under the names of 
eralists and Anti-Federalists. Then, for the first time in our history, 
appeared the germs of our modern political parties. In the campaign 
that followed party animosity and personal bitterness raged more 
furiously than ever before or since in our history, except, perhaps, in the 
great campaign involving the issues of slavery and freedom. 

The campaign in Xorth Carolina was no exception to this general 
rule. Governor Caswell submitted the new Constitution to the Gei 
Assembly on Xovember 21, 1787. The two houses in joint session named 
the last Friday and Saturday in March, 1788 as the time for the choice 
of delegates to attend a stare convention for the purpose of deliberating 
on the Constitution. Freemen who -had paid public taxes could vote in 
the election, but only freeholders were eligible to sit in the Convention. 
Each of the fifty-eight counties was entitled 10 have five delegates, each 
of the six borough towns one, and the election was to be held under the 
same rules as regular elections for members of the General Assembly. 
The delegates elected were to assemble in Convention at Hillsborough 
July 21, 1788. The public printer was ordered to print 1500 copies 
of the Constitution to be dispersed by the members of the Assembly 
among their constituents. 

The campaign was conducted with great violence. At the sessions 
of the courts, at county militia musters, in the taverns, wherever men 
gathered, the main topics of conversation were the Constitution and its 
framers. Arguments were advanced pro and con in letters, in pam- 
phlets, in communications to the newspapers, and in public addresses. 
The progress of sentiment in other states was eagerly followed. Ad- 
vocates of the Constitution focussed attention on the beneficial results 
that would follow adoption; their opponents pointed out many defects 
in the plan drawn up at Philadelphia. In the heat of argument no 
man's character was above attack and no past political or military 
service could overcome party animosity. Thomas Person, a general of 
the Revolution and a patriot of undoubted sincerity, denounced Wash- 
ington as "a damned rascal and traitor to his country for putting his 
hand to such an infamous paper as the new Constitution." Willie Jones, 
leader of the Anti-Federalists, found it necessary to deny in the public 
press that he had "called the Members of the Grand Convention, gen- 
erally, and General Washington and Col. Davie, in particular, seoun- 

104 Twenty-First Annual Session 

drels," and asserted that he thought Washington "the first and best 
ciiaractei in the world' and Davie "a valuable member oi the c 
munity." William Hooper, one of the signers of the Declaration of 

Independence, tried in vain for a seat in the Convention. Other men 
as distinguished as he met a similar fate. Among those who were thus 
rejected was no less a leader than Richard Caswell, whose defeat in 
Dobbs county was the climax of the campaign. 

In 1788 the present counties of Lenoir, Greene and Wayne comprised 
Dobbs County with Kinston as the county seat. When the election was 
called to elect delegates to the Convention at Hillsborough, interest in 
the new form of government had reached its height. Copies of the 
Constitution had been scattered over the country printed on broadsides 
and in newspapers, so the people had had the opportunity to be well- 
informed as to the issues involved. Those who could not read or could 
not understand the provisions of the document listened eagerly to others 
discourse upon it and later passed on the arguments they had heard. 
Six states had already ratified, so there was strong probability that the 
new plan would go into effect. Most of the men of wealth, education, 
and social and political prominence in the county were for the adoption 
of the Constitution. The majority of the people, however, were loth 
to accept any change in the form of government. 

Among the Federalist candidates, first and foremost was Richard 
Caswell, who would surely reflect honor on any gathering. He was not 
only one of the leading men of the state at that time, but he is one 
of the most prominent men in the entire history of Xorth Carolina. 
Coming to Xorth Carolina from Maryland as a young man, he started 
on a career that extended over forty years of public life, during which 
time he was accorded almost every honor that the state could bestow. 
He was speaker of the Assembly, colonial treasurer, delegate to the 
Continental Congress, president of the Provincial Congress, and presi- 
dent of the Constitutional Convention of 1776 which adopted the State 
Constitution ; he took a prominent part in military affairs, serving 
against the Regulators at Alamance, against the Highlanders at Moore's 
Creek Bridge, and with Gates in his disastrous campaign against Corn- 
wallis which at Camden ended in the worst defeat ever sustained by an 
American army. Largely due to his military fame, he was chosen the 
first governor of Xorth Carolina after independence was declared, and 
was reelected six times. Such was the man who wished to serve his 
state in the Convention that was to decide the future relations of Xorth 

State Literary and Ii;<rjx.i'.\i. Association 

Carolina to the union, but who was defeated by candidates whose 
claim to fame is thai they were Caswell's opponents in the elec . 
the sketch of Caswell in the Biographical History of Xorth C . 
it is stated that it was largely through his influence that North ' 
rejected the Federal Constitution as it was first presented. This -rate- 
ment is no doubt founded on Caswell's refusal to serve in the I 
tional Convention at Philadelphia. The explanation that Caswell him- 
self made for declining to attend the Convention was that ''iron. 
bad state of health about the time appointed for the meeting i I 
Convention it was impracticable for me to attend. 1 ' His subseqi 
course toward the Constitution leaves us no room to doubt that this was 
his real reason. In the account of the election which I am going to re- 
late, I shall show not only that Caswell ran on the Federalist ticket, 
but also that his supporters were willing to use any means to have him 
seated in the Convention that was to consider the Constitution. 

TTith Caswell, there was his brother-in-law, John Herritage, on whose 
family estate the town of Kinston had been laid out. He was a man of 
influence in the county, having served as commissioner for erecting the 
county buildings, and along with Caswell was a trustee of Dobbs Acad- 
emy, and "trustee and director" of the town of Kinston. Almost 
rivaling Caswell in prominence was James Glasgow, who had served as 
Secretary of State since 1777. In the Revolutionary period he had 
served as assistant secretary of the Provincial Congress and secretary of 
the Council of Safety. Later he was on the committee to state the 
Revolutionary accounts of Xorth Carolina with the United States and 
was clerk to the claims committee. He also served the county in various 
ways. The other two Federalist candidates, Bryan Whitfield and Ben- 
jamin Sheppard, had held important positions in both the county and 
the state. Since Dobbs county was formed in 1760 Richard Caswell had 
represented it in fifteen of the twenty-four general assemblies, and dur- 
ing each of the last eight years one or more of these Federalist candi- 
dates had represented the county as senator or as commoner. It would 
have been hard, indeed, to find men of better training and experience to 
help Xorth Carolina determine her attitude toward the new Constitution. 

In spite of their varied careers in politics, however, the Federalist 
candidates in Dobbs county displayed less political sagacity than their 
more inexperienced opponents. They failed to realize the necessity of 
presenting a solid front, but allowed some of their none-too-numerous 

100 Twenty-First Anntal Session 

supporters to fritter away part of their strength by casting a few merely 
complimentary votes for men closely allied with them by family. Xo 
such over-confidence prevailed in the Anti-Federalist campaign. They 
presented only five candidates and lined up behind them in solid array. 
Whereas Richard Caswell and James Glasgow received twenty-two more 
votes than John Herritage, there was a difference of only five between 
the votes of the highest and the lowest Anti-Federalist candidates. The 
practically solid Anti-Federalist vote went for Moses Westbrook, Jacob 
Johnson, Isaac Croom, Absalom Price, and Abraham Baker. So far as 
I have been able to find in the records, these men were with no political 
experience with the one exception of Moses Westbrook, who had repre- 
sented the county one term in the House of Commons. The voters of 
Dobbs county were to choose between men who for years had held prom- 
inent positions in the state and others who, if they had ability, had not 
had the opportunity to display it. 

Benjamin Caswell, sheriff of Dobbs county, feeling the great responsi- 
bility resting upon him, took every precaution to have a fair election. 
The box used to receive the votes, being originally meant to receive the 
votes for the Senate and the House of Commons, was divided into two 
receptacles, each with a separate lid, one for receiving the votes for 
senator, the other for receiving the votes for commoners. During the 
voting for delegates to the Convention, all the ballots were put in one 
side, the other side being sealed. Ordinarily each ballot as it was 
counted was torn in two and thrown away, but to insure a fair count in 
the present election Sheriff Caswell arranged to have the ballots pre- 
served after being counted and deposited in the vacant side of the 
ballot box. Thus they would be ready for a recount in the event of a 
disputed election. 

On Saturday evening after the ballotting had closed, the poorly ven- 
tilated, dimly lighted court-room was half-filled with men anxiously 
watching the counting of the votes. As each name was called out and 
recorded, speculation as to the outcome rose to a high pitch. Desultory 
conversation ceased and those present gathered more closely around the 
group recording the votes. Frederick Baker, probably a brother of 
Candidate Baker, was holding a candle near the table eagerly watching 
the returns. To the delight of the Anti-Federalists the election was 
going in favor of their candidates, and as name after name was called 
out, there could be no doubt as to the outcome. The total number of 

State Literary and Historical ASSOCIATION 107 

ballots east was 372, each elector voting for five candidates; the co 
nig ot the first 282 showed the following results: 


Richard Caswell, 120 

James Glasgow 120 

Benjamin Sheppard, 110 

Bryan Whitfield, 106 

John Herritage, 98 


Moses Westbrook, 159 

Jacob Johnson, 158 

Isaac Croom, 157 

Absalom Price, 156 

Abraham Baker 154 

In addition to these there were a few scattering Federalist votes. 

The Federalists were deeply chagrined. Was it possible that Richard 
Caswell, ex-governor, and James Glasgow, even then the Secretary of 
State, could be defeated by such obscure and inexperienced men i The 
very thought made them blush for their county! ''Poor Dobbs, Poor 
Dobbs," they moaned as they moved here and there among the crowd, 
"Preacher Baker before Governor Caswell !" They decried the character 
and ability of their successful opponents and cursed the folly of the 
people. The Anti-Federalists, of course, did not tamely submit to these 
insults. Caswell and Glasgow, no doubt, had done good service, but 
their efforts would not be called for in this case. There would be others 
to represent Dobbs county at Hillsborough. Their air of confidence 
roiled the supporters of the losing candidates, who began to utter threats. 
Feeling rose to fever heat. But the Federalist leaders realized that the 
crisis called for something more than futile lamentations and unexecuted 
threats. Action — prompt, bold, decisive — alone could save the day, and 
action was quickly agreed upon. Loudly declaring that Xeall Hopkins. 
one of the inspectors of the election, was showing too much interest in 
the results, an angry Federalist strode up to the bench on which sat the 
ballot box, and threatened him with blows, and, as simultaneously 
another Federalist struck the candle from Frederick Baker's hand. 
Inspector Hopkins prudently hastened to seek safety through an open 
window. Instantly all the other candles were knocked over, and the 
room was left in utter darkness. 

For a moment the startled crowd was quiet. Then, suddenly, pande- 
monium broke loose. The sound of curses and blows was heard above 
the uproar. Sheriff Caswell, endeavoring to guard the ballot-box. was 


knocked almost senseless, and the box was forcibly and violently 
wrenched from him and carried away. Thereupon Benjamin Sheppard, 

one of the Federalist candidates, turning to his supporters, exclaimed, 
"Well done, Boys, now we'll have a new Election !" 

The morning after the riot, the ballot box was found near the jail, 
broken to pieces with the tickets scattered around it on the ground. 
Curiosity led many people to the place to see the remains of the evide 
that might have elected Anti-Federalists to seats in the State Con- 
vention. Robert Y\ r hite declared that he picked up "a number of 
Scrolls or Tickets which appeared to be done up in the Manner they 
Commonly are when put in the box;" and that of the sixty-three scrolls 
that he examined sixty-two had the names of Johnson, Baker, West- 
brook, Price and Croom written on them. But Charles Markland Jr., 
passing the jail, saw the remains of the box and the tickets, some of 
which were open and the others rolled up. He collected as many as he 
conveniently could and carried them to Luther Spalding's tavern, where 
he observed to Spalding that there seemed to be more tickets for the 
Federalist candidates than for the others. Spalding upon counting 
some of the votes remarked that if the election had been broken up by 
members of the Federalist party they did wrong, for it seeemd from the 
uncounted ballots that the Federalist candidates would have been elected. 

The Federalists had prevented the success of their opponents, but that 
was not sufficient, — they must have Federalist delegates to represent the 
county. Accordingly they appealed to Samuel Johnston, the Federalist 
governor, to order a new election. Johnston promptly complied with 
the request, but, doubtful of his authority in the matter, merely "recom- 
mended" to the sheriff to hold another election. The reason he gave 
in his order to the sheriff was that "it hath been made appear to me that 
the Ballots taken by you at the late General Election for Delegates to 
the State Convention, were forceably & violently seized and taken from 
you by some riotous and disorderly persons, so that you had it not in 
your power to ascertain who were the persons who had the greatest 
number of Votes, and therefore cannot make a Return of any Persons as 
duly elected to serve as delegates in the said Convention." The Governor 
also said that "a number of respectable Inhabitants of the said county 
have by Petition, represented to me. that the Inhabitants of the said 
County are desirous that I should appoint another Day for the purpose 
of electing Delegates to represent them in the said Convention. 

"I do therefore recommend to such of the Inhabitants of Dobbs 
County aforesaid, as are entitled to vote for Representatives in the 
house of Commons to meet at the Court House of the said Countv on 


State Literary and Historical Association 109 

the fourteenth & fifteenth days of July next, the there to 

five Freeholders to rej u them in the State Convention to be held a r 
the Town of Hillsborough on the third Monday in July next; arid [ do 
hereby require you to give notice to the Inhabitants to meet accordingly, 
and that you attend at the same time & place and conduct the said 
Election in the manner prescribed by the Resolve of the last Genera! 
Assembly held at Tarborough." 

The sheriff accordingly held the election as "recommended" by His 
Excellency. Xo cognizance was taken of the identity of the ''riotous 
and disorderly persons" who had broken up the former election, and how 
many of the "respectable inhabitants" really desired such a now election 
may be inferred from the number who took part in it. Whereas 072 
votes were cast in the March election, only 85 were cast in the July 
election, all the Anti-Federalists, for fear of countenancing an illegal 
procedure, remaining away from the polls. Accordingly, Federalist 
candidates were chosen without opposition and Richard Caswell, James 
Glasgow, Winston Caswell, Benjamin Sheppard, and Xathan Lassiter 
were given certificates of election. 

"When the Convention convened at Hillsborough July 21, these five 
Federalists appeared to take their seats. A strong protest against seat- 
ing them Was presented by the Anti-Federalists of Dobbs county. Upon 
the motion of William Lenoir of Wilkes County, which was seconded 
by Thomas Person of Granville, the returns for Dobbs county were read. 
Lenoir then presented a petition signed by 24S men. A number of these 
men, not being able to write, made their marks. They protested against 
the means used by 85 men of the county to send Federalist delegates to 
the Convention. In the petition they stated how the first election had 
been broken up by a riot because it was apparent that the Anti- 
Federalist candidates would be elected, and how the Federalists had in- 
duced the Governor to grant a new election. The petitioners claimed 
that the Governor had exceeded his power in calling a second election 
and asked that Johnson, Baker, Westbrook, Price and Croom be seated 
in the Convention. 

Richard Dobbs Spaight of Craven presented the deposition of Sheriff 
Benjamin Caswell, in which he stated what had taken place at the March 
election, together with a poll of the election so that the Convention 
would have the basis for judging the result. Spaight also presented the 
depositions of William Croom. Neall Hopkins, Robert White, John 
Hartsfield, Job Smith and Frederick Baker, giving the details of the 
election, the riot, and the tickets that were found the next morning. 
Stephen Cabarrus of Chowan presented the depositions of Charles Mark- 

j 10 Twenty-First Annual Session 

land, Jr., and Liuher Spalding in regard to the votes that were picked 
up me aay after rue election, upholding the contentions of the Federal- 

The petition and the various depositions were referred to the com- 
mittee of elections which was composed of eleven Federalists and six- 
teen Anti-Federalists. Among them were Samuel Spencer, David Cald- 
well, Thomas Person. William R. Davie, Isaac Gregory, James Iredell, 
Stephen Cabarrus, and Archibald Maclaine. On July 23, Gregory pre- 
sented to the Convention the report of the committee, which recom- 
mended "that the sitting members returned from the county of Dobbs 
vacate their seats, as it does not appear that a majority of the county 
approved of a new election under the recommendation of his excellency 
the governor, but the contrary is more probable." On the petition of 
the Anti-Federalists that their candidates be seated, the committee re- 
ported that, because of the riot at the March election, "the sheriff could 
have made no return of any five members elected, nor was there any 
evidence before the committee by which they could determine with cer- 
tainty, which candidates had a majority of the votes of the other electors. 
The committee was therefore of opinion, that the first election is void as 
well as the latter. 7 ' 

To this report the Convention agreed. Dobbs county, consequently, 
was unrepresented in the Xorth Carolina Convention that first consid- 
ered the Federal Constitution and two of the foremost citizens of the 
state were unseated. The Federalists of Dobbs County had been able to 
keep their opponents from the Convention but not to seat their own 
candidates. The result, however, had no effect upon the deliberations 
of the Convention, which refused to ratify the new Constitution by a 
majority of 184 to 84. Accordingly, when George Washington was 
inaugurated President of the United States, the newspapers of the time 
listed Xorth Carolina as a "foreign state." The epithet was unpalatable 
to her people and before the year was out they called a second con- 
vention which re-instated Xorth Carolina to her rightful place in the 
sisterhood of states. 

SOURCES. — The sources consulted in the preparation of this essay are: 
State Records of North Carolina, Vols. XI-XXV; the original depositions, 
petitions, etc., filed in "The Papers of the Convention of 178S" (Collections 
of the North Carolina Historical Commission); photostat copies of con- 
temporaneous North Carolina newspapers in the collections of the North 
Carolina Historical Commission; the Charles E. Johnson Manuscripts (Col- 
lections of the North Carolina Historical Commission); McRee, Griffith J., 

State Literary and Historical Associate 111 

"The Life and Correspondence of James Iredell"; Elliot's "Debates on I 
FprterH Constitution 1787-88"; Ashe, S. -\. (editor) "Biographical HI 

of North Carolina," 8 vols.; Connor, R. D. W. (compiler) "North Carolina 
Manual, 1^13"; Connor, H. G.. "The Conventions of 1788 and 1780 and the 
Federal Constitution," (North Carolina Booklet, Vol. IV. No. 4); Battle. 
Kemp, P., "Trial of James Glasgow and the Supreme Court of North Caro- 
lina," (North Carolina Booklet, Vol. III. No. 1); Connor, R. D. W., "History 
of North Carolina — Colonial and Revolutionary Periods"; Boyd, \V. K., "Hi= r .- 
ory of North Carolina — The Federal Period"; Ashe, S. A., "History of Norti 
Carolina," Vol. I; WagstafE, H. M., "Federalism in North Carolina" (James 
Sprunt Historical Publications, Vol. 9, No. 2), and "William Richardson Davie 
and Federalism in North Carolina" (Bulletin 28, Publications N. C. His- 
torical Commission.). 


Raleigh and Roanoke 

By John Jordan Douglass. 

Knight of famed Albion's Golden Age, 
When Shakespeare sang his deathless song, 
Bright shines thy name upon the page 
Amid the crowned immortal throng: 
Statesman, soldier, patron of the sea, 
Fain would I touch my humble harp to thee ! 

Clear-visioned like the great Genoese, 
Xo sea's thy conquering courage tombed; 
Faith gave thee thrice her magic keys 
To ope the gates where freedom bloomed 

Saw there in vision this great State, 
Beyond the isle which, like a rose, 
Blooms fair beside the sea's green gate 
Through which the blue tide comes and goes- 
Roanoke, that sparkling emerald gem 
In Neptune's diadem! 

On land remote from courts and kings, 

T-T-- T Til 1 - 

Wide-measured by the eagle's wings. 

Sea-King, who watched the red-speared dawns 

Break through nights' nubian bands, 

Who played, with death with ships as pawns 

Held in the sea's blue hands. 

Thy spirit sought the western star, 

Where gleamed the sunset's golden bar. 

Sea-seer whose ships sailed to our land 
Ere, 'mid New England's snows, 
Was kindled by the Pilgrim's hand 
Freedom's watch-fire that still glows, 
We come in varied walks and wavs 
To sing thy noble praise. 

State Literacy and Historical Association 113 

Was it thy province to behold, 
Ad seer and prophet oft times see, 
A land of freemen, leal and bold, 
To thrill the world with Liberty — 
A State whose patriots first arose 
Xear where the red Catawba flows ! 

Who first in Mecklenburg declared 

The "Western world, by right, was free — 

Who boldly signed their names, and dared 
To question tyranny ! 

Ere Freedom's Excalibur, bright and keen, 
Flashed in the hands of Greene ! 

Mayhap, thine was the prophet's gaze 
Beyond the tawdry gild of thrones, 
Where 'mid Roanoke's moss-tangled maze, 
Rose Freedom's altar stones; 
Roanoke, harp of the singing sea 
That chants thy threnody. 

White-winged thy ships, like wild birds, fared 

Across the sea to far Roanoke; 

Of thee who dreamed, and, dreaming, dared 

The Wonder of the Xew World broke; 

There on the balmy, breeze-swept shore 

The ]STew World's open door. 

Roanoke, where once the red man roamed, 

In stoic solitude, 

And built near where the wild sea foamed 

His wigwam strange and crude: 

The first to feel the white man's tread. 

To shroud his stern, heroic dead. 

To thee sailed ships one memoried day, 

Like weird unearthly birds, 

They rode thy placid sheltered bay. 

Whose bright blue border girds 

The wave-kissed shore whose stately trees 

Call to the wandering gypsy breeze. 


The eagle, perched on lofty crest, 
Looked down with restless eye, 
Screamed to the fledglings in her nest 
And sought the cloud plumed sky, 
Strong-winged, majestic, meant to be 
The sym bol of the free ! 

The brown doe, startled at her drink, 
Turned toward the tangled brake, 
Shot like an arrow from the brink 
Where lay the lilied lake; 
And with her fawn far coverts sought, 
In shadowy silence deeper wrought. 

The night-hawk warned her wandering mate 

High in a ghostly oak; 

And silence like some spell of fate 

Lay deep upon Roanoke. 

Where stretched the shimmering strand of gold 

The ISTew World met the storied old. 

High sailed the moon, the Xight's corsair ; 
In anchored calm the strange ships rode ; 
The sails close-reefed ; the mast-poles bare ; 
The sea-wind sang its solemn ode : 
'Xeath starry skies the Kew World slept, 
Its fierce wild cries unleashed, unkept. 

Xo more would maids of Manteo 

In dark-eyed splendor reign alone; 

Soon would the face, white like the snow, 

Call all the origin wild its own: 

Soon, soon, the red rose droop and die; 

Xe'er with the conquering lily vie ! 

By ebon pool, in sylvan glade. 

Etched with the gold of filtered light. 

Once dreamed the graceful Indian maid 

Till day flowed purple into night, 

And o'er the gray sea, hedged with gloom, 

Saw dawn's first roses bloom. 

State Literary and Historical Association 115 

Near by the sea a camp-fire burned, 
Its lambent streamers leaping high; 

And then a dusky maiden turned 
As turns the brown doe's startled eye; 
Clung like a wild vine close to him, 
Whose stoic silence mocked her whim. 

The light of doom: no more she gazed 
Within the cypress-shadowed stream, 
But like a wild thing, hushed, amazed, 
Passed like the wan moon's sickly gleam, 
When 'gainst the sky the smoke-plumes tower : 
So passed the woodland's wild red flower. 

The red man's feet would seek the west 

His soul to savage lyres attuned; 

Born in his heart a deep unrest 

Called where the wandering west wind crooned: 

No more his wild, weird cry was flung; 

The Iliad of his doom was sung. 

And if the march of man were o'er 
When world had answered call of world, 
The thunderous waves broke on that shore 
In sparkling splendor, glittering, pearled, 
Up from the sea, the baVs blue marge 
Roanoke rose like a fairy barge. 

Roanoke, scene of historic years, 
Long gone with silent tread 
With him who dreamed in hemispheres, 
And sought thy shores to wed: 
Roanoke, lute by the lilting sea 
That sings of the Lost Colony. 

Here first the conquering white man came 

To light, faith's altar-fires; 

Here carved that strange and mystic name 

That even yet conspires 

To guard the secret darkly laid 

Beneath the woodland's slumberous shade. 

116 Twenty-First Annual Session 

Mock-birds from f roe and s^nted vine 

Poured, rippling liquid notes, 

That thrilled the white man's ear like wine 

Gold poured from golden throats : 

And romance called with living lyre — 

Land of the hearts' desire ! 

It was the troth of East and West, 

A common sea between; 

A fathomed deep whose throbbing breast 

Shall ever intervene, 

Lest e'er in time, an alien flood 

Should cleave the white man's welded blood. 

The eagle guards its wild waves here, 
The lion keeps them there, 
And France with golden lilied spear 
That pierced the world's despair; 
And Italy, proud, historic Rome, 
The Caesar's regal home. 

Roanoke, fair isle we love the best, 
Clasped in the sea's blue arms, 
Rare pearl upon the ocean's breast 
"With sweet and lingering charms, 
How oft our thoughts go wandering there 
Back to the babe Virginia Dare! 

r J 

We count it well that here was born 
The first white child upon our shore, 
Where love and honor still adorn, 
The brow of woman, as of yore: 
A sacred trust we shall defend 
With chivalrous courage till the end. 


Like him who spread his scarlet cloak 
Lest his fair queen should touch the earth, 
We spread our mantle on Roanoke 
When this sweet baby had her birth, 
The great seal of this sovereign State 
Svmbolic of our estimate. 

State Literary and Historical Association 117 

Roanoke, stile at our Eastern door 
Which first the white man knew, 
Blue bay whose sparkling bosom bore 
Sir Walter's gallant crew, 
Thou wast the earnest of a state, 
Wide-peopled, strong and great. 

A state where Anglo-Saxons dwell, 

The purest in this land, 

Whose forbears wrested hill and dell 

From out of the red man's hand, 

And drove the ploughshare deep and wide 

From sea to mountain side. 

A people native to the soil 

Unfettered, free from kings, 

Where manhood, crowned with honest toil 

To truth and honor clings : 

A people, sturdy, seeking heights 

Where burn the beacon-lights. 

A people who e'en yet shall write 

A new and nobler score 

Which temples tower loft and white, 

With wide and open door, 

To every youth who dares to dream 

Of learning's fathomed stream. 

Brave, martyred soul, we greet thee here, 

Thine is the hero's share; 

Time carves thy name with jeweled tear, 

Time carves it deep and fair. 

Carolina holds in honor yet 

Thy name with five score jewels set ! 

Well has our State in honor called 

Her capital by thy name, 

The name that England once enthralled, 

But never steeped in shame: 

O Raleigh, Carolina's chaliced love is thine; 

Green as her princeliest long leaf pine. 

US Twenty-First Annual Session 

Rich as the gems within her west, 
Fair as her pearls in ocean's breast, 
Sweet as her rarest full blown rose 
To thee her cornucopia flows: 
Captain, Conqueror, Prophet of the sea, 
Carolina strikes her hundred harps to thee ! 


The Bread and Butter Aspect of North Carolina History 

By D. D. Carroll 

University of North Carolina 

The industrial history of Xorth Carolina waits to be written. Here 
and there are choice bits of clear and effective statement in the field 
of economic happening, but there is not that connected, comprehensive 
bringing together of vital facts in this realm which its importance 
merits, and without which our general interpretations will always be 
lame and halting. Indeed, our perception of trends and tendencies is 
dulled or is dangerously inaccurate without the stubborn, drab fact 
of economic circumstance. May I venture the opinion that, failing in 
this function of correctly detecting and indicating tendencies, the his- 
torian hazards his choicest contribution. 

I would not be misunderstood. I do not hold communion with that 
school of economists or group of historians who believe that all human 
action can be reduced to the low level of stomach causation, that all 
that man has done or ever will do finds its ultimate and only explanation 
in the struggle for economic advantage. My appetite for philosophy 
almost persuades me at this point to spend my allotted time in pursuing 
this fascinating fallacy, — not so much to prove its variance from the 
truth, as to show how powerful it has been in determining the bent of 
progress when processes of change were gripping at the fundamentals of 
the social structure. Emerson's statement that ;i we are radicals before 
dinner and conservatives after dinner' certainly magnifies dinner as a 
potent force in shaping human history. And while it jars us somewhat 
to discover that a daring historian has, like a Don Quixote, charged at 
our Jeffersonian democracy with the poisoned lance of economic inter- 
pretation, it may make for ultimate truth in getting us to seek the 
source of the beauty of that fine flower of civic aspiration in the humus 
of earthy soil, as well as in the sunshine of political idealism. 

At this time, it is particularly important, that more accurate and in- 
clusive attention be given to the economic aspects of our life. During 
the past forty years, an Industrial Revolution has been going on in this- 
commonwealth which rivals, if it does not exceed in rate and degree of 
change, that which brought to England a Pandora's box of problems. 
For half a century England groped and wrestled in darkness, before 
her historians diagnosed the real issues, and she was just beginning to 
understand and to deal accuratelv with them when the Great \Var came 


on. It i3 not necessary to remind a gathering such as this, that it wa.s 
largely the work of that fine group of economic historian* and his- 
torical economists which revealed the true cause, nature, and extent of 
those problems. Perhaps all will admit that Britain has paid and will 
continue to pay dearly for not taking stock and keeping full records of 
her industrial life as the Revolution proceeded. May I venture the 
statement that at this moment we are immersed in an industrial trans- 
formation which is not only more rapid than that of England, but is 
carrying a twentieth century voltage. To continue this figure, the 
economic current in life has been stepped up to a voltage higher than 
our moral safety would probably justify, since selfish class interests 
grow deep and intense in its heat. But this makes it all the more im- 
portant to keep the records full and the interpretations clear. To make 
for greater complication, just as our industrial life was emerging from 
adolescence into the steady and enduring stride of healthy, confident 
youth, it imbibed a dangerously large dose of the war profits intoxicant, 
which sent it lunging forward, in a blundering stagger, dangerous alike 
to itself and every other phase of life to which it is related. To our 
normal problems, and they would have been troublesome and complex 
enough, we must add just at this time the aggravations of the "cold 
grey dawn of the morning after." Disentangling, then, the normal 
peace-time trend from the abnormal war activity, and properly assessing 
each, is a task which must not be neglected. It must be done, too, before 
its recession into the past obscures the identity of the already tangled 

It may not be out of place to indicate a few examples of the operation 
and comparative significance of industrial happening in directing the 
general trend of our history. The first tilt in the next political cam- 
paign is already being fought, and it is rather interesting to observe that 
it centers around the question "whether we are as rich as we thought we 
were or whether we are as poor as we hope we are not." Somewhere 
between the reckless optimism of the one side and the shrewd and cal- 
culating pessimism of the other, the unbiased, well-balanced student may 
find the truth of economic fact, and put the deceivers, whichever they be 
or if both they be, to rout. The significant thing is that when the facts 
are established, their power will be almost irresistible.. Witness, will 
you not, the narrow escape of that comprehensive program of social 
progress from threatened wreckage in our last legislature, when it faced 
price declines in cotton and tobacco. I dare say that as lifeless a thing 
as the price curve of those commodities will be a more meaningful 

State Literacy a.vd Historical Association 121 

decoration of the page of history which records that forward step tl 
the facsimile of anj political declaration. 

There may be some difference of opinion as to die relative importance 
of the various indices of determining forces and the trend of dominant 
interest at the present time. Granting that when tl :. 

librium is upset the economic motive grips humanity most powerfully, 
there can be little possible disagreement concerning the portent of a 
Southern Tariff Congress meeting in Greensboro, of scores of thou • 
of cooperative marketing contracts with teeth in them, or the Electric 
Power controversy, or a declaration of affiliation between the Farmers 
Union and the State Federation of Labor. (Announced day before 
yesterday and given two inches of space in one of our leading daily 
papers.) Around each of these and a host of others which might be 
mentioned is a halo of related fact and pregnant circumstance rich in 
historical content. 

In the less well-defined but more difficult field of slow change and 
gradual cumulative development, there are greater opportunities for 
far-sighted interpretation. The relation of expanding road mileage and 
motor transportation to social and civic life should be measured, anal- 
yzed, and stated. The passing of the first generation of cotton mill 
workers drawn from the individualistic mountaineer farmers and the 
tenants of the Piedmont region, and the ascendancy of their children, 
reared under strong group influences and numerous social restrictions, 
will give an impetus to class unity and economic friction, which will 
color our future in beauty or in blood. If our social policy be based 
on broad and thorough analysis of the facts and tendencies, then in 
beauty, but if it follows lines of ignorance or prejudice, then in blood. 

As we launch further and further into the complexities of this more 
highly industrialized and class conscious life we shall lose irreparably, if 
we leave the way by which we came uncharted by full and accurate 
description and sound interpretation. The issues of the transition can- 
not long be evaded or postponed and the historian must perform his 
task with promptness and consecration. 

Some fine examples of work in this field are already available. The 
quality of Dr. Hamilton's chapters on economic conditions in his treatise 
on Reconstruction is worthy of imitation in other periods, and Mitchell's 
"Rise of the Cotton Industry in the South" certainly should prove a 
fine seed-bed for a more thorou-rh-going treatise on the same subject in 
this state. An increasing number of biographical studies are appear- 
ing in which constructive business achievement takes its place along- 
side political statesmanship. In U A Builder of the Xew South," Doctor 

122 Twenty-First Annual Session 

Winston has made an evaluation in terms of an industrial romance 
whicn should be the beginning of a series. The choice articles in 
economic history appearing in the South Atlantic Quarterly should 
also be mentioned in this connection. 

But fine as these are, they are mere scraps in a long and varied story. 
Let me indicate a few general lines each of which will require a host 
of monographs. The history of agriculture would be full of solid value 
and rich in basic tendencies. Doubtless dramatic possibilities, too 
would recur with surprising frequency in such far reaching matters as 
the competition of slave labor, ''poor white trash," and the small farm- 
ers of the Piedmont and mountain sections, not to speak of the tragedy 
of the tenant farmer of the later day. The perennial stock-law con- 
troversy and the activities of the Farmers Alliance and The Farmers 
Union would explain many a piece of cloak-room strategy in legislative 
domain. More important but less spectacular would be the long and 
stubborn fight against the law of diminishing returns in the use of 
agricultural land, with victory assured only by the enlistment of that 
increasing array of scientific farmers armed with crop rotaton, seed 
selection, soil analysis and similar up-to-date weapons. The evolution 
of transportation should also be full of interest, for here have appeared 
extremes of forward movement and stagnant isolation. Some of the 
earliest and best railroads were built within our state and few common- 
wealths can show a more interesting history of public ownership in 
this field. Some historian could well afford to give us facts about such 
things as freight discriminations, state rate regulation, "lost provinces,'' 
the good roads movement, motor transportation and its effect socially 
and economically. Shall the youth of the future as he purchases gas 
at a wayside station not have bis contempt softened by the knowledge 
that bere a country store once furnished his forbears their choicest 
social centre and their most effective political forum? Our present pride 
in the federal revenue records of our tobacco industry ought to create 
more definite curiosity concerning the early struggles of this giant indus- 
try. And who could withstand the desire to know the epic of that 
formerly blighted area — "The Sandhills" — after a journey through its 
blooming and blushing orchards, vineyards, and melon fields ? Would it 
be heresy to say that in the articles of agreement between striking 
laborers and stubborn capitalists may be a more profound and significant 
index of the future than in any declaration of political independence? 
Many more such lines of research and interpretation might be enuni- 

State Literary a.vd Historical Association 123 

erated but these few indicate the amount of light which may be thrown 
b> economic happi ning on the nature of the seed-1 • . >cial progi 

and political evolution. 

The intricately interwoven and mutually interacting elements make it 
a difficult task, but drab and uninspiring at first sight, the richnesf t 
content which, would soon appear will bring adequate compensation not 
to speak of its value in giving soundings in dangerous waters and in 
charting the safe course for the future of the state. May I thus chal- 
lenge you to the gathering of the raw materials for the production of 
the constituent parts of a comprehensive industrial history of Xorth 
Carolina which will rival in fascination and stirring movement the 
record of any other phase of our life? Some later master hand must 
have these strong and varied threads if he is to weave a sound basic 
fabric in the unending tapestry of our state's achievement. 


Members of the State Literary and Historical Association 
of North Carolina 

Junius G. Adams, Asheville 

Dr. Randolph G. Adams, Durham 

A. E. Akers, Roanoke Rapids 

W. H. Albright, Liberty 

Charles L. Alexander, Charlotte 

Miss Julia Alexander, Charlotte 

Miss Violet Alexander, Charlotte 

A. T. Allen, Salisbury 

Ivey Allen, Louisburg 

Mrs. George Alston, Raleigh 

Dr. Albert Anderson, Raleigh 

John M. Booker, Chapel Hill 
Louis M. Bourne, Asheville 
J. D. Boushall, Raleigh 
John H. Boushall, Raleigh 
Stephen Bragaw, Washington 
Dr. E. C. Branson. Chapel Hill 
J. C. Braswell, Rocky Mount 
W. E. Breese, Brevard 
Dr. Charles E. Brewer, Raleigh 
Miss Elizabeth Briggs, Raleigh 
W. G. Briggs, Raleigh 

Mrs. John H. Anderson, Fayetteville T. H. Briggs, Raleigh 

A. B. Andrews, Raleigh 
Mrs. A. B. Andrews, Raleigh 
Miss Augusta Andrews, Raleigh 
Miss Jane Andrews, Raleigh 
Miss Martha Andrews, Raleigh 
William J. Andrews, Raleigh 
Mrs. W r illiam J. Andrews, Raleigh 
W. J. Armfield, High Point 
Rev. C. A. Ashby, Raleigh 
Capt. S. A. Ashe, Raleigh 
Mrs. D. M. Ausley, Statesviile 

Mrs. T. H. Briggs, Raleigh 

Hon. S. M. Brinson, Washington, D. C. 

Col. J. L. Bridgers, Tarboro 

Miss Kate Broadfoot, Fayetteville 

L. C. Brogden, Raleigh 

Mrs. A. L. Brooks, Greensboro 

F. H. Brooks, Smithfield 

Miss Carrie Broughton, Raleigh 

J. M. Broughton, Raleigh 

Dr. F. C. Brown, Durham 

Joseph G. Brown, Raleigh 

Col. J. F. Bruton, Wilson 

E. F. Aydlette, Elizabeth City 
Mrs. Henry T. Bahnson, Winston-SalemMrs. John F. Bruton, W T ilson 
Miss Mattie H. Bailey, Raleigh J. Dempsey Bullock, Wilson 

Mrs. A. L. Baker, Raleigh A. L. Bulwinkle, Gastonia 

Rev. M. A. Barber, Raleigh Hon. W. P. Bynum, Greensboro 

George Gordon Battle, New York City Col. Bennehan Cameron, Stagville 

S. Westray Battle, Asheville 
Mrs. S. Westray Battle, Asheville 
Thomas H. Battle, Rocky Mount 
A. P. Bauman. Raleigh 
E. C. Beddingfield, Raleigh 
John D. Bellamy, Wilmington 
Mrs. T. W. Bickett, Ryleigh 
J. Crawford Biggs, Raleigh 
Mrs. J. Crawford Biggs, Raleigh 
Miss Anna M. Blair, Monroe 
J. J. Blair, Raleigh 
William A. Blair, Winston-Salem 
Mrs. C. P. Blalock, Raleigh 
O. G. Boisseau. Holden, Mo. 
Hon. W. M. Bond, Edenton 

Mrs. Bennehan Cameron, Stagville 

Miss Rebecca Cameron, Hillsboro 

J. 0. Carr, Wilmington 

Gen. Julian S. Carr. Durham 

W. F. Carr, Durham 

Bishop Jos. B. Cheshire, Raleigh 

Mrs. Joseph B. Cheshire, Raleigh 

Joseph B. Cheshire. Jr.. Raleigh 

Mrs. J. E. Clark. Washington 

Hon. Walter Clark. Raleigh 

Collier Cobb, Chapel Hill 

Mrs. R. L. Cobb. Tarboro 

Mrs. E. M. Cole, Charlotte 

Mrs. Will X. Coley, Raleigh 

Miss Jenn Winslow Coltrane, Concord 

State Literary and Historical Association 


Andrew J. Conner, Rich Square 

liuii. H. i -j- Connor, 

Mrs. H. G. Connor, Wilson 

R. D. W. Connor, Chapel Hill 

Charles L. Coon, Wilson 

W. R. Coppedge, Rockingham 

J. H. Cordon, Raleigh 

Mrs. J. H. Cordon, Raleigh 

J. M. Costner, Raleigh 

Bruce Cotten, Baltimore 

R. R. Cotten, Bruce 

Mrs. R. R. Cotten, Bruce 

G. V. Cowper, Kinston 

Col. Albert L. Cox, Raleigh 

Miss Clara I. Cox, High Point 

J. Elwood Cox, High Point 

Burton Craige, Winston-Salem 

W. J. Craig, Wilmington 

W. C. Cram, Raleigh 

W. C. Cram, Jr., Raleigh 

Mrs. Ethel T. Crittenden. Wake Forest 

Mrs. A. B. Croom, Jr., Wilmington 

E. B. Crow, Raleigh 

Ernest Cruikshank, Columbia, Tenn. 

F. B. Dancy, Baltimore, Md. 
W. E. Daniel, Weldon 

Hon. F. A. Daniels, Goldsboro 
Hon. Josephus Daniels, Raleigh 
E. L. Baxter Davidson, Charlotte 
Miss May Hill Davis, Raieigh 
Miss Penelope Davis, Raleigh 
Miss Sallie Joyner Davis, Greenville 
Thomas W. Davis, Wilmington 
Miss Daisy Denson, Raleigh 
L. A. Denson, Raleigh 
Miss Mary F. DeVane, Goldsboro 
Clyde Douglass, Raleigh 
Rev. John Jordan Douglass, 

W r adesboro 
Rev. Robert B. Drane, Edenton 
Mrs. E. C. Duncan, Raleigh 
Mrs. L. P. Duncan, Raleigh 
J. C. B. Ehringhaus. Elizabeth City 
Theo. G. Empie, Wilmington 
Mrs. Sadie Smedes Erwin, Durham 
R. O. Everett. Durham 
W. N. Everett, Rockingham 
H. E. Faison, Clinton 
Mrs. I. W. Faison, Charlotte 

Miss Winifred Faison, Faison 

Rev. J. S. Farmer, Raleigh 

Hon. G. S. Ferguson, Waynesviile 

W. W. Flowers, Durham 

Mrs. J. A. Fore, Charlotte 

J. L. Fountain, Raleigh 

Mrs. J. L. Fountain, Raleigh 

Dr. J. I Foust, Greensboro 

Mrs. Samuel Fowle, Washington 

Miss Adelaide Fries, Winston-Salem 

Col. John W. Fries, Winston-Salem 

H. E. Fries, Winston-Salem 

Miss Susan Fulghum, Goldsboro 

T. B. Fuller, Durham 

E. L. Gaither, Mocksville 

Hon. S. M.. Gattis, Hillsboro 

Dr. W. H. Glasson, Durham 

Mrs. George C. Goodman, Mooresville 

E. McK. Goodwin, Morganton 

Henry A. Grady, Clinton 

Hon. A. W. Graham, Oxford 

Miss Mary O. Graham, Raleigh 

Hon. W. A. Graham, Raleigh 

Mrs. William A. Graham, Edenton 

Miss Isabel Graves, Mount Airy 

James A. Gray, Winston-Salem 

Mrs. James A. Gray 

H. T. Greenleaf, Elizabeth City 

Miss Lennie Greenlee, Old Fort 

R. L. Greenlee, Marion 

Greensboro Public Library, Greensboro 

Mrs. B. H. Griffin, Raleigh 

I. C. Griffin, Shelby 

Lee Griffin, Monroe 

Col. J. Bryan Grimes, Raleigh 

Mrs. Gordon Hackett, North 

Hon. E. J. Hale, Fayetteville 

B. F. Hall, Wilmington 

Miss Susan E. Hall. Wilmington 
William C. Hammer, Ashboro 
Dr. J. G. deR. Hamilton. Chapel Hill 
Miss Rosa Hamilton. Clayton 
Dr. Ira M. Hardy. Kinston 

C. J. Harris, Asheville 

Mrs. J. C. L. Harris, Raleigh 
Dr. Thomas P. Harrison, Raleigh 
Mrs. Thomas P. Harrison, Raleigh 
C. Felix Harvey, Kinston 


Twenty-First Annual Session 

Mrs. C. Felix Harvey, Kinston 
Ernest Haywood, Raleigh 

F. P. Haywood, Raleigh 

M. DeL. Haywood, Raleigh 

R. W. Haywood, Raleigh 

Mr3. John S. Henderson. Salisbury 

F. R. Hewitt, Asheville 

Miss Georgia Hicks, Faison 

Henry T. Hicks, Raleigh 

T. T. Hicks, Henderson 

Dr. D. H. Hill, Raleigh 

John Sprunt Hill, Durham 

Mrs. W. T. Hines, Kinston 

Mrs. J. W. Hinsdale. Raleigh 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton, Raleigh 

L. L. Hobbs, Guilford College 

Hon. W. A. Hoke, Raleigh 

C. W. Home, Clayton 

Dr. H. H. Home, New York City 
J. A. Hoskins, Summerfield 
George Howe, Chapel Hill 
Rev. Andrew J. Howell. Whiteville 

D. E. Hudgins, Marion 
Rev. A. B. Hunter, Raleigh 
Carey J. Hunter. Raleigh 
Mrs. Carey J. Hunter, Raleigh 
J. Rufus Hunter, Raleigh 
Miss Louise Irby, Greensboro 
Miss Carrie M. Jackson, Pittsboro 
Mrs. H. W-, Jackson, Richmond, Va. 
W. C. Jackson, Greensboro 

B. S. Jerman. Raleigh 
Col. Charles E. Johnson. Raleigh 
Mrs. Charles E. Johnson, Raleigh 
Charles E. Johnson. Jr., Raleigh 
Miss Mary Lynch Johnson, Raleigh 
Mrs. Katherine S. Johnston, 

Southgate Jones, Durham 
W. X. Jones, Raleigh 
Z. K. Justice, Davidson 
Miss Elizabeth A. Kelly. Raleigh 
Woodus Kellum, Wilmington 
Paul S. Kennett, Elon College 
Horace Kephart, Bryson City 
B. W. Kilgore, Raleigh 
Robert R. King, Greensboro 
F. H. Koch, Chapel Hill 
Col. Wilson G. Lamb, Williamston 

Dr. W. T. Laprade, Durham 

William Latimer, Wilmington 

J. B. Lewis, Raleigh 

Dr. R. H. Lewis, Raleigh 

Thomas W. Lingle, Davidson 

S. Lipinsky, Asheville 

Henry E. Litchford, Richmond, Va. 

Mrs. H. A. London, Pittsboro 

H. M. London, Raleigh 

Mrs. H. M. London, Raleigh 

C. C. McAlister, Fayetteville 

Miss Mary McClellan, Raleigh 

J. G. McCormick, Wilmington 

J. G. McCormick, Wilmington 

J. R. McCrary, Lexington 

Mrs. M. G. McCubbins, Salisbury 

Mrs. Herbert McCulIers. Clayton 

F. B. McDowell, Charlotte 

A. C. Mcintosh, Chapel Hill 

Mrs. Charles McKimmon. Raleigh 

W. B. McKoy, Wilmington 

A. W. McLean, Lumberton 

R. L. McMillan. Raleigh 

Mrs. R. L. McMillan. Raleigh 

Franklin McNeill, Raleigh 

Mrs. Franklin McNeill, Raleigh 

Donald McRae, Wilmington 

Mrs. T. F. Malloy. Asheville 

A. G. Mangum. Gastonia 

Clement Manly, Winston-Salem 

W. F. Marshall, Raleigh 

Mrs. B. Frank Mebane. Spray 

Mrs. L. J. Mewborne. Kinston 

Mrs. J. W. Miller. New York City 

Mrs. J. J. Misenheimer, Charlotte 

Mrs. E. E. MofStt. Richmond. Va. 

Judge W. A. Montgomery, Raleigh 

Mrs. James P. Moore. Salisbury 

Rev. W. W. Moore. Richmond. Va. 

John M. Morehead, Charlotte 

Mrs. John M. Morehead, Charlotte 

Mrs. F. 0. M'oring. Raleigh 

Mrs. Theo. S. Morrison. Asheville 

Hugh Morson, Raleigh 

Mrs. Beverly G. Moss, Washington 

Miss Lucile W. Murchison, Xew York 

Mrs. Lucy Warren Myers. Washington 
Frank Xash, Raleigh 

State Litekaey axd Historical Association 


Q. K. Nimocks, Fayetteville 

Mrs. M. T. Morris, Raleigh 
G. A. Norwood, Ooldsboro 
Jonas Oettinger, Wilson 
Hon. Lee S. Overman, Salisbury- 
Miss Mary B. Palmer. Raieigh 
John A. Parker, Washington, D. C. 
Mrs. C. M. Parks, Tarboro 
Miss Rosa Paschal, Greenville 
Mrs. J. Lindsey Patterson, 

Mrs. S. T. Peace, Henderson 
P. Pearsall, Wilmington 
Dr. C. C. Pearson, Wake Forest 
Mrs. George Pell, Raleigh 
Mrs. R. L. Penn, Mount Airy 
E. F. Pescud, Raleigh 
Miss Annie F. Petty, Greensboro 
William S. Pfohl, Winston-Salem 
H. X. Pharr, Charlotte 
Miss Cordelia Phifer, Charlotte 
Mrs. H. C. Pinnix, Oxford 
T. M. Pittman, Henderson 
Mrs. Charles M. Piatt, Asheville 
Dr. Clarence Poe, Raleigh 
Mrs. Clarence Poe, Raieigh 
J. E. Pogue, Raleigh 
Tasker Polk, Warrenton 
Miss Eliza Pool, Raieigh 
Dr. Hubert Poteat, Wake Forest 
Miss Ida Poteat, Raleigh 
Dr. W. L. Poteat, Wake Forest 
Mrs. W. L. Poteat, Wake Forest 
Mrs. W. H. Potter, Boston, Mass. 
E. K. Powe, Durham 
Mrs. E. K. Powe. Durham 
W. R. Powell, Wake Forest 
Mrs. W. R. Powell, Wake Forest 
Col. Joseph Hyde Pratt, Chapel Hill 
Mrs. I. M. Proctor, Raleigh 
James H. Ramsay, Salisbury 
George J. Ramsey, Raleigh 
E. E. Randolph, Raleigh 
Mrs. R. B. Raney, Raleigh 
W. S. Rankin, Raleigh 
W. T. Reaves, Raleigh 
Miss Mattie Reese, Raleigh 
Mrs. W. N. Reynolds, Winston-Salem 

Dr. W. C. Riddick, Raleigh 
Dr. Paul II Rii - ! -.xheville 
Miss Lida T. Rodman, Washington 
Rev. Howard E. Rondthaler. 

Mrs. Howard E. Rondthaler, 

Charles Root, Raleigh 
Ralph Rosenberg, Asheville 
Mrs. Ralph Rosenberg, Asheville 
Mrs. Maurice Rosenthal, Raleigh 
Hon. George Rountree, Wilmington 
Dr. H. A. Royster, Raleigh 
Dr. W. I. Royster, Raleigh 
William H. Ruffin, Louisburg 
Robert L. Ryburn, Shelby 
W. M. Sanders, Smithfield 
Paul W. Schenck, Greensboro 
Joe Seawell, Raleigh 
Miss. C. L. Shaffner, Winston-Salem 
Miss Cornelia Shaw, Davidson 
Shaw University, Raleigh 
Mrs. M. B. Sherwood, Raleigh 
Mrs. M. B. Shipp, Raleigh 
John A. Simpson, Raleigh 
Harry Skinner, Greenville 
Dr. Benjamin Sledd, Wake Forest 
Hon. J. H. Small, Washington 
Dr. C. Alphonso Smith, Annapolis, Md. 
Dr. Charles Lee Smith, Raleigh 
Ed Chambers Smith, Raleigh 
Mrs. Ed Chambers Smith, Raleigh 
Miss Mary Shannon Smith, New York 

Miss Mildred Smith, Raleigh 
W. A. Smith, Ansonville 
Willis Smith, City 
Dr. D. T. Smithwick, Louisburg 
Mrs. D. T. Smithwick, Louisburg 
Mrs. W. 0. Spencer. Winston-Salem 
F. S. Spruill. Rocky Mount 
Dr. James Sprunt, Wilmington 
W. H. Sprunt, Wilmington 
J. F. Stanback, Raleigh 
Mrs. J. F. Stanback, Raleigh 
Hon. Charles M. Stedman. Greensboro 
George Stephens. Charlotte 
C. L. Stevens, Southport. 
Mrs. C. L. Stevens, Southport 

128 *o* 


Mre. F. L. Stevens, Urbana, 111. 
Edward L, Stewart, lington 

W. E. Stone, Raleigh 
Edmund Strudwick, Richmond, Va. 
Mrs. Edmund Strudwick, Richmond 

R. C. Strudwick, Greensboro 
Hon, R. H. Sykes, Durham 
Mrs. J. F. Taylor, Kinston 
Frank Thompson, Jacksonville 
Mrs. Jacksie Danields Thrash, Tarboro 
Walter D. Toy, Chapel Hill 
E. J. Tucker, Roxboro 
Tuesday Afternoon Reading Club, 

Mrs. V. E. Turner. Raleigh 
Miss Cornelia Vanderbilt, Biltmore 

J. L. Webb, Shelby 

Miss Gertrude Weil. Goldsboro 

Mrs. W. 6. West, Raleigh 

Charles Whedbee, Hertford 

Miss Julia S. White, Guilford College 

Mrs. E. L. Whitehead, Enneld 

J. Frank Wilkes, Charlotte 

M. S. Willard, Wilmington 

F. L. Willcox, Florence, S. C. 

L. A. Williams, Chapel Hill 

R. R. Williams, Asheville 

S. E. Williams, Lexington 

William H. Williamson. Raleigh 

J. Norman Wills, Greensboro 

H. V. Wilson, Chapel Hill 

Dr. Louis R. Wilson, Chapel Hill 

J. W. Winborne, Marion 

Mrs. J. M. Winfree, Raleigh 

Mrs. John Van Landingham, Charlotte Hon. Francis D. Winston 

Rev. R. T. Vann, Raleigh 
C. L. Van Noppen, Greensboro 
Mrs. C. L. Van Xoppen. Greensboro 
Dr. C. G. Vardell, Red Springs 
Mrs. W. W. Vass, Raleigh 
W. W. Vass, Raleigh 
Wachovia Historical Society, 

Hon. George T. Winston, Asheville 

Hon. R. W. Winston, Raleigh 

J. H. Wisler, Moncure 

Dr. W. A. Withers, Raleigh 

Frank Wood, Edenton 

J. G. Wood. Edenton 

Mrs. F. A. Woodard, Wilson 

W. F. Woodard. Wilson 

Mrs. Amos. J. Walker, New York City Mrs. W. F. Woodard. Wilson 
Mrs. J. A. Walker, Brownwood, Texas E. E. Wright, New Orleans, La. 
Zebulon V. Walser, Lexington W. H. Yarborough, Louisburg 

D. L. War, New Bern J. R. Young, Raleigh 









Beooed Their History Will Not Long 
Have the Virtue to ILase History That 
is Worth Recording. 




North Carolina Historical Commission 

December 1, 1920, to 
November 30, 1922 


Edwabds & Broughtox Prixting Company 

State Printers 


North Carolina Historical Commission 

J. Brya^" Grimes, Chairman, Raleigh 

France: Wood, Edenton 
M. C. S. Xoble, Chapel Hill 
Thomas aL Pittmast, Henderson 
Heriot Clarksox, Charlotte 

D. H. Hill, Secretary, Raleigh 

Letter of Transmittal 

To His Excellency, 

Cameron Morrison, 

Governor of North Carolina. 
Sir: — I have the honor to submit herewith for your Excellency's 
consideration the Biennial Report of the Xorth Carolina Historical 
Commission, for December 1, 1920-Xovember 30, 1922. 


J. Bryan Grimes, 

Raleigh, N. C, January, 1923. 



Secretary of the North Carolina Historical Commission 

DECEMBER i, 1920, TO NOVEMBER 30, 1922 

To Hox. J. Bryax Grimes, Chairman, [Messrs. Thomas M. Pittman, 
XL C. S. Xoble, Pran'k Wood axd Heriot Clarksox, Com- 

Gentlemen : — I have the honor to submit the following report of 
the work of the 2s"orth Carolina Historical Commission for the period 
December 1, 1920-Xoveniber 30, 1922. 


There has been one change in the organization of the Commission. 
On November 16, 1922, D. H. Hill resigned his commission to become 
Secretary of the Historical Commission. To fill his unexpired term, 
the Governor appointed the same day Hon. Heriot Clarkson of Char- 
lotte. Hon. J. Bryan Grimes has continued as Chairman of the 
Commission for the whole period of this report. 

On August 31, 1921, Mr. E. D. W. Connor, who had been Secretary 
to the Commission since its inception in 1903, resigned his office to 
bf-come Kenan Professor of History and Government in the University 
of Xorth Carolina. The Commission elected to succeed Mr. Connor, 
IX H. Hill, who began his duties as Secretary on September 1, 1921. 

During the period covered by this report the following have com- 
posed the permanent staff of the office : 

Office Torce 

Secretary, R. D. W. Connor (through August 31, 1921); D. H. Hill 

(September 1, 1921- ). 
Legislative Reference Librarian, H. M. London. 
Collector for the Hall of History, Fred A. Olds. 
Collector of World War Records, R. B. House. 
Restorer of Manuscripts, Mrs. J. M. Winfree. 
Stenographer, Miss Marjory Terrell. 

-7^- 151 

6 Xixth Biexxial Report 

Stenographer, Miss Sophie Busbee (through October 31, 1921). 
Stenographer, Mrs W. J. Pcele (since December 1, 1021). 
File Clerk, Mrs. W. S. West. 
Messenger, Twlliain Birdsall. 

The following were temporarily employed for special service : 

Assistant Legislative Reference Librarian, W. T. Joyner (January 

6-March 6, 1921. December 1-20, 1921). 
Copyist, Miss Alice Mofntt (December 1, 1920-August 31, 1921). 
Assistant File Clerk, Miss Sophie Busbee (since June 12, 1922). 
Compiler of Revolutionary Roster, Moses Amis (since March 1, 1922). 


Executive Papers 
The papers of the following Governors, transferred from the Gov- 
ernor's office, were properly arranged and filed: 
R. B. Glenn, 1D03-1909. 
Locke Craig, 1913-1917. 
T. W. Bickett, 1917-1920. 

These papers total 93 eases; 1,000 pieces. In addition, the letter- 
book of Governor Bickett was edited and arranged with a view to 
publication. Additional papers were distributed among the Executive 
Papers previously arranged as follows: Eichard Caswell, Samuel 
Johnston, W. TV. Holden, Tod R. Caldwell, C. H. Brogden, Zebulon B. 
Yance, Thomas J. Jarvis, A. A[. Scales, D. G. Fowle, T. M. Holt, 
Elias Carr, C. B. Aycock. They total 1,975 pieces. 

Thirty-one letter-books were arranged in the papers of the following 
Governors : 

A. M. Scales, 1885-1889. 
D. G. Fowle, 1889-1891. 
Thomas M. Holt, 1891-1893. 
Elias Carr, 1893-1897. 
D. L. Russell, 1897-1901. 
W. W. Kitchin, 1909-1913. 

Wabba^t Books 
Six "Warrant Books were arranged in the papers of the following 
Governors : 

David Stone, 1808-1810. 
Benjamin Smith, 1810-1S11. 
William Hawkins, 1812-1814. 
William Miller, 1814-1817. 
John Branch, 1817-1820. 
Thomas J. Jarvis, 1879-1S85. 

X. C. Historical Commission 7 

Military Papers 

Hie following military papers .'.ere arranged for use: 
Muster Rolls Militia, 1812-1815.- 
Civil War Papers, 1660-1864. 
Devereux Papers, 1860-1864. 

They total 5,000 pieces. 

Official Boards 
The following records of official boards were arranged for use : 
Board of Internal Improvements, 1S19-1891. 
Secretary of State's Papers, 1736-1800. 
Letters to the Secretary of State, 1729-1905. 
Literary Board, 1835-1868. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1858-1888. 

They total 6,500 pieces. 

Records of Treasurer, Comptroller, axd Auditor 
Thirty-three volumes and 7,000 papers from the offices of the Treas- 
urer, Comptroller, and Auditor, 1790-1S65, were classified, catalogued, 
and arranged for use. 

Old Xorth Carolina Newspapers 

Photostat copies of Xorth Carolina newspapers prior to 1800 were 
arranged and catalogued by a descriptive list giving name, place, pub- 
lisher, date, number, and condition of each paper. 

Historical Manuscripts 
The following collections of historical manuscripts were arranged 
for use : 

Charles P. Bolles Letter-books, 1846-1855. 

John H. Bryan Papers (197 pieces of new material), 1798-1870. 

Drury Lacy Papers, 1800-1883. 

Frederick Nash Papers, 1781-1S5S. 

David Clark Papers, 1S20-1882. 

Gash Papers, 1816-1898. 

Wood John Hamlin Papers, 1762-1835. 

In addition to these, 7.556 papers have been properly distributed 

among collections previously arranged. 

World War Records, 1914-1920 
The collection of over 100,000 items of World War Records was 
arranged for use. Among these, draft lists from the Local Boards 
totalling 55,100 names were alphabetized and copied for binding. 


Nisth Biennial Report 

Legislative Papers 

One hundred and thirty cases of Legislative Papers were classified 
and grouped by years. Legislative Papers from 1729 to 1775 were 
properly arranged. 

County Records 

Two hundred and twenty-three cases and volumes of county record- 
were added to the county records now in possession of the Historical 
Commission. The collection of one thousand and eighty-six cases and 
volumes from fifty counties were arranged for use and catalogued as 
follows : 


Beaufobt: County Court Minutes, 1756-61. 


Brunswick : 




Camden : 

County Court Minutes, 1767-72; 1772-77; 1778-92; 1793- 
1801; 1802; 1803-05; 1805-07; 1808-13; 1813-18; 1818- 
22; 1822-32; 1832-41; 1842-43; 1842-53; 1S53-67; 18G8. 

Land Entries, 1778-96. 

Crown Dockets, 1762-65. 

Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1782-1801; 1805-20; 1820-23; 
1824-30; 1831-39; 1839-45; 1845-52; 1850-59; 1866-68. 
Marriage Bonds. 

Wills, 1781-1822; 1822-27; 1828-47. 
Public School Records, 1841-60. 
Register of Officers' bonds, 17S6-1S29. 

County Court Minutes, 1807-18; 1818-29; 3 830-34. 

Marriage Bonds. 

Court Papers, 1782-1842; 1783-1843. 

Wills, 1794-1866. 

County Court Minutes, 1822-24. 
Trial Docket, 1796-1805. 
Marriage Records, 1851-1870. 

County Court Minutes, 1767-76. 

Wills, 1764-79. 

Marriage Eonds. 

County Court Papers, 1765-69. 

Land Entries, 1778-79. 

Inventories of Estates, 1765-79. 

Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1S55-68. 
Orphans' Accounts, 1800-09. 

1\. C. Historical Commission 

Carteret : 

Caswell : 
Chowan : 

Columbus : 
Craven : 



Franklin : 

1724-96: 1764-82; 1796-99; 1799- 
20; 1820-24; 1824-^H; 1S26-27; 


County Court Minutes 
1804; 1804-13; 1312 
1821-30; 1831-37; 1837-45; 1840-41; 

1849-52; 1852-58; 1858-68. 
Marriage Bonds. 

List of Taxables, 1802-1808; 1813-14; 1815-19. 
Grants and Deeds, 1717-75. 
Deeds, 1781-85. 

County Court Dockets, 1730-S4. 
Miscellaneous Records, 1749-89. 

Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1811-16. 

Records, 1685-1805. 
County Court Petitions. 

County Court Minutes, 1838-40. 

Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1784-87; 1787-91; 1791-97; 1798- 
1800; 1801-04; 1805-08; 1808-10; 1811-12; 1810-16 
1817-18; 1819-20; 1820-22; 1823-27; 1827-31; 1830-32 
1831-35; 1836; 1836-38; 1838-39; 1838-40; 1840-42 
1841-43; 1S42-44; 1844-46; 1849-51; 1849-52; 1852-55 
1854-56; 1856-59; 1857-60; 1850-65; 1S63-66. 

Public Road Records, 1825-39; 1840-56. 

Tax Lists, 1777-80. 

Equity Minute Docket, Fayetteville District Court, 

Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1799-1803; 1803-30. 
Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1784-91; 1793-1808; 

1804-10; 1810-16; 1817-18; 1819-22; 1823-28; 

1835-37; 1837-38; 1840-43; 1843-45; 1S45-46; 
Minutes of St. Gabriel's Parish, 1800-17. 
Record of Assessments and Taxes by districts, 
Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1784-90. 

Sales and Inventories of Estates, 1735-53; 

Marriage Bonds. 
County Court Minutes, 1785-94: 1794-1800; 

1803-10; 1810-13; 1814-17; 1820; 1820-23; 





1820-24; 1822-24; 

1844-47; 1S47-53. 
Lists of Taxables, 1804-22; 1823-36 
Deeds, 1797-99. 
Marriage Bonds. 

1831-36; 1836-40; 



Ninth Btexnial Report 

Gates : 

Guilford : 




Jones : 



Mecklenblrg : 


New Hanover: 


County Court Minutes, 1779-96; 1796-1815; lSlfi 
1830-58; 1&33-41; 1851-54; 1859-68. 

Trial and Reference Docket, 1784-86. 

Court Papers and Settlements of Estates, 1786-1806. 

Marriage Bonds. 

Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1786-89; 1796-99; 1800-02; 1803- 

06; 1806-10; 1810-13; 1813-16; 1816-18; 1818-20. 
Execution Docket, 1765-67. 
Land Entries, 1778-85. 
Trial Docket, 1764-67. 
Books of Taxables, 1796-1802; 1803-09. 

County Court Minutes, 1784-87; 1796-99; 1799-1802; 

Marriage Bonds. 

Wills, 1735-1848. 

Deeds, 1720-1850. 

County Tax Book, 1784-1834. 

Deeds, Edgecombe Precinct and County, Bertie Pre- 
cinct, 1732-40. Halifax, 1759-1761. 

County Trustees Records, 1826-51. 

Inventories of Estates, 1773-79. 

Superior District Court Records, 1783-1805. 

Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1785-97; 1804-28. 
Wills and Inventories of Estates, 1781-85. 
Record of Land Entries, 1778-95. 

Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1816-25; 1826-32. 
Miscellaneous Records, 1737-90; 1790-1818; 1818-1914. 
Marriage Bonds. 
Marriage Bonds. 
Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1734-71; 1772-89; 1771-1866. 
Original Will Books (2), 1797-1816; 1830-48. 
Inventories of Estates, 1758-1S10. 
List of Taxables, 1782. 
Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes. 1787-1801; 1792-96; 1813-16; 

1817-21; 1S25-29; 1829-35; 1835-39; 1839-45; 1843-44; 

1856-58; 1359-63; 1863-67; 1S67-68. 
Inventories of Estates. 1781-92. 
Orphans' Estates, 1781-1801. 
Marriage Bonds. 

!KT. C. Historical Commission 





Perquimans : 

Person : 


Rockixgham : 

Rowan : 

Rutherford : 


County Court Minutes, 1734-71; 1772-89; 1789-98; 1798- 
1822; l*2 9 -32: 1832-45; 1845-54; 1855-61; 1861-68. 

Wills, 1757-83; 1774-90. 
Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1752-62; 1752-93; 1762-^6; 1777- 
88; 1787-95; 1795-1800; 1800-04; 1805-09; 1810-14; 

1815-18; 1818-22; 
1840-45; 1845-47; 
Marriage Bonds. 

1822-26; 1826-31; 1831-35; 
1847-51; 1S52-56; 1854-57. 


Register of Births, Marriages and Deaths, 1691-1S22. 

Orphans' Court Minutes, 1757-85. 

Will Books, 1762-93. 

County Court Minutes, 1741-1868. 

Marriage Bonds. 

Register of Births, Marriages and Deaths, 1658-1820. 
Letters and Court Papers, 1702-1816; 1711-80. 
Precinct Court Papers, 1688-93; 1735-38. 
Inventories of Estates, Taxables and Titheables, 1715- 

98; 1715-1815. 
County Court Minutes, 1735-74; 1784-89; 1794-1801. 
Marriage Bonds. 

Deeds, 1737-44; 1744-94; 1806-12; 1813-27. 
Wills, 1711-1802; 1766-1808; 1776-1S00. 

Marriage Bonds. 

County Papers, 1761-1859. 

County Court Minutes, 1855-61; 1862-67; 1867-68. 

Marriage Bonds. 
Court Documents. 

County Court Minutes, 1786-95; 1796-1803; 1804-07. 
Marriage Bonds. 

Court Papers, 1750-1810. 
Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1794-98; 1799-1802; 18(03-06; 

1806-10; 1813-17; 1808-19; 1818-19; 1820-21; 1821-25; 

1825-30; 1831-37; 1838-44; 1862-68. 
Marriage Bonds. 
Wills, 1782-1S33. 
Guardians' Accounts, 1840-50. 
Land Entries, 1791-1803. 

Marriage Bonds. 

County Court Minutes, 1735-61; 1761-82; 17S3-9S; 179S- 

1811; 1809-16; 1S19-49; 1841-65; 1865-68. 
Marriage Bonds. 
Deeds, 1735-54; 1746-84; 1767-99. 
Miscellaneous Court Records, 1756-86. 

12 ^Ninth Biennial Report 

Wake: Marriage Bonds. 

Wareen: County C< irt Minutes, 1787-92; 1783-89; 1793-1800; 

1787-1S0G; 1791-1815; 1800-05; 1801-05; 1800-14; 1823- 
25; 1852-54. 
Marriage Bonds. 
Washington; Deeds, 1800-01. 
Wayne: County Court Minutes, 1787-88. 

Wills, in 10 small books, 1787-1824; also original wills, 

Inventories of Estates. 
Marriage Bonds (5) 1795. 

Marriage Licenses (2 books, indexed) 1851-61. 
Wilkes: County Court Minutes, 1797. 

County Court Records, 1778-99. 
Marriage Bonds. 

They consist of County Court Minutes, Deeds, Wills, Inventories, 
Tax Lists, and Marriage Bonds. These records are consulted daily 
by historical workers. 

Several hundred thousand documents were handled in the above 
work. There is not a paper in our collection that has not been classi- 
fied and made accessible to investigators. 

Handbook of Mantjscbipts 
A typewritten handbook, giving descriptions of manuscripts, similar 
to the Handbook of Manuscripts in the Library of Congress, has been 
systematically added to. The Handbook consists now of 187 pages 
and describes 137 collections. 

The following calendars are ready for publication: 

North Carolina Letters in the Van Buren Papers, 1824-1858. 

Hale Papers, 1850-1866. 

D. L. Swain Manuscripts, 1793-1868. 

North Carolina Letters from The Crittenden Papers, 1827-1863. 

Hayes Collection, 1728-1806. 

Spencer Papers, 1859-1902. 

William L. Saunders Manuscripts, 1866-1888. 

Dartmouth Manuscripts, 1720-1783. 

Repairing of Manuscripts 
17,752 sheets have been repaired in various ways, as follows : 
8,567 repaired with paper. 
1,442 repaired with crepeline. 
561 hinged with cloth. 
12,904 mounted for binding. 

X. C. Historical Commission 13 

88 pages inserted in books already bound. 
95 . 'j sheets. 

4 large maps mounted on cloth and hinged. 

Ixdex to Revolutionary Army Accounts 
The card index to the Revolutionary Army Accounts mentioned 
in previous reports has been copied and bound into five handy volumes. 
These indexes, together with those to the Colonial and State Records, 
give complete references to all available sources of information about 
North Carolina's soldiers in the Revolutionary War. 

Revolutionary Roster 
Under direction of the Secretary, Air. Hoses Amis is preparing from 
the above material a complete roster of North Carolina soldiers in 
the Revolutionary War. 

Index to Hathaway's Genealogical Register 
Mr. R. D. TF. Connor is preparing for the Commission a card index 
to Hathawaw's Genealogical Register. This will give invaluable aid 
to genealogical investigators. 


Sixty-four volumes were bound as follows : 
Chowan County Papers, 1685-1805, I-XIX. 
Wills, Vol. IV, 1733-1752. 
Court Papers, District of Edenton, 1751-1787. 
General Court Papers, Vols. I-II, 1690-1754. 
Vice Admiralty Papers, Vols. I-IV, 1697-1759. 
Customs House Papers. Port of Roanoke, Vols. I-II, 1682-1775. 
Albemarle County Papers, Secretary's Office, 1678-1739, Vols. I-II. 
Granville District Papers, Land Office Records, 1744-1763. 
Governors' Papers, State Series, 17S7-1814, Vols. XVI-XLI. 
Lenoir County Papers. Lovitt Hines Collection, 1737-1914. Vols. I-III. 
World War Records, R. B. House Papers, 1916-1920, Vols. I-II. 

The following publications have come from the press: 

Bulletin 27. The Eighth Biennial Report of the Secretary of the 

North Carolina Historical Commission, December 1, 191S-November 

30, 1920. Faper. 40 pp. 
Bulletin 28. Proceedings of the Twentieth and Twenty-first Annual 

Sessions of the State Literary and Historical Association of North 

Carolina, 1920 and 1921. Paper. 128 pp. 
North Carolina Manual for 1921. Compiled and edited by R. D. W. 

Connor. Cloth. 4S6 pp. 

14 Ninth Biennial Report 

Papers of Thomas Ruffin. Compiled and edited by J. G. deR. Hamilton. 
Vol. III. piotk 164 pp. Vol. IV. Cloth. 403 pp. 

DeGraffenried's Account of the Founding of New Bern. Edited by 
Vincent H. Todd in co-operation with Julius Goebel. Cloth. 434 pp. 

Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. Edited by Adelaide L. 
Fries. Vol. I. Cloth. 511 pp. 

Publication of Woeld "War Records 

In co-operation with the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the 
Collector of War Records, R. B. House, wrote and published the Xorth 
Carolina Day Program for 1921, this being a brief history of Xorth 
Carolina in the "World War. Paper. 72 pp. 

For the County Commissioners of Caswell County he edited and pub- 
lished Caswell County in the World War. Paper. 350 pp. 

Use of Records 

One hundred and fifteen people came in person to consult the records 
in the Commission's archives. Three expert genealogists have also been 
constantly employed in making researches for people in all parts of 
the country. While genealogical information has been most frequently 
sought, the following subjects have been worked' out from records in 
our possession : 

John Motley Morehead and the Development of North Carolina, 1796-1866. 
By Burton Alva Konkle, with an introduction by Hon. H. G. Connor. Cloth. 
437 pp. Philadelphia, Campbell, 1922. 

The Negro in North Carolina to 1860. Thesis of R. H. Taylor, graduate 
student at the University of Michigan. 

Union Sentiment in North Carolina During the Civil War. Thesis of Miss 
Mary Shannon Smith, Columbia University. 

Willie P. Mangum. Thesis of Miss Penelope McDuffie, Columbia University. 

Ratification of the Federal Constitution. Thesis of Miss Louise Irby, 
Columbia University. 

The Farmers Alliance. Special research by Dr. J. D. Hicks, Professor of 
History, North Carolina College for Women. 

History of Education in North Carolina. Special research by Prof. M. C S. 
Noble, University jf North Carolina. 

Special research in educational documents by Dr. E. W. Knight, University 
of North Carolina. 

North Carolina Wills. Research by F. W. Clontz. Yale University. 

W T illiam R. Davie, special research by R. D. W. Connor, University of 
North Carolina. 

North Carolina in the World War. R. B. House, in conjunction with the 
Department of Public Instruction. 

X. C. Historical Commissi;, 15 


Additions to Former Collections 
From one to a dozen pieces were added to the following collect] 

of private papers: Thomas Person, John Williams, Martin Howard, 
William Gaston, Joseph Burton, James C. Dobbin, George E. Badger. 
John Branch, Benjamin Hawkins, I). H. Hill, Z. B. Vance, James 
Phillips, Nathaniel Macon, Griffith Rutherford, Joseph Benton, Abner 
Nash, L. O'B. Branch, Richard Caswell, Nicholas Long, William Polk. 
R. D. Catlin, T. H. Holmes. 

More numerous and important additions are as follows : 

John Heritage Betas Papers. — To this collection of John Heritage 
Bryan, Colonel J. Bryan Grimes has added 147 pieces, dating from 
1798 to 1S70, adding interesting and valuable data to this important his- 
torical and biographical collection. 

Walter Clark Papers. — To this collection of his personal papers 
Chief Justice Walter Clark has added 1,063 pieces. This brings the 
total of this valuable collection to 5,032 pieces. 

Walter Clark: Manuscripts. — To this collection of valuable histor- 
ical manuscripts, Chief Justice Clark has added 569 pieces, making a 
total in this collection of 1,763 pieces. 

William A. Graham Papers. — To this collection of his father's 
papers, Major W. A. Graham has added 351 pieces, dating from 1776 
to 1875. 

Executive Papers. — 11,000 papers were added to the papers of North 
Carolina Governors, as follows: Holden, Vance, Brogden, Jarvis, 
Fowle, Aycock, Glenn, Craig, and Bickett. Thirty-one letter-books were 
added to our collections, and six warrant books. These have been noted 

Civil War Papers. — From Captain E. M. Michaux, Goldsboro, were 
received 2,500 pieces of Civil War material, including 500 telegrams, 
1861-1865. Quartermaster Returns 26th Regiment, 1861-1865 ; J Muster 
Rolls 26th Regiment, 1862-1861:. Band and Hospital service. From 
Dr. H. T. King, a roster of Pitt County soldiers, 1860-1865, 60 pp. mss. 

Papers from State Offices. — The following papers and volumes 
were received from various State offices : 

Secretary of State. 1729-1905, 4,900 pieces. 

Treasurer, Comptroller, and Auditor, 1790-1870, 33 volumes. 7,900 

Customs House Papers, 900 pieces. 17SS-1790. 

1 Presented by Mrs. John M. Ellington and Mr. Cadmus Young. Polenta. 


County Records. — 223 cases and volumes were received from 
following counties: Bute, Buncombe, Brunswick, Carteret, Cumber- 
land, Duplin, Halifax, Now Hanover, Northampton, Orange, Robeson, 
Wayne. This swells our county collection to 1,088 cases and volume 
covered in the list above. 

Maps. — The following maps were received: 

Map of the United States with insert of North Carolina, 1804. 
Plan of Wilmington, 1769. From Dr. Charles M. Andrews. 
London in Miniature, Edward Mogg, 1829. From Mrs. Fattie D. B. 

World War Kecords, 1914-1919 

Individual Records — Army — 300. — North Carolina War Service 
Records (World War), 1914-1919. Compiled by Daughters of the Amer- 
ican Revolution. Cloth. 2 Vols. 885 pp. Local Board Lists of 
Inducted men from ^Torth Carolina, alphabetized by race, names, and 
counties, for binding — a list of about 55,100 names. In conjunction 
with the Adjutant-General we have also a card index to all service 
men from ISTorth Carolina by all classes. This list contains over 90,000 

Individual Records — Xavy — 4. 

Individual Records — Air Service — 4. 

Deserters. — A complete file to date of the deserters from Xorth Caro- 
lina, as published by the War Department and the Congressional 

Soldiers' Letters — 120. — George W. Alston, Joseph A. Bumpus, 
Robert W Winston, Jr., and Collier Cobb, Jr. 

Photographs — 50. 

History of Xorth Carolina Units. — Base Hospital 65. 

30th Division. — Field Orders 2nd Army Corps — 1 volume, also 2 
volumes manuscript. 

Calendar of Records of 30th Division in the files of the Historical 
Section, Army War College, MSS. 60 pp. 

Calendar of Records of 60th Brigade, 30th Division, in the files of 
the Historical Section, Army War College, MSS. 14 pp. 

Calendar of Records of 105th Sanitary Train, in the files of the 
Historical Section, Army War College, MSS. 1 p. 

Calendar of Records of the 10th Field Squad Battalion, in the files 
of the Historical Section, Army War College, MSS. 2 pp. 

Calendar of Records of the 105th Supply Train, in the files of the 
Historical Section, Army War College, MSS. 1 p. 

"N. C. Historical Commission IT 

Calendar of Records of the 105th Engineers, in the files of the His- 
torical Section, Axmy SVar Collage, MSS. 10 pp. 

Calendar of Records of 113th Field Artillery, in the files of the His- 
torical Section, Army "War College, MSS. 1 p. 

Calendar of Records of 115th Machine Gun Battalion, in the files 
of the Historical Section, Army War College, MSS. 2 pp. 

Calendar of Records of the 105th Train Headquarters, in the files 
of the Historical Section, Army War College, MSS. 1 p. 

Calendar of Records of the 119th Infantry, in the files of the His- 
torical Section, Army War College, MSS. 7 pp. 

Calendar of Records of the 120th Infantry, in the files of the His- 
torical Section, Army War College, MSS. 3 pp. 

113th Field Artillery, about 10,000 original records, 1916-1919. 

113th Machine Gun Battalion. Calendar of Records, Army War 
College, MSS. 2 pp. 

117th Engineer Train. Calendar of Records in Army War College, 
MSS. 15 pp. 

American Legion. — Complete file of American Legion Weekly to date. 
Complete file of papers Department of North Carolina. 

Red Cross. — History of following chapters : Englehard, Hyde Coun- 
ty; Greensboro; Hillsboro. 

War Savings. — 200 pieces from Miss Kate Herring. 

Y. M. C. A.— Report of Greensboro Y. M. C. A., April 19 17- July, 

County War History. — Granville, Vol., 214 pp.; Chowan, 300 
pieces; Halifax, 200 pieces; Caswell, Vol., 350 pp.; Brunswick, 200 
pieces ; Union, 60 pp. MSS. 

Women in the Wak. — Women's Committee, Council of Defence, 15 
pp. MSS. 

Miscellaneous. — 
Pamphlets — 2,000. 
War Poetry — 100 pieces. 
Mrs. R. O. Burton, Scrap Book — 10,000 clippings. 

Newspapers. — In addition to the E. Burke Haywood collection of 
Civil War newspapers, systematic search for North Carolina newspapers 
prior to 1800 has been prosecuted. Through the courtesy of the 
Library of Congress in making photostats of papers in its possession, 
the Massachusetts Historical Society in making photostat positives 

18 Ninth Biennial Report 

under an arrangement made in 1920, and the University of North Caro- 
lina Library i„ h q ling olumea and' odd numbers of papers, the 

Historical Commission now }n\* 652 numbers as follows: 

Washington Federalist 
Rind & Prentiss, Washington, D. C. 

Year No. Date Remarks 

1801 182 November 25 Pages 1 and 2. 

The Virginia Gazette 
John Dixon & William Hunter 

1775 1272 December 23 Pages 1 and 2. 
177S 1415 May 15 

The Xorth Carolina Journal 
Abraham Hodge, Halifax 












































4 and extra. 











































September 5 



218 19 and mutilated original. 

X. C. Historical Commission 


Year No. 


1790 219 Oc 










November 7 








December 5 




Pages 2, 3 and 4 missing. 
The Xorth Carolina Gazette 
James Davis, Xewbern 




Pages 1 and 2 missing 




















Pages 1 and 2 missing. 
































Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 



Pages 1 and 4 missing. 







































Pages 3 and 4. 








and Supplement, 1 page. 














The original is 

20 Ninth Biennial Report 























































19 Pages 3 an 





3 Mutilated. 




















• 4 























(The following are printei 

















September 24 












Jam ary 
















X. C. Historical Commission 21 

Year No. Date Remarks 

n E)3 489 June 6 

491 20 

493 Julv 4 

494 11 

510 October 24 Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 

.511 31 

5J2 November 7 

513 14 

519 December 26 

1796 519 January 2 
526 February 13 
528 " 27 

March . . Pages 1 and 2 mutilated. 

533 April 2 

534 9 Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 
537 30 

539 May 14 

540 " 21 

541 28 

542 June 5 

543 12 

544 18 Page3 2 and 3 missing. 

545 25 

546 July 2 

547 9 

548 16 
551 August 6 
553 20 

555 September 3 

556 10 

557 17 

559 October 1 

560 8 

562 22 

563 29 

564 November 5 

565 12 

566 19 

567 26 

568 December 3 Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 

569 10 

570 17 
572 31 

1797 573 Januarv 7 

575 21 Slightly blotted. 

576 28 

577 February 4 
580 25 

582 March 11 

583 18 

584 25 

586 April 8 

587 15 
603 August 5 

^Martin's North Carolina Gazette 
F. X. Martin, Newbern 



July 11 


August 15 


December 19 

22 Hurra Biennial Report 

The State Gazette of North Carolina 
Ho'ls^e <y Blanchard, Newbern 

Year No. Date Remarks 


Pages 1 and 4. 

Mutilated — printed by Hodge & Will- 
Slightly mutilated, crepelined. 

The N"ewbern Gazette 
John C. Osborn & Co.. Xewhern 

1798 34 November 24 
35 Deeember 1 


October 4 


November 15 


February 7 


March 27 










Slightly mutilated, 




























Printed by John S. 




2 mutilated. 

pages 3 and 4 are miss- 

1800 111 Mav 23 Printed by John S. Pasteur. Pases 1 and 

The North Carolina Minerva and Fayetteville Advertiser 
Hodge & Boylan, Fayetteville 



























Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 




Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 



Pages 1 and 2 mutilated. 





• 3 


















' 5 





Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 



N*. C. Historical Commission. 













































































































Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 

Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 

The [North Carolina Sentinel and Fayetteville Gazette 
Thomas Connoly & Co., Fayetteville 


1795 9 July 

11 August 




29 Published by J. V. Lewis and T. Connoly. 

The Xorth Carolina Chronicle; or Fayetteville Gazette 
Sibley & Howard, Fayetteville 

1790 23 Februarv 1 

3 (35) May ~ 10 

37 24 

38 31 

39 June 7 
45 July 19 

24 Ninth Biennial Report. 

Fayetteville Gazette 
Sibley & Howard, Fayetteville 







August " 24 

September 14 


October 12 

Pages 3 and 4 mutilated, crepelined 





Fayetteville Gazette 
Alexander Martin, for John Sibley 





September 25 














• 6 







Jam: ary 















65 2,N ov embei 

• 19 

Printed by Laucelot 


Hall's Wilmington Gazeti 











and extra of 2 pages. 























































November 15 



A. MtJtin for John 


































X. C. Historical Commission 25 

The Wilmington Gazette 
AUznand Hall, "Wilmington 


The Xorth Carolina Gazette 
Andrew Stuart, Wilmington 

1766 70 February 12 Pases 2 and 3 missing. 
72 " 26 

No date 59 November 27 Continuation of the North Carolina Gazette. 

The Cape Fear Mercury 
A. Boyd, Wilmington 

1769 7 November 24 

1773 156 January 13 Pages 3 and 4 missing. 
190 September 3 

204 December 29 

1774 223 May 11 Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 

? ? One sheet of what appears to be above 


1775 266 Julv 28 

267 August 7 

268 11 

269 25 

270 September 1 

The Wilmington Sentinel, and General Advertiser 
Bowen & Howard, Wilmington 

1788 16 June 18 

The Wilmington Chronicle and N"orth Carolina Weekly 

James Carey, Wilmington 


























1<96 4 February 4 Printed bv John Bellew. 


Ninth Biennial Report 

The State Gazette of North Carolina 
Hodge & Wills, Edenton 


Year No. 


1788 140 





































17S9 156 


































































































N. C. Historical Commission 27 


Year No. 


1789 200 


■ g 


















1790 209 































Pages 1 and 4. 

















































• 3 


















■ 5 












1791 261 










Ninth Biennial Report 










Pages 3 and 4. 






























■ 2 








November 11 

















• 21 







Printed by Henry Wills. 




























Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 



Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 









































Extra, with pages 1 and 4 : 
4 missing. 







!N\ C. Historical Commission 


Year No. 


170G 546 
















































? 563 


? 564 


1797 572 





and supple 


























and extra, 











and supple 














September 7 








Pages 2 an 


1 page. 


State Gazette of Xorth Carolina 
James Wills, Edenton 
























Pages 3 and 4 mutilated. 


































The Edenton Intelligences 
Maurice Murphy, Edeuton 

1788 25 April 9 

The Herald of Freedom 
James Wills, Edenton 

1799 680 March 27 
684 May 1 

The Post-Angel, ok Universal Entertainment 
Printed for Robert Archibald by Joseph Beasley, Edenton 

1800 2 September 10 4 pages. 
9 November 12 

The NTorth Carolina Minerva, and Raleigh Advertiser 
Hodge & Boylan, Raleigh 



May 28 


Julv 9 


August 27 


September 10 


October S 




November 26 

March 11 


August 12 

1800 March 11 Extra. 

just 12 

The !North Carolina Minerva 
Hodge & Boylan, Raleigh 

1800 245 December 23 

The N"orth Carolina Gazette 
Robert Ferguson, for Thomas Davis, Hillsborough 

1786 February* 16 Number torn off. 

The N"orth Carolina Mercury and Salisbury Advertiser 
Francis Coupee 

1799 62 June 27 

N. C. Historical Commission 31 


Frederick Nash Papers. — From Assistant Attorney-General Frank 
Nash the Commission received the papers of Chief Justice Frederick 
Nash, 1781-1858, 25 pieces. 

Tazewell Hargrove Papers. — Mr. W. Stamps Howard of Tarboro 
gave to the Commission the Tazewell C. Hargrove collection of auto- 
graphs of members of the North Carolina Secession Convention, 1S61. 

T. D. Hogg Papers. — From Miss Sallie Dortch of Ealeigh the Com- 
mission received 2,000 pieces of miscellaneous Civil War material, the 
property of her grandfather, Major T. D. Hogg. 

David Clark Papers. — Chief Justice Walter Clark gave to the His- 
torical Commission 19 letters of his father, General David Clark, 
relating to the defenses of the Eoanoke River, 1860. 

E. Burke Haywood Collection of Civil War Newspapers. — From 
Mr. Ernest Haywood of Ealeigh the Historical Commission received 
the following collection of newspapers, deposited as a memorial to his 
father and mother, Dr. E. Burke Haywood and Mrs. Lucy A. Haywood. 
The collection includes : 

Daily Sentinel of Ealeigh, 10 vols., 1865-1870. 

Ealeigh Standard, 9 vols., 1859-1866. 

Ealeigh Eegister, 5 vols., 1850-1868. 

Ealeigh State Journal, 1 vol., 1860-1865. 

Ealeigh Daily Conservative, 1 vol., 1864-1865. 

Ealeigh Progress, 1 vol., 1862-1S65. 

Ealeigh Daily Confederate, 1 vol., 1864-1865. 

Eichmond Enquirer, 2 vols., 1863-1864. 

Richmond Sentinel, 1 vol., 1863-1S64. 

Richmond Examiner, 3 vols., IS 61-18 65. 

North Carolina Presbyterian (Fayetteville), 1 ,\ol., 1S5S-1S63. 

National Intelligencer (Washington, D. C), 9 vols., 1S40-1S59. 

Diary of Catharine Ann Edmondston. — From Mrs. Katherine Deve- 
reux Mackay the Historical Commission received the diary of Mrs. 
Catharine Ann Edmondston, daughter of Thomas Pollock Devereux and 
Catharine Ann Devereux of Ealeigh. The diary is in four volumes. 
It deals with daily happenings on the plantation, Hascosea, near Scot- 
land Neck, North Carolina, and with the general progress of the Civil 
War. It covers the dates 1860-1S66. 

Drury Lacy Letters. — From Col. J. Bryan Grimes the Historical 
Commission received a collection of 40 letters written by Rev. Charles 
Phillips of Chapel Hill to Rev. Drury Lacy of Ealeigh. The letters 

32 Ninth Biennial Report 

cover the year 1883, and form a chapter in a correspondence that 
tinned from 1510 till about 1884 between these two friends. 

Dickson Letters. — From Mr. R. K. Bryan, Scotts Hill, X. C, the 
Commission received 10 letters written by William Dickson, Duplin 
County, 1ST, C, to his cousin, Robert Dickson, in Ireland. The letters 
cover the years 1784-1790, and give a true picture of the clo 
years of the Revolution. 

"Wood John Hamlin Papers. — This collection of 278 letters waw 
secured by purchase. They cover the years 1762-1835, and deal with 
business and plantation affairs on the estate of Wood John Hamlin 
in Halifax County. 

Register of Licentiates. — Board of Medical Examiners of Xorth 
Carolina, 1 vol., 1859-1920. Deposited by Dr. Kemp P. Battle. 

Autograph of John Hancock. — From Mr. Owen Kenan, Wil- 

Hogg Deeds. — 13 pieces from Mrs. C. A. Shore, Raleigh. 


In the summer of 1922 Mr. R. D. W. Connor searched the records of 
Xorth Carolina in the British Public Record Office and the British 
Museum. The notable results of Mr. Connor's search may be seen in 
the following brief report : 

Chapel Hill, X. C, Xovember 17, 1922. 
Dr. D. H. Hill, Secretary, 

The North Carolina Historical Commission, 
Raleigh, JS". C. 

Dear Dr. Hill : — In accordance with the request of the Xorth Caro- 
lina Historical Commission that I go to London to examine the collections 
in the British Public Record Office and the British Museum to ascertain 
whether they contain any documents of importance to the colonial his- 
tory of Xorth Carolina of which the State does not now have copies, 
I sailed from Xew York June 17th and spent the eight weeks from 
June 26th to August 19th in London at work in the two above mentioned 

The chief depository of material bearing on Colonial America is the 
British Public Record Office, where my work was mostly done. The 
greater portion of the Xorth Carolina material deposited there has 
been printed in the Colonial and State Records of Xorth Carolina, but 
much valuable material remains to be copied. How much there is of 
such material I cannot sav, because the collections are so large that 

title : 

X. C. Historical Commission. 33 

in the time at my disposal I could not possibly make a complete exam- 
tnatit .. of ■ T riea of Colonial (Mice Paper? alone embraces 

1,742 volumes and bundles of manuscripts. It wag perfectly obi i 
therefore, that in eight weeks I could examine but a few, comparatively, 
of the hundreds of volumes that might contain Xorth Carolina materia!. 
I decided accordingly to examine in each, collection a sufficient number 
of volumes to enable me to determine three things, namely: 

1. Whether they contain unpublished material of importance to our 

2. The character and scope of that material; 

3. The best method of obtaining copies of it. 

Altogether I made such an examination of 371 volumes and bundles 
in the following collections, which are described in Andrew's "Guide," 
in the volume and on the pages indicated in parentheses following each 

State Papers, Foreign, and Foreign Office Papers (I, 18-41). 

State Papers, Domestic, and Home Office Papers (I, 42-74). 

Colonial Office Papers (I, 78-267). 

Admiralty Papers (II. 1-65). 

Audit Office, Declared Papers (II, 66-78). 

Audit Office, Declared Accounts (II, 79-105). 

Lord Chamberlain Papers (II, 107-108). 

Treasury Papers (II, 136-269). 

War Office Papers (II, 270-303). 

In each of the volumes, or bundles, which I examined, I listed the 
documents which bear directly on Is'orth Carolina, and I attach hereto 
a check-list of those documents. Many of the documents on this list 
are printed in the Colonial Records, but I have not had time yet to 
check them up completely. Those which I have checked have been 
marked out. I have thus checked through the first 44 pages of the 
attached list : some of the documents which I have not marked out may 
be in the Colonial Records, but if so I have not been able to locate 
them. An examination of this list will show that there is still a vast 
amount of material bearing on the colonial history of Xorth Carolina 
which is not in print, but it is impossible now to say what the extent 
of this material is. For instance, the first 57 pages of the attached list 
contain the Xorth Carolina material found in 109 volumes and bundles 
of Colonial Office Papers; but there are 1,633 volumes and bundles 
in the series which I did not examine. 

The attached list reveals four classes of documents which, it seems 
to me, are important to our history, namely : 

34 Xixtii Biexxtal Repobt 

1. Documents dealing directly with North Carolina and North I it slang. 

2. Documents bearing upon territory formerly but not now i 
within the limits of North Carolina. 

3. Documents dealing with matters of common interest to all the .'•. 
colonies, or to two or mere including North Carolina, but which do not 
refer to specific colonies. 

4. Documents concerning individuals connected with the history of North 
Carolina, but concerning them either before such connection began or 
after it ceased. 

The final point to be considered is the best procedure to be followe 1 
for procuring copies of this material. It will be a simple matter to 
employ the services of expert copyists in London at reasonable rates 
of compensation, but the chief problem will be to select the documents 
to be copied. These are scattered through hundreds of volumes and 
bundles of manuscripts, each of which contains papers bearing on 
many different subjects. There will be no difficulty in regard to docu- 
ments which bear on their face the colony to which they refer, but 
hundreds of them must be selected from their subject matter. This, 
of course, will require some knowledge of Colonial American history. 
if not of Xorth Carolina history, on the part of the person making 
the selections. It seems to me, therefore, that the Commission must 
decide upon one of two courses : 

First, to send to London a member of the staff of the Commission 
with instructions to make an examination of every volume and every 
bundle (except those I have already examined) and' list every document 
bearing on our history sufficiently directly to make it advisable for us 
to have a copy of it. If this is done, such person ought to be instructed 
within the field. Such a procedure would, of course, involve a rather 
long residence in England — at least a year; perhaps longer — and con- 
siderable expense. The alternative, it seems to me, is 

Secondly, to draw from the data which I have already collected gen- 
eral instructions describing the kinds of material wanted, and trust to 
some carefully selected agent resident in England to make the selections 
under such guidance. A large percentage of the material would be 
obvious; the doubtful material might be listed by descriptive titles and 
submitted to the Commission for instructions, though this would, of 
course, involve extra handling of the documents and extra expense. 
Under this plan many documents of which we ought to have copies 
would doubtless be overlooked, but the work could be done probably at 
les3 expense than would be involved in the first plan suggested above. 

Finally, whatever is done ought to be done as soon as possible. Many 
of these documents — among them some of the most important — are in 

K". C. Historical Commission £5 

very bad condition and are rapidly disintegrating under the constant 
bundling to \ Inch i] cL This is especially true <'■' 

the American Loyalists Papers, which are of th • utmost ral te for the 

social, economic, political and military history of Xorth Carolina during 
the American Revolution. For a description of these papers see the 
attached check-list under the head "Audit Office Papers." Many of these 
documents are so rotten that they cannot be handled ereiJ with the 
utmost care without damage. 

In conclusion, I must not omit to say that whatever the Commission 
decides to do about these documents, it may expect to receive the fullest 
and heartiest co-operation of the officials of the Public Record Office. 

Very truly yours, 

R. D. W. Coxxor. 


A committee of citizens in Xew Hanover County formed an associa- 
tion to mark the southwest salient of Fort Fisher. A bronze marker 
was placed on the site of this salient to preserve the memory of its 
location and importance in this historic fort. 


Col. Fred A. Olds wrote and published, through the courtesy of the 
Orphans Friend, Oxford, X. C, "A Story of the Counties of Xorth 
Carolina, with Other Data. 7 ' Paper, 64 pp. The Historical Commission 
distributed 2,500 of these invaluable pamphlets. 


I submit herewith the report of the Collector for the Hall of History, 
and call your special attention to the fine collection of World War relics 
known as the Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt Collection. The Museum 
has been kept open every day of the past biennium, and 315 classes 
of school children received lectures there on Xorth Carolina historv. 
Thousands of visitors have viewed the collections. 

Report of the Collector for the Hall of History 

Raleigh, X. C, December 1, 1922. 

Dr. D. H. Hill, Secretary: 

I beg leave to submit herewith my report as Collector for the Hall of 
History for the period December 1, 1920-Xoveniber 30, 1922 : 

The search for relics and documents during the past two years has 
yielded rich returns, in great variety, covering all periods of Xorth 


36 Nixth Biex^ial Report 

Carolina's history, and it has been made in practically all the counties, 
the only exception being those created since 1865, which present do 
field for such activities. 

Special efforts, extremely successful, were made to complete the 
notable collection of county records, including marriage bonds. Records 
from Bute (extinct since 1779), Duplin, Halifax, Buncombe, North- 
ampton, Carteret, Robeson, Cumberland, Wayne, New Hanover, 
Brunswick, and Orange, were secured, and marriage bonds from Butf>, 
Warren, Rowan, Brunswick, Pasquotank, New Hanover, Lnd Robeson. 
In some cases the existence of this material was not known by the 
county officials. Records of births, marriages, and deaths in Pasquo- 
tank (formed in 1672) were brought in from 1685. 

Colonial relics in great variety form a notable addition to the col- 
lection in the Hall of History. Revolutionary relics from the battle- 
fields of Moore's Creek, Ramseur's Mill, King's Mountain, Guilford 
Court House, and from other sources, including John Penn's Diary, 
have been added. 

Indian relics from Lake Mattamuskeet and other point3 have been 
brought in and installed; also many which illustrate the Scotch settle- 
ment and life. 

Most careful searches were made in the State Capitol and in other 
buildings for historical material, and the "finds" were surprisingly 
numerous and varied. The records of the Governors in the executive 
office were also brought in, arranged and installed in the archives 

Oil portraits of William Gaston, the writer of the State song, "The 
Old North State," and of Weldon N. Edwards, who presided over the 
Secession Convention at Raleigh, May, 1861, were received by pre- 
sentation as gifts. 

The muster rolls of the 26th North. Carolina Infantry, C. S. A. 
(Vance, Burgwyn and Lane, its colonels in succession), were presented 
and tell the stirring history of the regiment which lost more men in 
the war than any other of the more than 4,000 regiments in the Federal 
and Confederate armies. 

Many relics of the War Between the States were gathered, among 
them the brigade flag of Brigadier General Lawrence O'Brian Branch, 
who was killed in Virginia. 

Numerous relics of the World War, illustrating North Carolina's 
part in it, were secured, notably an illustrative collection from the 
battlefields where the 105th Engineers were engaged, these being a 

N". C. Historical Commission 37 

gift from its colonel, Joseph Hyde Pratt, as a memorial to the 
animation, which was in the 30th — or Old Hickory — Division of 
the American Expeditionary Forces. 

Autographed photographs of Xortk Carolina officers of high rank 
are also among the new additions. The Xorth Carolina branch of the 
Red Cross and the great hospital at Oteen, near Asheviile, presented 
tapestries which were gifts by King George of Great Britain. Photo- 
graphs illustrating the visit of ^Marshal Foch of France to Xorth 
Carolina were another addition. 

The music and words of the original "Dixie," with a photograph 
and the autograph of Daniel D. Emmett, the author of the famous 
song, are lent for a year by the owner, Mr. Curtis, of Rochester, X. Y., 
and from here go to Cornell University. 

During the two years all the one hundred counties have been visited, 
and in most of them history talks were made in colleges and schools of 
all degrees, in cities and towns and the rural sections. These included 
the State Summer School at the State College, and the Appalachian 
Training School at Boone. At the latter the writer's two weeks holiday 
was spent in giving lecture courses. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Feed A. Olds. 


Below will be found the report of the Legislative Reference Librarian. 
I call your attention to the various services performed by this depart- 
ment, and to the particular service of the bill-drafting service rendered 
the General Assembly. Six hundred fifty bills were drafted here during 
the regular session of the General Assembly of the 1921 and the special 

The report follows: 

Raleigh, 1ST. C., November 20, 1922. 
De. D. H. Hill, Secretary, 

North Carolina Historical Commission, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Dear Sir: — I beg to submit herewith a report of the work of the 
Legislative Reference Library from December 1, 1920, to Xovember 
20, 1922: 

The past twentv-four months have been unusuallv active ones in the 
Legislative Reference Library. During this period the following publi- 

38 Xinth Biennial Report 

cations have been prepared and distributed among State and county 
cials, libraries and civic and professional organizations throng 
the State: 

1. Two editions of the Directory of State and County Officials. Hundreds 
of requests were received for this useful booklet, both from within and 
without the State. 

2. A booklet containing the official vote by counties for President, State 
officers, Congressmen and constitutional amendments at the election held in 
November, 1920. A similar booklet covering the 1922 election will be issued 

3. Bulletin No. 3, containing amendments to the Consolidated Statutes 
enacted at the Extra Session of 1920 and the regular session of 1921, arranged 
according to the section numbers of the Consolidated Statutes. This bulletin 
of 69 pages has proved invaluable to the lawyers and court officials through- 
out the State. 

4. Bulletin No. 4 (24 pages), containing amendments to the Consolidated 
Statutes enacted at the Extra Session of the General Assembly held in 
December, 1921. This bulletin, together with Bulletin No. 3, contains all 
amendments to the Consolidated Statutes enacted since its adoption in 1919. 

5. A booklet of 32 pages containing synopsis of Game Laws of various 
counties brought up to date with a supplement of game legislation enacted 
at the Special Session of 1921. 

6. A court calendar was compiled showing the dates of the Superior Court 
held in the various counties of the State. This is especially useful to court 
officials, lawyers, and the public generally. 

A concise handbook of information as to the activities of the various 
State departments is being compiled. This publication is designed to 
give a brief description of all State agencies and will serve as a guide 
to all persons seeking information and assistance. It will contain a 
sketch of the w r ork, together with citation of laws creating each depart- 
ment, showing its chartered function. 

Prior to the election of 1922, the press was furnished a compilation 
showing the compensation of members of the various State Legislatures, 
so that the voters might be informed when passing on the constitutional 
amendment increasing the compensation of members of the General 

During the regular session of the General Assembly of 1921 five hun- 
dred bills were prepared and drafted for members, and during the Extra 
Session of December, 1921, one hundred and fifty bills were likewise 
prepared in this office, three stenographers from the offices of the En- 
grossing Clerks of the House and Senate having been kept busy type- 
writing the bills drafted. Members of the General Assembly, partic- 
ularly the lay members, have appreciated this feature of the work in 
the Legislative Reference Library more than ever. 

1ST. C. Historical Commission 39 

In addition to the above outline of some of the principal activities 
during tin | vo years, hundreds of inquiries touching on legislation 

in this and other States have been investigated and answered, and in 
no case has this office failed to give prompt and careful attention to 
ail matters referred to it. 

Since January, 1922, Mrs. TV. J. Peele has been regularly employed 
as stenographer and assistant to the Legislative Reference Librarian, 
and her services have been entirely satisfactory. 

Respectfully yours, 

Henry M. London, 
Legislative Reference Librarian. 


The various and constant services rendered the public by the His- 
torical Commission's staff cannot be adequately summarized. But the 
following analysis of the foregoing report will show the main features 
of the work for the past two years : 

1. 95,931 documents were properly arranged for use in our collections. 
Over 100,000 other documents were grouped in proper classifications. 500 
cases of new material were handled. 

2. 1,078 cases and volumes of county records from fifty counties were 
arranged and catalogued. 

3. 17,752 pieces were scientifically repaired and mounted. 

4. The Revolutionary Army Accounts were made available by an index 
of five volumes. 

5. 64 volumes were bound. 

6. 6 publications were issued, a total of 6,000 volumes. 

7. 33 collections were added to. 

8. 12 new collections were secured. 

9. New material in London was found and catalogued. 

10. 115 researchers made use of the records; of these, 11 were preparing 
monographs on North Carolina. 

11. 315 classes, totalling 7,300 school children, received lectures on North 
Carolina in the Hall of History. 

12. 1,100 objects were added to the Hall of History. 

13. The Collector for the Hall of History made 392 talks in public schools, 
and issued "The Story of the Counties" to 2,500 people and institutions. 

14. Two publications on the World War were prepared. 

15. 5 publications were issued by the Legislative Reference Library, and 
650 bills were drafted. 

Respectfully submitted, 

D. H. Hill, 
Raleigh, North Carolina, December 1, 1922. 

No Man is Fit to be Entrusted with 
Control of the Present Who is Ignorant 
of the Past; and ~No People "Who Are 
Indifferent to Their Past Xeed Hope to 
Make Their Future Great. 






Twenty-second Annual Session 


State Literary and Historical Association 
of North Carolina 

DECEMBER 7-S, 1922 



Twenty-second Annual Session 


State Literary and Historical Association 
of North Carolina 

DECEMBER 7-8, 1922 

Compiled by 
R. B. HOUSE, Secretary 


Bynum Printing Company 

State Printers 



The North Carolina Historical Commission 

T. M. PrrrMAar, Chairman, Henderson 

M, C. S. Noble. Chapel Hill Heriot Clakksox. Charlotte 

Frank Wood, Edenton W. N. Everett. Raleigh 

D. H. Hill, Secretary, Raleigh 
R. B. House. Archivist, Raleigh 

Officers of the State Literary and Historical Association 
of North Carolina 


President William K. Boyd, Durham. 

First Vice-President S. A. Ashe, Raleigh. 

Second Vice-President Mrs. D. H. Blair, Greensboro. 

Third Vice-President John Jordan Douglass, Wmlesboro. 

Secretary R. B. House, Raleigh. 

Executive Committee 

(With above officers) 

W. C. Jackson, Greensboro. D. H. Hill. Raleigh. 

J. G. deR. Hamilton, Chapel Hill Clarence Poe, Raleigh. 

C C. Pearson, Wake Forest. 


President Miss Adelaide Fries, Winston-Salem. 

First Vice-President Bishop Joseph Blount Cheshire, Raleigh. 

Second Vice-President Benjamin Sledd, Wake Forest. 

Third Vice-President Mrs. J. R. Chamberlain, Raleigh. 

Secretary R. B. House, Raleigh. 

Executive Committee 

(With above officers) 
R. D. TV. Connor, Chapel Hill. C C Pearson. Wake Forest. 

W. K. Boyd, Chapel Hill. Gen. J. S. Carr, Durham. 

Miss Carrie L. Broughton, Raleigh, John J. Blair, Raleigh. 


"The collection, preservation, production, and dissemination of State litera- 
ture and history ; 

"The encouragement of public and school libraries ; 

"The establishment of an historical museum : 

"The inculcation of a literary spirit among our people; 

"The correction of printed misrepresentations concerning North Carolina: 

"The engendering of au intelligent, healthy State pride in the rising genera- 


All persons interested in its purposes are invited to become members of th» 
Association. The dues are one dollar a year, to be paid to the secretary. 

(Organized October, 1900) 


Years Presidents Secretaries 

1900-1901 Walter Clark Alex. J. Feild 

1901-1902 Henry G. Connor Alex. J. Feild 

1902-1903 W. L. Poteat George S. Fraps... 

1903-1904 C. Alphonso Smith Clarence Poe 

1904-1905 Robert W. Winston Clarence Poe 

1905-1906 Charles B. Aycock Clarence Toe 

1906-1907 W. D. Pruden Clarence Poe 

1907-1908 Robert Bingham Clarence Poe 

1908-1909 Junius Davis Clarence Poe 

1909-1910 Platt D. Walker Clarence Poe 

1910-1911 Edward K. Graham Clarence Poe 

1911-1912 R. D. W. Connor Clarence Poe 

1912-1913 W.P.Few R. D. W. Connor. 

1913-1914 Archibald Henderson R. D. W. Connor. 

1914-1915 Clarence Poe JR., D. W. Connor. 

1915-1916 Howard E. Ron dthaler R. D. W. Connor. 

1916-1917 H.A.London R. D. W. Connor. 

1917-1918 James Sprunt R. D. W. Connor. 

1918-1919 James Sprunt R. D. W. Connor. 

1919-1920 J. G. deR. Hamilton R. D. W. Connor. 

1920-1921 D.H.Hill R. B. House 

1921-1922 W. K. Boyd R. B. House 

1922-1923 Adelaide Fries R. B. House 


... 150 
... 139 



• 177 


Established 1905; discontinued 1922 

The Conditions of Award Officially .Set Forth by Mrs. Patterson 

To the President and Executive Committee of the Literary and Historical 
Association of Korth Carolina: 

As a memorial to my father, and with a view to stimulating effort among 
the writers of North Carolina, and to awaken amonj; the people of the State 
an interest in their own literature, I desire to present to your Society a loving 
cup, upon the following stipulations, which I trust will meet with your ap- 
proval and will be found to be just and practicable : 

1. The cup will be known as the ''William Houston Patterson Memorial 

2. It will be awarded at each annual meeting of your Association for ten 
successive years, beginning with October, 19(35. 

3. It will be given to that resident of the State who during the twelve 
months from September 1st of the previous year to September 1st of the year 
of the award has displayed, either in prose or poetry, without regard to its 
length, the greatest excellence and the highest literary skill and genius. The 
work must be published during the said twelve months, and no manusr-ript 
nor any unpublished writings will be considered. 

4. The name of the successful competitor will be engraved upon the cup. 
with the date of award, and it will remain in his possession until October 1st 
of the following year, when it shall be returned to the Treasurer of the 
Association, to be by him held in trust until the new award of your annual 
meeting that month. It will become the permanent possession of the one 
winning it oftenest during the ten years, provided he shall have won it three 
times. Should no one. at the expiration of that period, have won it so often, 
the competition shall continue until that result is reached. The names of 
only those competitors who shall he living at the time of the final award shall 
be considered in the permanent disposition of the cup. 

5. The Board of Award shall consist of the President of the Literary and 
Historical Association of North Carolina, who will act as chairman, and of 
the occupants of the chairs of English Literature at the University of North 
Carolina, at Davidson College, at Wake Forest College, and at the State Col- 
lege of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts at Raleigh, and of the chairs of History 
at the University of North Carolina and Trinity College. 

6. If any of these gentlemen should decline or be unable to serve, their 
successors shall be appointed by the remaining members of the board, and 
these appointees may act for the whole unexpired term or for a shorter time. 
as the board may determine. Notice of the inability of any member to art 
must be given at the beginning of the year during which he declines to serve, 
so that there may be a full committee during the entire term of each year. 

7. The publication of a member of the board will be considered and parsed 
opon in the same manner as that of any other writer. 

Mrs. J. Lindsay Patterson. 


According to a resolution adopted at the 1908 session of the Literary and 
Historical Association, it is also provided that no author desiring to have his 
work considered in connection with the award of the cup shall communicate 
with any member of the committee, either personally or through a representa- 
tive. Books or other publications to be considered, together with any com- 
munication regarding them, must be sent to the Secretary of the Association 
and by him presented to the chairman of the committee for consideration. 


1905 — John Charles McNeill, for poems later reprinted in book form as 
'"Songs, Merry and Sad." 

1906— Edwin Mims, for "Life of Sidney Lanier." 

1907 — Kemp Plummer Battle, for "History of the University of North Caro- 

190S — Samuel A'Court Ashe, for "History of North Carolina." 

1909 — Clarence Poe. for "A Southerner in Europe." 

1910 — R. D. W. Connor, for "Cornelius Harnett : An Essay in North Carolina 

1911 — Archibald Henderson, for "George Bernard Shaw: His Life and 

1912— Clarence Poe, for "Wliere Half the World is Waking Up." 

1913 — Horace Kephart, for "Our Southern Highlanders." 

1914 — J. G. deR. Hamilton, for "Reconstruction in North Carolina." 

1915 — William Louis Poteat, for "The New Peace." 

1916— No award. 

1917 — Mrs. Olive Tilford Dargan, for "The Cycle"s Rim." 

1918— No award. 

1919— No award. 

1920 — Miss Winifred Kirkland, for "The New Death." 

1921— No award. 

1922 — Josephus Daniels, for "Our Navy at War." 


Raleigh, N. C, March 16, 1923. 

Mrs. J. Lindsay Patterson, Winxton-Salcm, X. C. 

Dear Mrs. Patterson: — At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the 
Literary and Historical Association yesterday, it was decided to discontinue 

the award of the Patterson Memorial Cup and to deposit the cup as a per- 
manent memorial in the Hall of History. This decision was reached only 
after it had been ascertained that such disposition was agreeable to you. 

As you will remember, the original contest was to continue for fen years, 
with the idea that if any one author should win the cup three times it would 
become his property. Although Dr. Clarence Poe won the cup twice, the con- 
dition of winning it three times was not met by any one author. The contest 
was therefore continued indefinitely, at the discretion of the executive com- 
mittee. The following situation has arisen : the space on the cup for engrav- 
ing the names of the winners has been entirely rilled, and since the cup has 
met adequately the purpose for which it was established, it is deemed best to 
establish the cup, as it is now engraved, as a permanent memorial in the Hall 
of History. 

The effectiveness of the cup as a stimulant to literary effort in North Caro- 
lina will be clear to you from the record of its award. 

In retiring the cup. the executive committee reserves the right to establish 
again, as soon as practicable, some other form of literary reward, so that it 
will gratify you to know that the idea established by you in the award of the 
Patterson Cup is likely to be a permanent stimulant to literary effort in the 

It is hardly necessary to express to you the deep appreciation, not only of 
the Literary and Historical Association itself, but of all the people of North 
Carolina, for your sincere interest and cooperation in the purposes of the 
State Literary and Historical Association. 

With best wishes and highest regards, 

Sincerely yours, 

Adelaide Fries. President. 
R. B. House, Secretary. 


1. Rural libraries. 

2. "North Carolina Day" in the schools. 

3. The North Carolina Historical Commission. 

4. Vance statue in Statuary Hall. 

5. Fireproof State Library Building and Hall of Records. 

6. Civil War battlefields marked to show North Carolina's record. 

7. North Carolina's war record defended and war claims vindicated. 

8. Patterson Memorial Cup. 



Minutes of the Twenty-second Annual Session 9 

The American Revolution and Reform in the South, by W. K. Eoyd__ 14 

When the Tide Began to Turn for Popular Education in North Caro- 
lina, 1890-1900 by John E. White 33 

Two Wake County Editors Whose Work Has Influenced the World, 

by Mrs. J. R. Chamberlain 45 

Missions of the Moravians of North Carolina Among the Southern 

Indian Tribes, by Edmund Schwarze 53 

Concerning a History of North Carolina Administrative Departments, 

by C. C. Pearson 70 

Use of Books and Libraries in North Carolina, by L. R. Wilson 73 

North Carolina Bibliography, 1921-1922, by Mary B. Palmer 87 

The Cult of the Second Best, by Walter Lippmann 90 

Members, 1921-1922 97 


Proceedings and Addresses of the State Literary 
and Historical Association of North Carolina 

Minutes of the Twenty-second Annual Session 
Raleigh, December 7-8, 1922 

Thursday Evening, December 7th 

The twenty-second annual session of the State Literary and Histori- 
cal Association of Xorth Carolina was called to order in the auditorium 
of the "Woman's Club of Raleigh, Thursday evening, December 7th, at 
8 o'clock, with President W. K. Boyd in the chair. The session was 
opened with invocation by Rev. Henry G. Lane, pastor of the Church 
of the Good Shepherd, Raleigh. Dr. Boyd then read the annual ad- 
dress of the president. He was followed by Dr. John E. White, Presi- 
dent of Anderson College, who addressed the Association on "When the 
Tide Began to Turn for Popular Education in Xorth Carolina. 1890- 
1900." After Dr. White's address there was a reception for the mem- 
bers of the Association, the Folk Lore Society, and their guests, in the 
Club Building. 

Friday Mobning, December Sth 

The Friday morning session, December Sth, was called to order by 
President Boyd at 11 o'clock a. m., in the House of Representatives. 
The President presented to the Association Mrs. J. R. Chamberlain, of 
Raleigh, who read a paper entitled, "Two Wake County Editors Whose 
Work Has Influenced the World." She was followed by Dr. Edmund 
Sehwarze, of Winston-Salem, who read a paper on ''Missions of the 
Moravians in Xorth Carolina Among Southern Indian Tribes." The 
President then presented Dr. C. C. Pearson, of Wake Forest College, 
who read a paper on "Concerning a History of Xorth Carolina Admin- 
istrative Departments.' 7 He was followed by Dr. L. R. Wilson, of the 
Fniversitv of North Carolina, whose subject was "Use of Books and 
Libraries in Xorth Carolina." Miss Mary B. Palmer, who was to read 
the bibliography of Xorth Carolina for the year 1921-1922, was unable 
to be present. She sent in her paper for publication, and Miss Carrie L. 
Broughton, State Librarian, made an exhibit of books of the year. 

clc~ 10 Twenty-second Annual Session 

At the conclusion of the exercises the following business was tr. 
acted : 

The president appointed the following: 

Committee on Nominations — W. C. Jackson, W. W. Pierson, Miss 
Carrie L. Broughton. 

Committee on Resolutions — I). H. Hill, Marshall DeL. Haywood, 
Charles Lee Smith. 

Committee on a North Carolina Poetry Society — C. A. Hibbard, 
Miss Xell B. Lewis, Roger McCutcheon, Gerald Johnson. 

This last committee was appointed in response to the following 
resolution : 

"Having canvassed the situation, and feeling that there is a definite interest 
in the criticism and writing of Terse, we respectfully petition the President of 
the North Carolina Literary and Historical Association to appoint a com- 
mittee of organization with a view to promoting a poetry society for North 
Carolina. uvr T w 

"N. I. T\ HITE, 

"Nell Battle Lewis. 
"John Jordan Douglass, 
"C. A. Hibbabd. Chairman." 

General Julian S. Carr obtained the floor on behalf of the Sir Walter 
Raleigh Memorial Committee. In the course of his remarks he endorsed 
in high terms the services of W. J. Peele in the work on the memorial 
and as a founder of Xorth Carolina State College, and the Literary and 
Historical Association. He offered the following resolution, which was 
carried : 

Resolved, That the movement inaugurated by the North Carolina Historical 
Society in the year 1902 to erect a memorial to Sir Walter Raleigh in 
the city of Raleigh be properly reorganized and recognized by this Society. 

Miss Mary Hilliard Hinton offered the following resolution, which 
was carried : 

"We, the North Carolina Society. Daughters of the Revolution, wish to 
express ourselves as solidly behind the movement to erect the Sir Walter 
Raleigh monument, and will do everything possible to assist General Carr and 
others interested in this movement. 

(Signed) "Mary Hilliard Hintox. 

"Nina Holland Covington. 
Recording secretary." 

State Literary axd Historical Associatioh 11 

Thi« was followed by a third resolution made by Dr. J. Y. Joyner, 
and carried, as follows: 

Moved, that General Carr be made Chairman of the Sir Walter Raleigh 

Memorial Committee of twenty-five, and that the chairman, the Incoming 
president and the secretary of this association he authorized to select and 

announce the other members of this committee. 

The president, through the secretary, reported the following revised 
constitution, which was carried unanimously : 

This association shall be called the State Literary and Historical Associa- 
tion of North Carolina. 


The purposes of this association shall be the collection, preservation, pro- 
duction, and dissemination of our State literature and history: the encourage- 
ment of public and school libraries ; the establishment of an historical 
museum ; the inculcation of a literary spirit among our people ; the correction 
of printed misrepresentations concerning North Carolina ; and the engender- 
ing of a healthy State pride among the rising generations. 


The officers of the association shall be a president, first, second, and third 
vice-presidents, and a secretary, whose terms of office shall be for one year 
and until their successors shall be elected and qualified. They shall be elected 
by the association at its annual meetings, except that vacancies in any office 
may be filled by the executive committee until the meeting of the association 
occurring next thereafter. 

The president shall preside over all the meetings of the association, and 
appoint all members of committees, except where it is otherwise provided, 
and look after the general interest of the association. In case of the death or 
resignation of the president, his successor shall be selected by the executive 
committee from the vice-presidents. 

The secretary shall be the administrative officer of the association. He 
shall keep the books and funds, receive money for the association, and dis- 
burse it for purposes authorized by the executive committee. He shall strive 
by all practicable means to increase the membership and influence of the 


There shall be an executive committee, composed of the president, the sec- 
retary, and six others, two of whom shall be appointed each year by the 
incoming president, to serve three years: Provided, that at the annual ses- 
sion. 192:2, four members shall be elected by the association, as follows: two 
members to serve one year, and two to serve two years. The president, see- 
retary, and any other three members shall constitute a quorum for the trans- 
action of business. 


The executive committee sliall make programs and arrangements for all 
meetings of the association, supervise all business matters, receive all reports 
of officers, endeavor especially to secure from philanthropic citizens donations 
toward a permanent final of endowment, and in general promote the purpose 

of the association. The executive committee shall be subject to the general 
supervision of the association. 

There shall be such other committees appointed by the president to serYe 
during his term of office for such time and such purposes as he shall see fit. 


All persons interested in its purposes and desiring to have a part in pro- 
moting them are eligible to membership in the association. They will be duly 
enrolled upon receipt of the annual membership fee. 


The annual membership fee shall be one dollar, to be paid to the secretary. 


There shall be one regular annual meeting, the time and place of which 
shall be determined by the executive committee. Other meetings may be 
arranged by the executive committee. 


Auxiliary societies may be organized, with the advice of, and under the 
supervision of, the executive committee. 

Friday Afternoon, December Sth 

In the rooms of the Xorth Carolina Historical Commission, Chair- 
man W. C. Jackson called to order a conference of Xorth Carolina his- 
tory teachers. Discussion was led by Mr. Charles L. Coon and Mr. Guy 
B. Phillips, and participated in by numerous teachers of history. The 
conference was held Friday afternoon, December Sth. 

Friday Evening, December 8th 

On Friday evening, December Sth, President Boyd called the meeting 
to order in the auditorium of Meredith College. He presented Prof. 
Louis Graves, of the University of Xorth Carolina, who presented the 
speaker of the evening, Mr. Walter Lippmann, of the Xew York World. 
Mr. Lippmann read a paper on "The Cult of the Second Best," after 
which there was brief discussion by question and answer between Mr. 
Lippmann and his audience. At the conclusion of the address Dr. T. P. 
Harrison, of the State College, in a brief and graceful speech rendered 
the report of the Patterson Cup Committee, awarding the cup for 1922 
to Hon. Josephus Daniels, for his book, "Our Navy at War." 

State Literary and Historical Association 

The Committee on Resolutions reported the following resolution, 
which was carried : 

Resolved, That the State Literary and Historical Association of North 
Carolina commends the establishment of county libraries, and urges county 
authorities to consider this plan as the most feasible to promote county-wide 
library service. 1). H. Hill, Chairman. 

The Committee on Xominations reported as follows : 

Officers: President — Miss Adelaide Fries, Winston-Salem; 1st Vice- 
President — Bishop Joseph B. Cheshire, Raleigh; 2d Vice-President — 

Dr. Benjamin Sledd, Wake Forest; 3d Vice-President — Mrs. J. R. 
Chamberlain, Raleigh; Secretary — R. B. House. Raleigh. 

Members of the Executive Committee: R. D. \V. Connor, Chapel 
Hill; TV K. Boyd. Durham; Miss Carrie L. Broughton, Raleigh; C. C. 
Pearson, Wake Forest. 

The Association adjourned sine die. 



The American Revolution and Reform in the South 

By Wm. K. Boyd 

President State Literary and Historical Association 

The past decade lias witnessed a profound change in the public 
opinion and policies of the United States. In 1914 we had placed new 
wine in old bottles and under the domination of a party noted for its 
conservatism we were experimenting with governmental supervision of 
business and finance, adopting a new program of taxation, and con- 
sidering certain measures leading to social democracy; then toward the 
end of the World War we championed a policy of international co- 
operation. Today we have reached a point of extreme reaction. Alarmed 
at the forces unloosed by the cataclysm in Europe we have conceived 
a nebulous state of normalcy; for national self-preservation we have 
retired behind the cloak of isolation, political and economic. Alarmed 
at the prevalence of new political and social ideals, free speech is 
limited, free teaching is restricted, personal liberty to travel to and 
fro is denied, and the alien is restrained from seeking in America a 
refuge from old world conditions. Moreover, in reaction against any- 
thing new we have fallen back in national administration into the old 
trough dedicated to the sacred theory of the separation of the powers. 
Today we stand as the most conservative rather than the most progres- 
sive and forward-looking of the great nations of the world. 

The present confusion in opinion, the uncertainty in the national 
state of mind, should be stimulating to those who are historically 
minded. This is not the first period in our national life when existing 
institutions and the social structure have been questioned ; by no means 
the first time when some have turned blindly to the ancient landmarks 
and others have sought an anchorage in new principles. While history 
never repeats and comparisons are always dangerous, there are certain 
phenomena of parallel interest with the present turmoil and uncer- 
tainty, and today the conservative and the radical could do no better 
than to recall and examine from the angle of institutional reform and 
social change that decade which saw the birth of the Republic. For 
the American Revolution was not merely a revolt against the mother 
country resulting in independence; it also unloosed forces in America 
that few foresaw at the beginning of the struggle, and these forces 

State Literary and Historical Association 15 

produced changes at home as profound and lasting as did the entry of 
a new member into the family of nations. And nowhere were those 
changes more apparent than in the Southern States. It was by virtue 
of the leadership taken in the reform of social and institutional life 
that the South, was enahled to assert its great influence in shaping the 
affairs of the nation during the generation after the war; fur states- 
manship is never bred in a static atmosphere; for it the spirit of 
dynamic change is essential; and nowhere in America was that spirit 
stronger in the later eighteenth century than in the South. 

I take therefore as the theme of my address the spirit of the Ameri- 
can Revolution and its reaction on the institutional and social struc- 
ture of the South, the conrlict between conservatism and radicalism 
during that epoch-making period in this our home region. To that 
end, let us first consider the background which precipitated the issues. 

From the early days down to 1776 certain fundamental intluences 
shaped Southern society. First of these was that of family. In no 
other region of Engiish America did kinship, locality, and descent have 
quite the importance that prevailed south of the Potomac. For this 
there were various reasons. One was economic. In the pioneer days 
land was granted by headrights. Once the land was surveyed and 
entered, wife and children were also of value in clearing the forest, 
cultivating the soil, and in administering the property. Social de- 
mands also made the family of distinct value. There were few amuse- 
ments, and the distance from settlement to settlement was great. There- 
fore if relaxation or a change from immediate surroundings was de- 
sired, family and kindred were the only opportunity. Blood rela- 
tionship meant companionship, sympathy, and that relaxation which 
later ages have found in golf clubs and pleasure resorts. 

To the same end worked a tradition brought from the old world. Xo 
worthier ambition occurred to an Englishman than to found a family 
which would preserve its identity from generation to generation. In 
the South encouragement in that purpose existed in the land law. Gen- 
erally the property of persons dying intestate passed to the oldest son, 
and this custom of the law stimulated testators to give preference to 
one heir over others. Moreover, it was possible through entails to 
insure inheritance in one line of descent. So the unity of family prop- 
erty was established, and on the basis of that unity there developed 
an aristocracy of land and family. Thus economic conditions, the need 
for companionship, tradition and the law gave to the family a peculiar 
position; indeed in the South the family had something of the sanctity 
enjoyed by the church in New England. It was in the home, not the 
church, that the great epochs of human life were usually celebrated; 


there occurred the christenings and marriages, there in gardei 
neighboring field was the burial ground, and often the only churches 
of the community were the private chapels of the ^rr-a r lundov. 
The family was the inner shrine of southern life. 

Second only to the family in importance was the system of local 
government. Indeed the two were intimately connected. In England 
a part of the family ideal was for one or more members to take an 
active part in public affairs. This tradition followed the colonists to 
the new world, and in the South the opportunity was at hand in the 
county court, the prevailing unit of local government. Though vary- 
ing as to detail from colony to colony, the county court everywhere had 
this in common : its members, the justices of the peace, were appointed, 
not elected. The other officers of the county were also appointed, either 
by the court or by the Governor. The powers of these justices were 
not merely judicial; they were also governmental and administrative. 
To be a county justice was a position of no mean importance, and it is 
no wonder that well-established families centered their attention first 
of all on membership in the county court. Generation after generation 
members of the same family were to be found on the local bench. The 
ofhce was a stepping-stone to other positions; to the Legislature, the 
governor's council, and the office of sheriff. Thus there developed a 
ruling class whose members were bound to each other by ties of public 
service. Its support was indispensable to any one desiring to enter 
public life. 

Like England, also, was the law. Each colony inherited the common 
law and the statutes enacted by Parliament before its foundation. Local 
conditions made possible many modifications of this principle. In Xew 
England, especially, there were many variations, but in the South there 
was a larger fidelity to English heritage. The law of inheritance and 
wills, equity and the land law, procedure and the division of the courts 
into courts of law and courts of equity — these matters illustrate the 
fidelity to British jurisprudence. How strong was the example of con- 
temporary England is well illustrated by the application of benefit of 
clergy. This custom of the law, by which severe penalties for crime 
were ameliorated, was adopted in Virginia. In 1732. in language 
almost identical with that of the statute of 5 Anne 6, the Virginia 
Legislature declared : 

If any person be convicted of felony, for which he ousht to have the benefit 
of clergy, and shall pray to have the benefit of this act. he shall not be 
required to read. but. without any reading, shall be allowed, taken, and 
reputed to be. and punished as, a clerk convict. 


State Litkkary and Historical Association 17 

Thus branding and corporal punishment became a substitute for 
hanging by tne neck until dead in offenses that were clergyable. This 
adaptation of English practice was not confined to Virginia; it was 
found also in the Carolinas and Georgia, and was not abolished until 
long after the Revolution. 

An important element in the colonial life of the South was religion. 
The warm climate, the close contact of the people with the forces of 
nature, and the comparative loneliness due to sparse settlements begot 
a peculiar emotional temperament. This was a good background for 
religious thought and feeling; for solitude leads to introspection, nature 
suggests an unseen presence, and warmth of climate creates a suscepti- 
bility to emotional appeal. Unfortunately the history of religion was 
characterized by a contest between privilege and equality. In Vir- 
ginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia, the Church of England was estab- 
lished and the law of the time discriminated in its favor. The 
persecution of Puritans and the exclusion of Quakers in Virginia 
during the seventeenth century, and the question of the extension 
of the Toleration Act to Dissenters in the eighteenth century, are 
familiar themes in the colony's history. More than this, the law of 
Virginia declared that any one brought up in the Christian faith who 
denied the being of God or the Trinity, that the Christian religion is 
true, or that the scriptures are of divine authority should lose his 
capacity to hold office on first conviction, on a second his right to sue, 
receive gifts and legacies, or to serve as guardian or executor, and he 
was also to suffer three years' imprisonment. In Xorth Carolina the 
clergymen not of the established Church were subject to militia and 
road service, and in South Carolina the parish organization was made 
a unit of civil government whereby the low country controlled the alien 
settlements of the frontier. In spite of these discriminations the Dis- 
senters increased in numbers until they were in the majority and the 
contest between England and the colonies which ushered in the Revolu- 
tion was paralleled by a controversy no less notable between the Angli- 
cans and Dissenters for toleration and equality before the law. 

Education and intellectual life also bore the stamp of old world tra- 
ditions. The English ideal that education is the function of the family 
and the individual except in the case of indigent children prevailed. 
Hence it was that the only provision for public education in colonial 
law was exactly that which also existed in England, the training of 
indigent children and orphans through apprenticeship. Suggestive of 
England also was the foundation of privately supported or endowed 
free schools to which poor children were usually admitted free. A 

IS Twenty-second Anntal Session 

number of these free schools were to be found in Virginia and South 
Carolina, and in the Latter colony such .schools were supported by eluba 
or societies. The nature of the curriculum in these institutions is 
unknown, but an advertisement for a master to teach a iv f :<- school in 

Princess Anne County in 1784 required of the candidate ability to 
teach the Latin and Greek languages and surveying. It is not diffi- 
cult to see in these schools an effort to duplicate in America the work 
of the endowed grammar schools in England. A few academies identi- 
fied with the Church of England existed. There were also academies 
established by the Presbyterian clergy of the Carolinas in the genera- 
tion preceding the Revolution; but their growth and expansion was 
limited by the policy of the British Government which would not 
permit them to be chartered. Indeed, toward the support of schools 
by public money the British Government was strongly averse; money 
emitted for that purpose by the North Carolina Assembly in 1754 and 
spent for the colonial cause in the French and Indian War was not 

Yet there was a high type of intellectual life among the large planters. 
In South Carolina the dominant interest was science and medicine. In 
Virginia it was law and philosophy, and politics. Robert Carter read 
philosophy with his wife; Jefferson also dabbled in the subject; the 
opinions of the Virginia jurists show a wide knowledge of the English 
common law; and surely no profounder student of politics lived than 
Madison. "In spite of the Virginian's love for dissipation,'' wrote Lian- 
court, "the taste for reading is commoner there, among men of the first 
class than in any other part of America/' However, intellectual life 
did not find expression in the production of books, rather it found an 
outlet through the spoken word. Politics and litigation were something 
more than a personal stake; they were a game to be played for the 
game's sake, methods of intellectual discipline. There was thus injected 
into public affairs a sort of splendid disinterestedness. It was this 
phase of southern character that William Ellery Channing had in mind 
when he wrote from Richmond in 1799: 

I blush for my own people when I compare the selfish prudence of a Yan- 
kee with the genuine confidence of a Virginian. . . . There is one single 
trait that attaches me to the people I live with more than all the virtues of 
New England: they love money less than we do; they are more disinterested: 
their patriotism is not tied to their pursestrings. 

Social conditions were characterized by privilege based not on blood, 
but on wealth. Nowhere in America were there greater inequalities, 
and of these inequalities Virginia was most notable. Wrote Isaac Weld : 


State Literary and Historical Association 19 



Instead of the land being equally divided, numerous estates are held by 

d iv\ individuals, who ... rive large incomes from tlieni, whilst the generality of 
the people are in a state of mediocrity. Most of the men. also, who posa m 
these large estates, having seemed a liberal education, which the others have 
not, the distinction between them is still more observable. {Travels, I. 146.) 

These words aptly describe the larger planter class — a class so numer- 
ous in South Carolina, less extensive in Xorth Carolina, and barely 
existent in Georgia. But there was also a large middle class, small 
planters and farmers, professional men, mechanics and yoemen. They 
eomposed at least half of the population in Virginia and more than half 
in Xorth Carolina. Many of them accumulated property or attained 
intellectual distinction, and thereby rose into the ranks of the aris- 
tocracy. One can almost identify this class by the descriptions of their 
houses, as when a traveler mentions houses built of wood, with wooden 
chimneys coated with clay, whose owners "being in general ignorant of 
the comfort of reading and writing, they want nothing in their whole 
house but a bed, dining-room, and a drawing-room for company." 

Finally there were the poor whites — rude, shiftless, and unambitious. 
"It is in this country that I saw poor persons for the first time after 
I passed the sea.'' wrote Chastellux, "the presence of wretched, miser- 
able huts inhabited by whites whose wan looks and ragged garments 
indicated the direst poverty." However, the proportion of this class to 
the total population was less "than in any other country of the uni- 
verse." Xot poverty per se, but the contrast between poverty and 
riches impressed the observer. Between Richmond and Fredericksburg 
one might meet a "family party traveling along in as elegant a coach 
as is usually met with in the neighborhood of London, and attended 
by several gayly dressed footmen." He might also meet a "ragged 
black boy or girl driving a lean cow and a mule; sometimes a lean bull 
or two, riding or driving as occasion suited. The carriage or wagon, 
if it may be called such, appeared in as wretched a condition as the 
team and its driver." 

Regarding class distinctions and class feeling we have little informa- 
tion from the natives themselves, especially from members of the 
humbler class. Preeminent among such accounts is the testimony of 
Devereux Jarrett, a Methodist minister: 

"We were accustomed to look upon what were called gentle folks as beimrs 
of a superior order. For my part. I was quite shy of them and kept off at a 
humble distance. A periwig in those days was a distinguishing badse of 
gentle folks, and when I saw a man riding the road, near our house, with a 
wig on, it would so alarm my fears and give me such a disagreeable feeling 
that I dare say I would run off as for my life. Such ideas of the difference 
between gentle and simple were, I believe, universal among my rank. (Life, 
P. 14.) 

20 Twenty-second Annual Session 

That slavery tended to intensify class distinctions is an axiom to 
which Jefferson bore ample testimony. But to the serious inquirer the 
more notable characteristic of Southern slavery in the later ■•'_ '-nth 
century was its unprofitableness and a widespread desire to see it abol- 
ished. Weld wrote: 

The number of slaves increased most rapidly, so that there is scarcely any 
State but what is overstocked. This is a circumstance complained of by every 
planter, as the maintenance of more than are requisite for the culture of the 
estate is attended with great expense. {Travels, I, 147.) 

In 1774 the wife of Robert Carter agreed with Philip Fithian, the 
family tutor, that if all the slaves were sold on the plantation, and the 
money put at interest, there would be a ''greater yearly income than 
what is now received from their working the lands," to say nothing of 
the risk and trouble assumed by the master as to crops and negroes. 
And this opinion was confirmed in greater detail by St. George Tucker 
in 1804: 

It would be a very high estimate should one suppose the generality of 
farmers to make ten per cent per annum upon the whole value of their lands 
and slaves. I incline to believe that very few exceed eight per cent, and out 
of this the clothing and provisions of their slaves and horses employed in 
making the crop ought to be deducted. A net profit of rive per cent is proba- 
bly more than remains to one in twenty for the support of himself and his 
family. If he wants money to increase his stock, even the legal demands and 
speculators' pay, without scruple will amount to fourfold, perhaps tenfold, his 
profits. (Commentaries on Blackstone.) 

In South Carolina also there was a similar sentiment. LaRoehefou- 
cauld-Liancourt, writing in 1799, made a careful estimate of the eco- 
nomic profits of slave labor in that State and concluded that it was $63 
per head and that white labor would bring a larger return. 

This condition was one basis of a widespread desire to see slavery 
abolished. Finch wrote: 

Before I visited the Southern States. I supposed that all the planters were 
in favor of the system of slavery. But I did not meet with a single indi- 
vidual who did not regret having this species of property, and shew a wish to 
remedy it, if there was any possible mode by which it could be accomplished. 
(Travel*, 240,) 

Said Russel Goodrich before the Alexandria Society for Promoting 
Useful Knowledge, in 1791: 

But let our planters become farmers — it would be a memorable idea : our 
fields, touched with a magic wand, would bloom ; our slaves become freemen : 
our improvement excite universal attention. 

State Literary and Historical Association 21 

Such were tbo institutions and pconomie conditions peculiar to the 
South in the eighteenth century. It was a land of many contrasts. 
Political oligarchies ruled, yet there was a certain disinterested devo- 
tion to the public service, and the section's greatest contribution to 
national life was in the domain of political thought. Refinement arid 
culture of a high type existed, but along with it much ignorance and 
coarseness. Love of liberty was challenged by the existence of chattel 
slavery. The bounty of nature was rebuked by wasteful production. 
Souls susceptible to religious appeal were steeped in material aims and 
deistic philosophy. What traits of character distinguished the South- 
erner from his neighbor northward? What kind of men and women 
did such conditions produce? The answer is suggested by a remark 
of Bernard in his Retrospects. Speaking of the Virginia planters he 
says, "Like the old feudal barons, their whole life is a temptation 
through absence of restraint. 7? Life in a vast, bountiful and unde- 
veloped region, life in intimate contact with the blind forces of nature, 
life without the limitations of a small unit of local government, life 
without adequate means of intellectual discipline or adequate religious 
institutions, life with hosts of dependent servile blacks; under such 
conditions character was molded with no restraint from without ; men 
and women developed according to the dictates of emotion and will. 
Thus the Southerner was notable for his individuality, for his non- 
conformity to type or pattern. This individuality, resulting from ab- 
sence of restraint, in turn produced certain traits well outlined by 
Thomas Jefferson when contrasting Xorthern and Southern character : 

N. S. 

cool fiery 

sober voluptuous 

laborious indolent 

persevering unsteady 

independent independent 

jealous of their own liberties zealous for liberty, but trampling 
and jnst to those of others. on that of others. 

Upon such a region and such a people the American Revolution had 
a profound reaction. Its justification was found in the compact theory 
of government popularized by the Declaration of Independence. That 
all men are created equal meant, in the light of the revenue controversy, 
equality of economic liberties. That ail governments derive their 
authority from the consent of the governed meant in the relation of 
colonies to the mother country, self-governing but component parts of 
a British Empire. These were concepts which only radicals and obscure 

22 Twenty-second Annual Slssion 

mon then grasped; when they were rejected by the authorities in power 
independence was the otiIv alternative. But when the choice of inde- 
pendence was made, what were the implications of rhar equality and 
that government by consent to the citizens of the states in revolt \ Spe- 
cifically, what were their implications in a section with a well-established 
landed aristocracy, ruled by petty judicial oligarchies, more Em 
than American in its system of law, without educational opportu:. 
for all, where the concept of liberty was challenged by chattel slavery 
and religion was characterized by the privilege of one denomination ? 
It is worthy of note that the man who more than any other realized 
the contrast between the political theory of the Revolution and the 
institutions and conditions peculiar to the South was Thomas Jeffer- 
son. Within three months after the Declaration was adopted he re- 
signed from the Continental Congress, returned to Virginia, and be- 
came a member of the Legislature with the distinct purpose of agitating 
democratic reform. He says : 

When I left Congress, in 1776. it was in the persuasion that our whole code 
must be revised, adapted to our republican form of government, and now that 
we had no negations or councils, governors and kinss to restrain us from 
doing right, that it should be corrected in all its parts, with a single eve to 
reason, and the good of those for whose government it was formed. (Memoir, t 

In one direction the course of reform was already under way. that 
of religious freedom. In June the Virginia Convention had adopted 
a constitution, and in the Bill of Rights there was a declaration that 
"all men are equally entitled to the free exercise of religion, according 
to the dictates of conscience." This meant the abolition of religious 
discrimination, that persecutions w T ere no longer possible, and that men 
of all religious persuasions could participate in government if they 
met the proper secular tests. It was far in advance of Xorth Caro- 
lina's, for there the right to hold office was denied to those who rejected 
the being of God, the truth of the Protestant religion, or the divine 
authority of the Old and Xew Testaments. In Georgia, likewise, the 
constitution of 1777 declared for freedom of religion but required 
all members of the Legislature to be of the Protestant religion. 
and not until 1790 was the principle of religious freedom 
fully triumphant in South Carolina. Thus Virginia led the 
South; moreover it led the nation, for in no other of the firs: state 
constitutions was the principle of unrestricted religious freedom enun- 
ciated; only Rhode Island, which continued its colonial charter, reached 
a similar plane. More than this, the Virginia declaration was the first 
of the kind to be embodied in a modern constitution anvwhere. 

State Liteeaey and Historical Association 23 

However a question of equal importance was nor settled, the relation- 
ship between the State and the established church. Many of the Dis- 
senters held that the Virginia declaration destroyed that relationship: 

the Anglicans that it did not. Thus when the Legislature assembled 
in October there were many petitions; some, mainly from Presl 
and Baptists, prayed for a final separation of church and state; others, 
submitted by Anglicans and members of the Methodist societies, asked 
for a continuation of the establishment. Of the committee t<; which 
these were referred Jefferson was a member. His sympathies were 
entirely for disestablishment, but against him were Edmund Pen- 
dleton, the jurist, and Robert Carter Nicholas, patriot. For two months 
there was a deadlock. Then as a compromise the English statutes 
which made criminal religious opinions were declared invalid, the Dis- 
senters were exempted from the payment of church taxes, and all others 
were likewise exempted for one year. This was practically, but not 
theoretically, disestablishment. Coercion over opinion had previously 
gone, and taxes now relinquished were never reimposed. 

It is somewhat difficult for us today to realize the significance of 
these changes in organic law. The men who promoted them were of 
English extraction, and for a thousand years there had been in the 
mother country an established church, the acknowledgment in law and 
institutions of national allegiance to God. For a group of provincials, 
English in origin and tradition, ruthlessly and suddenly to sever the 
historic relationship between religion and government marked them as 
radicals. States embarking on such a policy were entering an uncharted 
sea and there were grave predictions as to the future. In fact in Vir- 
ginia many believed that standards of conduct were lowered and the 
morals of the people corrupted by this break with the past. Typical 
was Richard Henry Lee. He wrote: 

Refiners may weave reason into as fine a fabric as they please, but the 
experience of all times shows religion to be the guardian of morals: and he 
must be a very inattentive observer in our country who does not see that 
avarice is aceomplisMng the destruction of religion for want of legal obliga- 
tion to contribute something to its support. (Lee, Lee, II, 5.) 

Xaturally the traditionalists gathered strength and in 17S4 they sub- 
mitted to the Legislature two measures, one to incorporate such religious 
societies as would apply for incorporation, the other that the people 
ought to pay "a moderate tax or contribution annually for the support 
of the Christian religion/' Both these resolutions were adopted and the 
Episcopal Church, applying for incorporation, was promptly chartered. 
However the second resolution, calling for taxation, required a statute; 


through the influence of Madison the bill whs deferred until the next 
session in order to sound the sentiment of the people. There foil 
a notable campaign, and when the Legislature nest met it was ev. 
that Virginians had spoken against any renewal of church taxes. Taking 
advantage of the situation, a bill for religious freedom written by Jeffer- 
son was introduced and was adopted. It established nothing new; but 
it did state in form of statute the ideal of complete religious liberty; 
while toleration widely existed no State hitherto had enacted that prin- 
ciple into statute law. This distinction again belongs to Virginia. The 
incorporation of the Episcopal Church vv r as repealed, and this was fol- 
lowed by the policy of confiscating its property, a process not completed 
until 1802. 

In one other Southern state the religious problem proved serious. 
That was South Carolina. There disestablishment was a political issue 
hound up with the reform of representation. The constitution of 1777 
made a compromise. The privilege of the Anglican Church was re- 
moved by admitting other churches to incorporation, but the ideal of a 
relationship between religion and government was preserved, for it 
declared that the Christian Protestant religion should be the religion of 
the State and every member of the House of Representatives should be 
of that faith. This was not in harmony with the democratic spirit of 
the time and in 1790 the religious qualification was abolished and the 
free exercise of religion was guaranteed. 

What was the significance of this controversy over religious liberty 
and disestablishment ? It was something more than a contest for private 
judgment; it was a part of the democratic movement of the time, in- 
spired by the doctrine of the equality of man and the consent of the 
governed. It was also a phase of the contest for power between the 
tidewater and the piedmont regions. The results of the movement were 
vastly important. It reacted on the general state of culture. In Xew 
England intellectual life tended toward the spiritual; it was dominated 
by theology; in the South it was materialistic, leaning toward law, 
philosophy, and deism. Xow the triumph of religious liberty and dis- 
establishment at first strengthened the forces of materialism and deism, 
and the cause of religion, whether ritualistic or evangelical, was re- 
tarded. Said Isaac Weld : 

Throughout the lower part of Virginia — that is, between the mountains and 
the sea — the people have scarcely any sense of religion, and in the country 
the churches are falling into decay. As I rode alone:, I scarcely observed one 
that was not in a ruinous condition, with the windows broken, doors dropping 
off the hinges, and lying open to the pigs and cattle wandering about the 

State Literary and Historical Association 


Yo rrroBter revolution occurred in the life of the Southern people than 
that in the early years of the nineteenth century when, through a series 
of revivals, the mind of the masses was swung from the popular sk< 

eisrn of the day to the fervid acceptance of the orthodox teachings of the 
evangelical churches. 

Finally the religious controversy had an influence on political his- 
tory. Jefferson espoused the cause of the religious liberty. Pie was 
widely denounced for this policy and his record was cited against him 
in the presidential campaigns of 1796 and 1800. Madison's share in 
the movement was also capitalized by his opponents. But both men 
had won the admiration and loyalty of thousands of Dissenters, who 
were for the most part small farmers and men of small means. It was 
therefore easy to organize them into opposition to an economic policy 
hostile to their interests, the policy best represented by the Hamiltonian 
financial measures. Indeed as a tribute to Jefferson a new church or- 
ganized in 1792 was named for his party, the Republican Methodist 

The problem of religion was by no means the only reaction of the 
political philosophy of the Revolution on Southern society. Besides 
an established church there existed an aristocracy of wealth and politi- 
cal power. How far could it be justified during a war waged in 
behalf of equality of economic liberties and government by consent ? 
Again the principal stage of the controversy was Virginia. There the 
basis of the aristocracy was the land law. Towards entails the policy 
of the colony was more conservative than England, for while entails 
might be docked by judicial proceeding in the mother country, in the 
colony an act of the legislature was essential unless the property was less 
than £200 in value. Primogeniture was strictly enforced and inheritance 
always descended. Because of entails and primogeniture there arose in 
tidewater Virginia "a distinct set of families" who formed a kind of 
patrician order, distinguished by the splendor and luxury of their 
establishments. From this order the King habitually selected his Coun- 
cillors of State, the hope of which distinction devoted the whole corps to 
the interests and will of the Crown. Indeed society tended to stratifica- 
tion. At the apex were the great landowners, protected by the laws of 
inheritance. . Below them were the half breeds, younger sons who 
inherited the pride but not the wealth of their parents; next the pre- 
tenders, men who had acquired wealth and property by their own 
efforts and were anxious to rise into the aristocratic class. Finally were 
the yeomen or great mass of small farmers, caring little for social dis- 
tinction, on whom depended the real progress of Virginia. 

26 Twenty-second Annual Session 

More distinctly than in the question of religion the Leadership in land 

reform was assumed by Jefferson. In October 1770, while the dis- 
cussion of the church question "was under way, he introduced a bill '7'; 
enable tenants in taille to convey land in fee simple." After strenuous 
opposition it was adopted. At one stroke the privileged position of en- 
tailed property was overthrown, for, said the law, all that "hath or 

hereafter may have" an estate in fee taille should stand in po 

of the same "in full and absolute fee simple." That so radical a measure 
should have been so readily adopted is remarkable; it is ample evidence 
that the Revolution was more than a revolt against England. Jeffers 
aim in changing the land law was to "make an opening for the 
tocracy of virtue and talent, which nature has wisely provided for and 
scattered with equal hand through all its conditions." 

But the abolition of entails was only the beginning of legal reform; 
there remained primogeniture, the criminal law, and the whole British 
heritage. These matters were referred to a committee of five. It made 
a report in 1779; only a few of its recommendations were then adopted, 
but in 1784 through the influence of Madison the report was published, 
and the second bulwark of landed aristocracy, primogeniture, was 
abolished. In its place was adopted a statute of descents. The eighteen 
clauses of this law are unsurpassed in all America as a species of revolt 
against British heritage. The rule of inheritance of the common law 
required the property of one dying intestate always to descend, never to 
ascend. A father could not inherit from a son, nor a grandfather from 
a grandson. Also the male issue was always preferred before the female; 
if there were no male heir the female heirs inherited equally. On the 
failure of lineal descendants the only collateral relations who could 
inherit were those "of the blood of the first purchaser" ; that is. a kins- 
man, say a cousin of ten or twenty removes, would be preferred to a 
half brother. Xow this whole structure of inheritance which had been 
built up in England and had been transplanted to Virginia, was swept 
away and intestate estates were directed to pass in equal shares to the 
children and their descendants; if there were none, to the father; if 
there was no father living, then to the mother, brothers, sisters, and 
their descendants; and if these were failing, the estate should be 
divided into two parts, one to go to the maternal kindred and the other 
to the paternal kindred. 

This law removed the last privilege of the landed aristocracy. Its 
author was Jefferson. In the committee on revision Pendleton opposed 
it and wished to preserve the tradition of primogeniture by adopting 
the Hebrew principle of giving "a double portion to the elder sun." 
Says Jefferson : 

State Literary and Historical Association 

T observed that if the eldest son could eat twice as much, or do double the 
work, it might be a natural evidence of his right to a double portion : but 
being on a gar in his power and wants with his brothers and 
should be on a par also in the partition of the patrimony, and such was the 
decision of the other members. 

Virginia was not alone in the reform of the land law. In South 
Carolina entails had been abolished in 1732 and in 1790 the rule of 
primogeniture was likewise set aside. Georgia in the const irution of 
1777 prohibited primogeniture and required an equal division of prop- 
erty among the heirs. Xot until 17S-i was the reform accomplished in 
Xorth Carolina, but the change was not so drastic as elsewhere, for male 
heirs were given preference over females; subsequent laws of 1795 and 
1808 placed the matter on a practical parity with Virginia law. 

That the course of land legislation influenced southern society pro- 
foundly was the conviction of native observers and foreign travellers. 
Xot merely were existing entails destroyed, not merely was primogeni- 
ture abolished, but custom supported the principle. "The cases are rare, 
very rare," says Tucker, "in which a parent makes by his will a much 
more unequal division of property among his children than the law 
itself would make." Thus came a fairer distribution of wealth. 

There is no longer a class of persons possessed of large inherited estates, 
who, in a luxurious and ostentatious style of living, greatly exceed the rest of 
the community : a much larger number of those who are wealthy have ac- 
quired their estates by their own talents or enterprise : and most of the-e 
last are commonlv content with reaching the average of that more moderate 
standard of expense which public opinion requires, rather than the higher 
scale which it tolerates. Thus there were formerly many in Virginia who 
drove a coach and six. and now such an equipage is never seen. There were 
probably twice or three times as many four-horse carriages before the Revo- 
lution as there are at present, but the number of two-horse carriages may be 
now ten or even twenty times as great as at the former period. A few fami- 
lies, too, could boast of more plate than can now be met with : but the whole 
quantity in the country has increased twenty if not fifty fold. (Life of Jeffer- 
son, p. 93.) 

A similar result is attributed to the abolition of primogeniture in 
South Carolina. Alurrav wrote : 

The planters are generally impoverished by the division of property: they 
have lost many of their patrician notions (call them, if you will, prejudices!. 
The increased commeree has raised to affluence, and consequently into fashion- 
able society, many merchants with whom the planters would not associate on 
terms of intimacy fifty years ago: thus, while the society of Boston. Philadel- 
phia, and New York is daily becoming more aristocratic, that of the Carolina 
capital is becoming more republican. (Travel*, II, 188.) 


Undoubtedly the Revolution wrought a change in the institution of 
private property and thereby altered the social structure. But 
doctrine of the equality of man went further; it questioned the existing 
attitude of the law toward crime and the criminal and ushered in the 
modern humanitarian spirit. To the conservative mind of the eighteenth 
century severe penalties were essential ; the protection of property was a 
supreme aim of government and the reform of the criminal was ignored. 
To the reformer, inspired by the doctrine of equality, penalties must 
be examined in the light of reason and the life and character of the 
criminal deserved consideration. Again the conflict between the forces 
of conservatism and reform centered in Virginia. There twenty-seven 
offenses incurred the penalty of death and among non-capital punish- 
ments were the lash, the stocks, slitting of ears, and branding. Again 
also the pioneer in the movement for reform was Thomas Jefferson. He 
was the author of a bill proportioning crimes and punishments, the 
pioneer of the modern humanitarian spirit. Says the statute : 

And whereas the reformation of offenders, though an object worthy the 
attention of the laws, is not effected at all by capital punishments, which 
exterminate instead of reforming, and should be the last melancholy resource 
against those whose existence is become inconsistent with the safety of their 
fellow-citizens, which also weakens the State by cutting off so many. who. if 
reformed, might be restored sound members to society, who, even under a 
course of correction, might be rendered useful in various labors for the public, 
and would be. living, an example and long-continued spectacle to deter others 
from committing the like offenses. And forasmuch as the experience of all 
ages and countries hath shewn that cruel and sanguinary laws defeat their 
own purpose, by engaging the benevolence of mankind to withhold prosecu- 
tions, to smother testimony, or to listen to it with bias : and by producing in 
many instances a total dispensation and impunity under the names of pardon 
and benefit of clergy ; when, if the punishment were only proportioned to the 
injury, men would feel it their inclination, as well as their duty, to see the 
laws observed ; and the power of dispensation, so dangerous and mischievous, 
which produces crimes by holding up a hope of impunity, might totally be 
abolished, so that men, while contemplating to perpetrate a crime, wouid see 
their punishment ensuing as necessity, as effects their causes, etc. 

For such reasons the revisors proposed to reduce the twenty-seven 
capital crimes to two, treason and murder, and one-half of the property 
of those convicted should be forfeited to the next of kin of the one 
killed; corporal punishment and imprisonment were to be the penalties 
for most other offenses; however, for a few crimes, such as disfiguring 
another, "by cutting out or disabling the tongue, slitting or cutting off 
a nose, lip, or ear, branding, otherwise shall be maimed" the principle 
of the le£ tationis was to be adopted. This latter feature of the bill 
did not meet the approval of Jefferson. He wrote: 

State Literary and Historical Association 20 

The Lex Talionis, although a restitution of the Common Law. ro the iim- 
lilicitj of which we navt generally found it so difficult to return, will be 

revolting to the humanized feelings of modern times. An eye for an eye, and 
a hand for a hand, and a tooth for a tooth, will exhibit spectacles in execu* 
tion whose moral effect would he questionable; and even the membrum pro 
mcmbro of Bracton, or the punishment of the offending member, although 
long authorized by our law, fur the same offense in a slave, has, you know, 
been not long since repealed in conformity with public sentiment. This needs 

The proposed reform met bitter opposition. Minds that could not 
resist the cause of religious freedom, the separation of church and 
state, and the reform of the land law, would not yield to the heresy 
that penalties should be in proportion to the crime and the causes for 
execution be reduced to two. And so in 1785 Jefferson's bill was re- 
jected. However, the revision of the criminal law was bound up with 
another issue: that of the survival of British statutes. The Convention 
of 1776 had declared the statutes prior to James I binding on Virginia. 
The abolition of this ordinance now became the objective of the re- 
formers. It was accomplished in 1789 when the legislature repealed the 
ordinance. A new commission was then appointed to revise the law and 
at length in 1792 a code was reported and adopted in which all English 

statutes were declared to have no force in Virginia. With the law 

thus purged of British heritage, the humanitarian spirit had freer play 

and in 1796, the same session in which the first public school law was 
adopted and a plan for gradual emancipation of slavery considered, a 
bill was introduced to amend the penal laws by reducing the death 
penalties to two, and imposing on non-capital offenses service in a 
penitentiary where the character of the criminal might be reformed. A 
new champion of the cause now appeared, George Keith Taylor. In a 
notable speech he assembled all the arguments of the time in favor of 
humanitarianism. The existing penalties, he declared, were in violation 
of natural rights, for in the state of nature each man defends himself, 
but when he repels the mischief the "law commands him to pardon the 
offender." Life can be taken only in case of murder. "Against all other 
offenses I can either obtain effectual security at first, or effectual recom- 
pense afterwards. But against the murderer I can obtain neither. 
. . . Xeeessity therefore compels me to put him to death." 

This law of nature becomes the fundamental law of states because, 
under the social compact from which governments have their origin, no 
power to impose the death penalty except for murder is granted. It is 

30 Twbntt -second Anxual Session 

also wasteful, for society loses units of production and no recomp 
; ^ mad to r ' p . ... injured. Benefit of clergy as means of ameliorat- 
ing the law simply makes the offender a marked man. 

Every one avoids him. no one chooses to give employment to a felon; but he 
must live, and. consequently, deprived of all means of honest subsistence, Is 
compelled to continue his former course of iniquity. 

Xor are harsh penalties in conformity to the philosophy of law. In 
a warm climate people are indolent and hate work; compulsory labor, 
therefore, is a better deterrent to crime than the threat of death. Severe 
laws do not improve manners; therefore adopt penalties that appeal to 
the sense of shame. Put into the criminal code something of the spirit 
of forgiveness and kindness of Christianity. Finally, let laws harmonize 
with the needs of population and let them not needlessly diminish the 
number of laborers in a land where labor is scarce. 

Such were typical arguments of Taylor; they reflect as wide a read- 
ing in the social and political philosophy of the time as do writings of 
Jefferson or Madison. As a result the bill was not tabled but was 
adopted. The capital crimes were reduced to two, benefit of clergy was 
abolished, except for slaves, and the penitentiary was substituted for 
other offenses that had been capital. 

Closely akin to the nascent sense of humanitarianism was the new 
spirit in education. As soon as the British administration collapsed, 
a new ideal of the obligation of the government toward intellectual 
training appeared; instead of a responsibility confined to the orphans 
and the poor, came a general obligation. Thus the State constitutions 
of Xorth Carolina and Georgia clearly proclaimed the principle of 
State support of schools and universities. Moreover, education should 
be reformed and adapted to American needs rather than to European 
heritage. Thus during the war the Virginians reorganized the con- 
servative College of William and Mary into a university and there were 
established a school of modern languages, a professorship of law, the 
first in the United States, and one of medicine, the second in the coun- 
try. Georgia in 17S3 adopted a comprehensive scheme for public high 
schools, one for each county, and in 1785 a plan for a State University 
which would include all the institutions of education in the State, and 
stimulate the cause of literature, was adopted. It was too advanced for 
actual conditions and so it remained for Xorth. Carolina to make the 
first practical educational achievement of the new era, the opening of 
the University in 1795. There is no greater tragedy in all southern 
history, with the exception of the survival of slavery, than the failure of 
the revolutionary philosophy in the realm of education. The traditions 

State Literary and Historical Association 31 

of the past, the aversion to taxation, and the impractical, even 

toe nine, character oi the ideal which looked for political Leadership 

rather than elevation of the masses, fix"d its doom. A similar fate 
awaited the anti-slavery sentiment; to the doctrine of the equality of 
man, human bondage was intolerable, but no practical method of 
emancipation which would evade a race problem was ever formulated. 

From the facts and tendencies thus outlined it is evident that rue 
American Revolution wrought a profound reaction on the institutions 
and social structure of the South of colonial days. The results were 
religious freedom, a greater equality of property rights, reform of the 
criminal laws, efforts at public education and the emancipation of slaves. 
Xo wiser definition of history was ever made than the statement that 
it is philosophy teaching by example. What then, in the broader mean- 
ing of these terms, should the example of the Revolution contribute to 
our knowledge of the philosophy of politics and the nature of free 
society ? 

First of all, no great war can occur without making some modification 
or radical change in the internal life of the belligerent nations. Indeed 
I believe that war is often but one manifestation of a spirit of change 
or revolution working in civil as well as martial fields. At times 
reaction cheeks or opposes this spirit of change but in the end reaction 
gives way and readjustment takes place. Shakespeare grasped this 
idea in Julius Caesar; he put into the mouth of Brutus just before 
the battle of Phillippi the memorable words: 

There is a tide in the affairs of men that leads onward. 

It is the task of the thoughtful and earnest citizen to know this tide, 
to work with it, to guide and direct it, never to seek to impede it. Such 
is statesmanship. The great failure of Brutus was not the loss of a 
battle but his failure to realize that the foundations of the Republic 
were already gone and that the irresistible tide of the age was toward 
imperialism. Xo fine trait of personal character, no patriotic devotion 
to the past can obscure this fundamental fault — that the man had not 
the brains to understand forces greater than his own convictions. 

In the period of the Revolution Jefferson and Madison caught the 
meaning of the revolt against Great Britain and swung with the tide. 
This is the basis of their statesmanship. Those who opposed them, 
though estimable in personal character, have today a minor place on 
the page of history. 

Another reflection which must come if any comparison be drawn be- 
tween the problems of the Revolution and those of today, is the futility 

32 Twenty-second Annual Session 

of applying to one age the political and social philosophy of the pu.^r. 
The apostles of progressiyism reject the .social compact theory as a 
basis for their program. They see in the natural right of the individ- 
ual to life, liberty, and happiness, laissez (aire individualism. In con- 
trast how often do we hear conservatives say, "Give U3 the democracy of 
Jefferson." But viewed in the light of conditions as they existed in 
the eighteenth century the Jeffersonian ideal could be attained only by 
the abolition of special privilege, whether it was the privilege of church 
or landowner, by a new treatment of the criminal and of the enemies 
of society, and a new sense of state control over intellectual discipline. 
This in that day and time was radicalism. Apply seriously the principle 
of the equality of man and the consent of the governed, even the right 
to life, liberty, and happiness, to modern conditions and what will be the 
fate of tax exemption and certain financial problems, the present atti- 
tude of courts toward labor, and even the curriculum of our schools 
and colleges? If any have doubts let them read Jefferson's remarks or, 
better still, those of his friend John Taylor, on such matters as the 
nature of industry, the character of government bond issues, the nature 
of banking, and the best working type of democracy. 

In conclusion I wish to raise this pertinent question: how much of 
the past really lives today, how much of it do we really inherit ? The 
answer, I believe, is, of the forms very much, of the spirit very little. 
•Let me illustrate. The statutes of descents adopted in the period of the 
Revolution still live; but the condition against which they were aimed, 
an unequal distribution of wealth, again exists, and in the light of this 
fact the statutes are ineffective formula?. The humanitarian sentiment 
of the Revolution today has many monuments in the shape of penal 
institutions; but how often is the spirit and purpose, the reformation 
of the offender, submerged by the monuments ? Again, religious freedom 
undoubtedly has survived. But the principle on which that freedom is 
based, the liberty of the human spirit and its right to opinion, is seri- 
ously challenged. Words and sentiments expressed freely by Jefferson 
and Lincoln, when today uttered, too often bring prosecution and im- 
prisonment. The old conception of the fathers, that thought and 
speech must be free, no longer exists. We live in an age of restraint, 
not of absence of restraint. 

Xow, since the forms rather than the spirit of the past survive, is 
not he who really achieves something, whether he calls it conservatism 
or not, breaking new ground, and is he not therefore potentially a 
radical ? 


When the Tide Began to Turn for Popular Education in 
North Carolina 

By John E. White 

Prebident Anderson College 

Of course I am greatly pleased to be here as the guest of the Xorth 
Carolina Literary and Historical Association, but if I should attempt 
to tell you why I am so pleased it would involve me at once with an old 
problem which has worried me enough already — the problem of the 
sensitive psychosis of the Xorth Carolinian living away from home. It 
is difficult to explain that man satisfactorily. Some months ago I 
sought out the old Moravian Cemetery in AVinston-Salem and was there 
trying to locate without immediate success the grave of John Henry 
Boner. An elderly gentleman walking by observed my search and 
guided me to the spot. "Are you interested in his poetry?" he asked. 
"Yes — no; I am more interested in the man. He is the man who broke 
his heart trying to interpret the sorrow and justify the conscience of a 
Xorth Carolinian forced to live somewhere else." Standing there with 
this kind old gentleman, a minister of the Moravian church, I repeated 
the lines which Xorth Carolinians know and love so well. 

Why is it the '•Tarheel'' exile reacts within himself so keenly and 
yet so unsatisfactorily to his own conscience? He has all the inward- 
ness of an interminable identity with Xorth Carolina; cherishes the 
sense of it as a good fortune; avows the pride of it everywhere ardently; 
and yet feels that he is somehow guilty of a dreadful inconsistency. 
Have you not noticed that he is the most over-conscious Xorth Caro- 
linian in the world ? I suppose it is because he has spoiled his right to 
be. He tries to make up to his conscience by protests of devotion. He 
revels in the zeal of the repentant renegade. I have often heard him 
at it on his visits home, fervently insisting that 

"Tar Heel born and Tar Heel bred,"' 

he is going to die sometime far, far away, 

" 'Mid pleasures and palaces," 

and that if anybody should inquire about the lonely corpse, just tell 
them it's 

"A Tar Heel dead." 

Sometimes I have fancied that the elder brothers hear this prodigal's 
proposition impatiently and doubtfully, distrusting so much "Tar Heel" 
virtue that has to make apologies and excuses for itself. The elder 




brothers never do understand and never can understand. It is only the 
prodigal who knows. And what he knows is this: that though he may 
die condemned he never was really guilty. In his Reminiscences, Alex- 
ander H. Stephens refers to a conversation with Reagan, of Texas, his 
fellow prisoner at Fort Warren after Lee's surrender, about their 
ciation and associates in Congress before the Civil War. He recalled a 
certain congressman named Felix O'Connell, and asked Reagan if he 
remembered him. "Yes, he was a very profane man and nearly always 
drunk." "That is true." said Stephens, "but he was the most religious 
man in Congress and about the only one who made it a point to attend 
the chaplain's prayer reverently. One day after his morning devotions 
in the House he took a seat beside me and said, 'Mr. Stephens, you are a 
Christian, aren't you? I have something to say to you, something that 
gnaws at my heart. My wife is a beautiful Christian, a saint on earth, 
and when she dies she will go right straight to heaven.' Then with 
broken voice he said, 'Mr. Stephens, I am afraid it will be the last I 
will see of her and that when I die I will go right straight to hell. But 
what I want to say to you is that if the good Lord does send me to hell 
He will lose one of the best friends He ever had in this world.' " 

Xow, I might have been invited somewhere else by some other literary 
and historical society, without wondering why: but sent for to come 
here under such dignified auspices, it is very different. I have heard 
of an Irishman who on being asked by a kind-hearted person if he 
■would have a drink of good old apple brandy, made no reply at first, 
but struck an attitude and stood gazing up into the sky. "What are 
you looking at, Mike?" inquired his friend. "Bedad, sir," said Mike. "L 
thought an angel spoke to me." Somewhat so did I feel at first, Mr. 
President, when I received the invitation to be your guest this evening. 

The second reflection on the invitation was more sobering. I began to 
question whether I was prepared to accept its scrutiny. Down in Atlanta 
we had a Deacon who was reported to his fellow Deacons as inclined to 
indulge over-much on occasions. A committee was appointed to visit 
him. They did so in due and solemn form. "Brother Henry," said the 
spokesman, "do you ever drink?" He looked at the committee, who 
were his companions and personal friends, and said, "Brethren, before I 
answer, may I ask you if this is an invitation or an investigation?" 
Your invitation to me, I assure you, was not accepted without hesitation. 

It was the suggestion of your secretary that gave me at length enough 
confidence to venture. He indicated that I might deal profitably with 
Xorth Carolina events from 1S90 to 1900. I had been in a position to 
observe and somewhat to participate in the agitations of that period in 

State Literary and Historical Associations 


this State with reference to education. There were incidents and in- 
fluences of historical fact and value in those times, of which no fair 
record had been made. Could I not, after the chastening of twenty yt 
absence from the State, set them in dispassionate order with emphasis 
only upon their bearing on the greater matters which followed after? 
So I am here to speak to you on ''When the Tide Began to Turn for 
Popular Education in Xorth Carolina." 

I have referred to the disadvantages of the exile. There are some 
compensations. Distance does lend enchantment, and detachment doc- 
minister to judgment. I can, for instance, report on the impression 
Xorth Carolina is now making for herself in the South and in the 
nation with more appreciation than if I were a part of it. You who 
are doing the work are conscious of disappointments and dissatisfactions 
with the State's achievements which do not trouble me. "What is it that 
people in every section of this country are saying about Xorth Carolina? 
They are saying to one another in critical comparisons, that Xorth 
Carolina is the premier commonwealth of the South in progressive 
movements and that she is measuring pace with any State in the 
Union. Her achievements within twenty years have struck across the 
imagination of the whole country as remarkable and almost revolu- 
tionary. She has moved from the seventh place to the twenty-seventh 
in the value of manufactured products. She is a file leader of the 
nation in contribution of Federal taxes in support of the government. 
In the textile industry she contributes more to the demand markets and 
in the promotion of income to the cotton farmers of the South than any 
other State. She produces fifty per cent of all the lumber manufactured 
in the United States. She has first rank in minerals. So the reports 
run all along the line, of good roads and material improvements. But 
these things are not what attract the most astonished attention abroad. 
It is what the State has done in public education that makes greatest 
amazement. This is the achievement of fundamental relations to all 
other progress. 

The Astounding Contrast 

The educational expert coming from elsewhere to survey the widely- 
reported progress in Xorth Carolina would observe two facts of con- 
clusive import about what he rinds in actual operation. 

First: That the State has committed itself unreservedly to the ac- 
ceptance and demonstration of the democratic theory of education. 
What is it? It is the theory in repugnance of the aristocratic theory 
in education. It proposes education by the State in logical construction; 
that is, big and broad foundations first, with superstructures in their 

36 Twenty-second Annual Session 

practical order. To be explicit, the common schools fir-- secondary 
schools second, collegiate and technical institutions third, and without a 
blind alley anywhere. 

Second: That popular education in Xorth Carolina is really popular. 
It is enthroned in the imagination and conscience of the people. Its 
enterprise rests securely in the affections of the citizen heart. 

Xow what is the historical bearing of these two facts of attainment in 
1922 on the situation of education in Xorth Carolina from 1890 to 
1900? Simply this — Within less than a quarter of a century, Xorth 
Carolina has shifted her whole front in popular education. It is a 
complete reversal of disposition and habit for a whole people. As a 
social phenomenon it is most remarkable. 

In 1890, the undemocratic theory of education prevailed in the 
practical attitude of Xorth Carolina educational leaders. That leader- 
ship was absorbed mainly with higher education and with the emphasis 
of it. It was in general their conception that education would percolate 
in intelligence through trained leadership down to the people. At any 
rate, in the lack of demand from the masses justifying taxation and 
legislative appropriations to the common schools they found eneourag- 
ment for the aristocratic policy of trying to build from the top down- 
ward. The historian will explain this without difficulty. It will be 
remembered that Virginia had long been reckoned as the State of edu- 
cational eminence in the South. Her theory was the aristocratic theory. 
The University of Virginia indicated the ideal of Southern statecraft in 
education. Thomas Jefferson led the way. His monument was seen and 
revered in the University at Charlottesville. Xo one took the pains to 
notice that theoretically his original program of education provided 
for a structure based upon an adequate system of common schools. It 
was only evident that he had consumed his practical passion on the 
University. The University of Xorth Carolina followed the Virginia 
model. The effect of it through the years fixed the status of the common 
schools as of subordinate importance. The University at Chapel Hill, 
chartered in 17S9, existed in glory and wide prestige for fifty years 
before there was any movement to establish a public elementary school 
in Xorth Carolina. The law of 1S39 providing for the first elementary 
public school was timorous, tentative and without great purpose to 
overcome the backwardness of public opinion. From 15-°>9 to I860, 
there appeared one man only with a passion for popular education. 
Calvin H. Wiley did his heroic stint of pleading with enough discourage- 
ment to break his heart. It drove him at last back to the quiet of a 
Presbyterian pastorate. The public school system from his day on, 

State Literary and Historical Arsch iation 

existed and carried on meagerly under depression and with no influential 

championship. It was not popular with the educators, nor with the 
people. Its maintenance was openly questioned in college centers. In 
1880 the students at the University debated the question: "Ought the 
Public School System of Xorth Carolina to be Abolished?" Interest- 
ing enough, as his biographer indicates, this debate was promoted by 
Charles B. Aycoek, of Wayne County, then on the eve of graduation. 
In 1889, the anniversary celebration at Wake Forest College provided 
a similar debate on the question: "Resolved, That the present Public 
School System in Xorth Carolina is worthy of support." When the 
vote was taken by the large audience, the negative won overwhelmingly. 
Again, curious enough, your speaker this evening represented the 
negative and was warmly congratulated that he had shown conclusively 
that the public school system was not worthy of support. If the repre- 
sentatives of the public school system were asked why something was not 
done to improve and extend the system and make the common schools 
more worthy of respect, they had their answer. The Supreme Court of 
the State up to 1900 had held that free schools were not "a necessary 
purpose" and therefore were confined within the constitutional limita- 
tions of taxes. That doctrine was laid down in Paysour vs. Commis- 
sioners from Gaston County, Judge Merriman dissenting. This meant 
that for the common schools only a bone was left to pick after the 
66 2-3 cents limit for State and county purposes of administration had 
been reached. What was left could only be applied to common schools. 
It was true, of course, that the constitution of the State carried the 
mandatory clause — "a four months' public school shall be maintained in 
every district." But the Supreme Court was not greatly impressed by 
that and did not regard the common schools as constituting ''a neces- 
sary purpose." Thus the State of Xorth Carolina stood in 1S90. Xo 
one seemed greatly troubled by it. Secondary education by the State 
was of course impossible, except in a few cities. In the incorporated 
towns under municipal taxation there were only eight graded schools 
with high school instruction, and only two of them attempted as much 
as the tenth grade. In the country districts the elementary public 
schools, lately defined by the Public School Commission of Xorth Caro- 
lina as "the basic institution of democracy," averaged sixty days a year 
m disreputable and despised one-room houses. Only half of the children 
of school age pretended to attend them at all. The little dole of money 
available in a district was the perquisite of inerHciency and often im- 
patiently absorbed as an inconvenience by private schools to get the 
public school out of the wav. 

38 Twenty-second Anntal Session 

When the Tide Began to Turn 

Take your stand there in 1890 and tell me what outlook ie there for 
popular education in Xorth Carolina? Is there anything on the hori- 
zon of hope to justify the faint prophesy of what would actually occur 
in twenty years? Apparently nothing. The tide is set stubbornly in 
difficulty, indifference and prejudice. Xorth Carolina was on the ere 
of a transformation with noboby expecting it. Within five years a cur- 
rent will be stirred in an unexpected quarter — an agitation will sud- 
denly spring up which will become positive and powerful in appeal 
for the common schools. That agitation, controversial, factional, and 
seemingly reactionary at outset, will challenge public interest in the 
common schools and will begin to turn the thoughts of public men and 
the feelings of the people from apathy to a fighting resolution. How- 
ever men may differ in their estimate of the worthiness or the tmworthi- 
ness of the initial impulse of the propaganda of the Baptists and Meth- 
odists of those days, there are two features of it no one will dispute. 
It was impressive in volume, characterized by great earnestness, and 
commanded public response. The other feature was this: The agitation 
after 1895 concentered immediately in demands for adequate practical 
attention to the common schools. This is the story I have come to tell 

you - 

In 1893 a change of administration at the University of Xorth Caro- 
lina brought to that institution an assertive and aggressive leadership. 
This leadership went out after students and increased appropriations. 
Expressions emanated therefrom concerning the denominational colleges 
which were sharply resented. The old but suppressed antagonism be- 
tween the State college and the denominational college flamed out. The 
county scholarship system, increasing appropriations from the legisla- 
ture, and the alleged use of the State's money in loans to individual stu- 
dents created a situation of acute resentment. The first gun of the 
battle was fired by Dr. Charles E. Taylor, of Wake Forest College, in a 
pamphlet on ''How Far Should a State Undertake to Educate V In 
calm argumentative style this widely distributed pamphlet confirmed 
the State's right and duty to furnish primary education free to all. but 
disputed the State's function of free higher education. The response 
of protest was first heard in resolutions passed by the Roanoke Union 
of the Tar River Association in the summer of 1893. The Baptist Asso- 
ciations followed in the same line of discussion. The controversy gained 
headway, and at the Baptist State Convention in Elizabeth City. Decem- 
ber, 1893, a resolution by Dr. J. D. Hulfham was adopted which pro- 
vided for a committee of five to seek concert of action bv all the Jenomi- 

State Literary and Historical Association 


national colleges, to memorialize the legislature, and to "secure it 
sible such arrangements as will enable the schools founded and con- 
trolled by citizen- to do their work without uni a pet it ion 
with the State schools." In 1894 the agitation was pressed further to 
the front by Dr. C. Durham, the field marshal of the Baptists. At 
the associations of that year and on through the next year to Th<> day 
of his death in October, 1895, Dr. Durham concentrated all the pas 
and ability of his great personality in speeches which drew and held 
multitudes everywhere to sympathetic attention. The emphasis of his 
campaign turned more and more from the invidious note of protest 
against the University to the generous and patriotic appeal to North 
Carolinians to do their duty by the children of the State. Concurrently, 
in 1S95, the first newspaper in the State to place the deplorable condi- 
tions of popular education before the public was the Biblical Recorder, 
then edited by Mr. J. W. Bailey. He opened up a consistent, reason- 
able, and increasing propaganda, showing week after week, in detail 
of facts and figures and arguments, what the low estate of the public- 
school system portended for Xorth Carolina civilization. In 1896 Dr. 
Durham's successor and Dr. John C. Kilgo of Trinity College joined 
with the editor of the Recorder with all their might, and the definite 
campaign for the common schools began to have a program with its 
objective in direct action for their relief. Already the new Superin- 
tendent of Education. Mr. Charles H. Mebane, elected by the Populist 
upheaval, had placed himself in cooperative relations with the Baptist 
and Methodist movement. The political conditions at that time favored 
the consolidation of influences for the change of State policies in edu- 
cation. The Populist influence woke up the Democratic masses to the 
sense of their powers of self-assertion. When that movement was over 
in 1S9S, the channels of popular sensation had been permanently 
widened and deepened in Xorth Carolina. The Baptist Associations, 
and in a large degree the district Methodist Conferences, in that situa- 
tion became public forums of the people, not for political discussion 
but for educational arousement. They passed unanimous resolutions, 
phrased in positive terms of demand, for a change of emphasis in edu- 
cation and for practical proposals to extend and improve the common 
schools. Three years, 1896-1898, it went on in that fashion until every 
section of the State had been atfected and the people lined up so far as 
Baptists and Methodists could be properly organized for such a cause. 
There were two points vividly urged in behalf of popular education. 

First: A change of policy, which meant a change of thinking on the 
part of leaders, from the aristocratic theory to the democratic theory 
of the public school system. It was argued after this style: "Let us 

40 Twenty-second Annual Session 

stop stacking our educational fodder from the top downward arid do it 
according to common sense and experience, by laying the foundations 
first and then build thereon." It was envisioned that the public school 
system had no logical appeal for confidence until this was done, and 
that when it was done every educational interest of the State would 
flourish, no matter how the winds blew and the floods came, because 
it would be founded upon a rock. The proposition of course required 
direct appropriations from the Legislature to the common schools before 
any appropriations to higher education should be increased. The plea 
was for the established priority of the elementary schools in claims on 
educational statecraft. 

Second: A change of heart on the part of the people who were im- 
mediately concerned. The condition of their schools was portrayed in 
heavy lines. Their inefficiency, brevity, and poverty of equipment were 
held up in rags and tatters. There was little note of controversy in 
these appeals^ — it was patriotic and pathetic. The spirit of cooperation 
with any hand stretched out for the healing of the open sore of Xorth 
Carolina life was not only possible but desirable so far as the leaders 
of the campaign were concerned. In 1S97 Dr. Charles D. Mdver, who 
was outside the breastworks of the Baptist and Methodist agitation, 
and Mr. J. W. Bailey, who was distinctly a leader on the inside of it, 
were associated together respectively as chairman and secretary of a 
movement to promote a special-tax campaign. Alas for that, it was a 
dismal disappointment. Out of 938 districts, only seven voted the 
special tax. After that essay it was more evident than ever that the 
tide would not turn until a positive beginning had been made in the 
form of a pronounced policy of the General Assembly. In 1S9S this 
was the battle-cry. The General Assembly must show the people that 
the State's policy was going in for the relief of the common schools 
and the precedence of their claims in all educational legislation. The 
Constitution was invoked as a challenge to the candidates for the Legis- 
lature since they were to swear to support and sustain it. They were 
questioned on the stump : "Will you put the common schools first in 
appropriation for education? Will you favor legislation to carry out 
as fast and far as possible the mandatory cause of the Constitution V 7 
The election occurred in August, 1893. It soon became known that the 
return of the Democratic party to power would bring to Raleigh a 
General Assembly constituted largely of Baptists and Methodists with- 
out any significance of sectarianism, but with the great significance of 
fact that the Legislature was overwhelmingly strong for putting the 
common schools on a forward-moving program of legislation. The 
group of men who had led the agitation caused a bill to be drawn 

State Literary and Historical Association 41 

appropriating out of the public treasury $100,000 for the common 
schools. Mr. Charles H. Mebano's was the hand that drew that hill. 
It was typewritten in copy in the office of the Mission Board of the 
Baptist State Convention and placed in the hand:s of its champions in 
the Senate and the House: Mr. Stephen Mclntyre, of Robeson, and 
John B. Holman, of Iredell. It went through triumphantly, though 
not without opposition, both from the inside and from the outside of 
the Legislature. Historically this action marked the sharp, initial, 
practical beginning of that turn in the tide for popular education which 
in the next fifteen years would flood the State with enthusiasm for the 
present puhlic school system in Xorth Carolina. 

In the nature of reminiscence of the good fighting of that year, I 
venture to recall that the Democratic State Executive Committee had 
realized that the campaign of the Biblical Recorder and others had 
won out. From that committee assurance was voluntarily proffered 
that no bills carrying appropriations for higher education would be 
permitted to pass the Legislature without the consent of those who were 
leading the fight in the State for the primacy of the common schools. 
The pledge of the Democratic leaders came to test before the joint com- 
mittee on appropriations in the Legislature at its first meeting, and 
the State Executive Committee made good its unasked-for pledge abso- 
lutely. The appropriations desire! by the University, the State Xornial 
College, and the A. and M. College were referred to the generosity of 
Mr. Bailey and Mr. White. I am glad to tell you that they were as 
generous as possible under the circumstances, and that from that inci- 
dent onward a new entente of fellowship and sympathy between the 
State colleges and the denominational colleges began a development 
uninterrupted at this hour. 

The Great Consummation 

With the dawn of 1900, seven years lay behind in which the gospel 
of popular education had been preached from platforms and pulpits 
reaching to every community in Xorth Carolina. Public sentiment in 
the rural districts, aroused and sometimes inflamed, had been confirmed 
in repeated resolutions of public assemblies. The moribund situation 
had given way at the end of 1S99 to the sense of something moving in 
a new direction for the public schools. With the dawn of 1900 con- 
ditions justified the leaders of the Democratic party in believing that 
a constitutional amendment carrying the 1908 educational qualifiea- 
tional clause for white people could be passed. We know what hap- 
pened in North Carolina in that year. Xorth Carolina in all her his- 
torv has never known anvthins better than what did happen. Due 

42 Twenty-second Annual Session 

credit certainly must be given to the constitutional amendment for Ita 

coercive effect as law upon popular education. But the greatest 
that happened was Charles B. Aycock. North Carolina found her 
captain, gave him his own trumpet to blow, and the children's children 
standard to bear. Alas our captain! our captain! Among all the things 
cherished and preserved by your speaker of a somewhat oratorical life, 
nothing is more cherished than a copy of the Raleigh Morning Post 
of January 1, 1S99. which reports in eight columns an address made 
in behalf of popular education before the joint session of the House 
and Senate on the night of December 31, 1898, in which this prophecy 
of a great Captain was pleaded : 

The president of a theological seminary was asked the other day what in 
his opinion was rhe greatest need or" foreign missions. He reflected, and re- 
plied, "A great missionary." If I were asked what the indispensable ner-es-dty 
of popular education in North Carolina is at this hour, I would reflect and 
reply, "A great public man whose heart and brain, time, talents, energy, 
everything, is devoted to the cause of the wool-hatted and barefooted army of 
over 600.000 children whose only hope for instruction is in the public schools." 
I remarked to a gentleman yesterday that North Carolina offered the greatest 
opportunity for statesmanship in America. What I meant was that the con- 
dition of public education in this State, the deplorable situation with regards 
to our public schools in North Carolina afforded the greatest possible oppor- 
tunity for some able man to be transformed from a politician into a states- 
man. And I believe it with all my heart that the man in the next ten years 
of North Carolina life who has been fashioned by nature and experience for 
public leadership, and who will be beside himself a fool, a crank, a dedicated. 
sanctified agitator for better public schools, whether parties nominate or 
people elect to office, or not, whether he offend or whether he please the news- 
papers, will create a career so persistent in its claims upon the conscience of 
our people, and so write himself into the history of a vital progress, and so 
entwine his life into the lives of thousands born and unborn, that sooner or 
later, when truth gets a hearing, as in God's good time it always does, that in 
the summing-up of achievement and the distribution of laurels, the sage of 
history will write his name in letters of fadeless luster. 

Too eloquent by half, but a Hebrew^ prophet would have been very 
well satisfied with what was confirmed of its prophecy in Xorth Caro- 
lina in the career of Charles B. Aycock. 

The Democratic State Convention of April, 1900, that gave him its 
"harvest of hearts'' and his nomination for Governor, met in the con- 
sciousness of great and deep emotions. It had its mind on the nomi- 
nation of a man without particular regard for his gubernatorial quali- 
ties as an administrator. It had tin 1 sense of a new day which de- 
manded a champion of democracy with especial reference to education. 
Before Aycock was nominated, a platform had been adopted for him 
to stand on. One of its planks was this : 

State Literary and Historical Association A'-\ 

We heartily comnifinl the action of the Genera] Assembly of 1809 for appro- 
priating $100,OUO lor the beuetii ot the public schools in the State, and pledge 
ourselves to increase the school fund so as to make at leasl a four-months 

term in each year in every school district in the State. 

I have pleasure in remembering the phraseology because I stood by 
the typewriter that clicked it off on the little slip of paper which wa> 
handed in to the Committee on Platform through the Hon. Mike Jus- 
tice, of Rutherford. It is needless to say that Charles B. Arcock ap- 
proved and in his inaugural address quoted it as the keynote pled. 
the campaign he had made for the amendment. The election of Gov- 
ernor Aycock relieved the Baptist Associations and the Methodist Con- 
ferences instantly of every ounce of necessity to concern themselves in 
resolutions about the common schools in Xorth Carolina. It put an 
end to persistent editorials and passionate speeches on that subject. 
Quite naturally to say. from the day he was elected to this hour there 
has never been a flutter of agitation in that quarter. There is no 
question in anybody's mind, for history has guaranteed that, as to who 
did the grand deed of individual leadership which swept the tide for 
popular education in Xorth Carolina. The man's picture hangs in my 
home conspicuously among my household gods — Abraham Lincoln, 
Lloyd George, and Woodrow Wilson — and I look at his face every day. 
The night before he died in Birmingham I walked up and down with 
him in the shed of the old union depot in Atlanta, and we talked of 
things that were and are and were to be — of the past and the future of 
his career. His was a nature of all generosity. He said in kind refer- 
ence to two men whose names I will not call, "Our educational move- 
ment in Xorth Carolina, beginning with the campaign for the amend- 
ment, found the soil prepared for it." 

We know the story of 1901 to 1922. Everybody knows it, and every- 
body honors the men of it. We know T that J. Y. Joyner became the 
organizing genius and the practical administrator of the great change. 
We know that E. C. Brooks and his colleagues have confirmed and 
greatly continued the advance of the public school system. Xo one 
wull be allowed to forget the consuming zeal of Charles D. Mclver and 
others. I have only given you a leaf of unwritten record which the 
historian cannot neglect. The pioneering of effective propaganda for 
the common schools in Xorth Carolina was as I have related it. We 
were the first to break with a shout that had echoes in it into the dreary 
and complacent sea of inertia and stolid prejudice. The shibboleths of 
that agitation became the principles of this progress which tingles in 
the hearts and dances in the eyes of Xorth Carolinians at home and 
abroad in 1922. 

44 Twenty-second Annual Session 

It was read in the newspapers a few months ajro that when Marshal 
Foch, th« j Generalissimo of the World War, in his American tour came 
to the city of Detroit he was wearied to exhaustion. The clamorous 
applause of the multitude had ceased to arouse his interest. There the 
mayor of the city turned to him and told him a little story of how 
Hennipin had sailed into the Detroit River in 1670 and hud written 
these words in his diary: 

Those who will one day have the happiness to possess this fertile plain and 
pleasant strait will be very much obliged to those who have shown the way. 

At these words the tears rushed to the eyes of the great soldier. 


Two Wake County Editors Whose Work Has Influenced 

the World 

By Mrs. J. R. Chamberlain 

History is an ordering and condensing of social detail so as to present 
facts as truth. 

Because the study of small communities and the influence going out 
from them is an introduction, and indeed the best of introductions to 
history in its broader sense, and because such study is thoroughly fasci- 
nating by reason of its own intrinsic interest, I have chosen for my 
subject the work of two editors, whose personalities and the ideas they 
advocated are intimately twined into the progress of our county. 

More than a century ago Joseph Gales became editor of the first 
newspaper established at the capital of Xorth Carolina. It was a 
Jeffersonian sheet; it represented popular aspirations, and was the 
channel through which many ideas of those fermenting times were 
brought home to the minds, and influenced the opinions of the citizens 
of old Xorth Carolina. 

Joseph Gales came here in the last months of 1799. He was a re- 
markable man for ability, for adventure, and for wide experience of 
men. The fact that he was self-educated, and was at the same time 
an experienced journalist, made him the more skillful in sowing ideas 
among the plain people of our community; and he must surely have 
furnished the kindly leisures of our great-grandfathers with much 
first-hand matter to discuss. His sympathy with his chosen home, and 
his thorough identification of himself with it, made him a man who 
would be readily liked and often quoted. 

N"ot many newspapers were published then, but those few were 
thoroughly read. They led public opinion. They were not so often 
as today mere followers of the prevalent beliefs, and intensifies of the 
prejudices of their readers. Instead of walking but a few steps in 
front of the largest, noisiest crowd, as some so-called "yellow journals'* 
have done, they had more originality. They were formative influences, 
even as viewed through the diminishing telescope of the lapse of time. 

Gales had been a poor boy, born in Yorkshire, England, apprenticed 
to a printer; and he set up for himself in due time his own newspaper 
in Sheffield, already a srreat manufacturing town. He and his paper 
were identified with the best liberal Whig ideals of England, just 
subsequent to the defeat of the British at Yorktown — the time when 
Pitt and the statesmen with him bethought themselves of the reason- 


ableness of those demands, which when denied to their colonies had 
brought on the successful war of the Revolution. 
In the England of that time reform, scientific discovery, the growth 

of manufacturing, the increase of dissent, and the rosy dawn of the 
French Revolution were all mixed into a web of rapid changes. Among 
the advocates of the several measures of reform, Gales, by means of 

his influential paper, was the peer of any. He was assisted in his 
editorship by a wife whose antecedents were more cultured than his 
own, but who shared his opinions, and was a woman of the greatest 
talent and spirit. She was one of the early ''Blue Stockings." She 
wrote novels, and although the work of her pioneer efforts at self- 
expression, as well as that of all the rest of her sister authoresses, not 
excepting the great Mrs. Hannah Moore herself, has gone completely 
out of fashion, yet their influence on their age was great. Dr. Samuel 
Johnson said of these ladies: "A woman's preaching or writing is like 
a dog's walking on his hind legs. It is not done well, but you are 
surprised to find it done at all." So spoke the Great Lexicographer, 
that knock-down joker. 

Gales's partner in his publishing business in Sheffield was James 
Montgomery, a writer of hymns, which are still to be found in our 
hymn books. "Hail to the Lord's Anointed" is one, and "Hark the 
Song of Jubilee!" another. In the second we can still feel the breath 
of new hope for humanity such as men felt when France convened her 
first "States General." The hymn might be called a sanctified "Ca 

Gales must have been aware of the first Sunday school in 1781. He 
afterwards became the first Sunday school superintendent in Raleigh, 
when union services for the little city were held in the old State House. 
He was a religious man. He felt a devoted admiration for Dr. Priestley 
of Birmingham. He did not on that account feel afraid to show friend- 
ship to Thomas Paine, that celebrated Deistic Quaker whose opportune 
book, "The Rights of Man." set American sentiment unitedly in the 
direction of the Revolution, and just in the nick of time. 

Although Paine was later furnished with horns and a tail by the 
popular imagination, after his other work, "The Age of Reason." was 
printed, in which he insisted that belief in God must go the same way 
as submission to kinss; yet he was a writer of power who had great 
influence in his day. Mrs. Gales said of him, when she entertained him 
in her house, that she found him "a gentle, kindly soul." 

Dr. Priestley, the learned Unitarian divine, who interspersed his 
treatises on theology and early excursions into the "Higher Criticism," 
the first that we hear of, with books about his own scientific discoveries. 

State Literary and Historical Association 47 

was also an intimate friend of the Galeses, and both he and his friend-, 
were caught tai The same back-wash of conservative sentiment when the 

French killed their king. 

So terribly did this deed shock Englishmen that the partisans of the 
French Revolution in England, of whom Edmund Burke was one, could 
scarcely disown all ideas connected with it hastily enough; and because 
some convinced liberals, Radicals they were then called, continued to 
demand prison reform and the suppression of "Rotten Boroughs/' they 
were subjected to the persecution of Tory mobs. Dr. Priestley's labora- 
tory apparatus was thrown into the street in Birmingham, in the same 
way as the types of Joseph Gales' printing office in Sheffield. Both 
were indicted for treason. Both had to flee to America. 

Joseph Gales remained two years in Schleswig-Holstein, then a part 
of Denmark, there awaiting his wife, and after her coming, failing 
immediate departure, as they planned, because a seaworthy vessel was 
not at once available. 

Mrs. Gales, no clinging vine she, sold out the business successfully 
before she went to Denmark, and the pair with their family reached 
Philadelphia safely in 1795. 

I would like to stop and turn back here, to tell in detail how bravely 
Airs. Gales faced her own mob, how she was protected in her home by 
the working men of Sheffield, after her husband's flight, and how, when 
they had begun their voyage across the ocean, when their vessel was 
taken by pirates, she talked these sea-hawks into letting their prey sail 
on unharmed to America. Arriving there, how she reproved \Yillie 
Jones for profane swearing, how she wrote the first novel ever printed 
in Xorth Carolina — the first, and for so very long, the only one. 

Also it would be good hunting to describe the time when the Tory 
authorities had to send for Joseph Gales, the printer, to quiet a wild 
Sheffield mob, which he was able to pacify; and to tell how Gales used 
his unexpected delay in Holland to learn two new languages, and the 
then unusual art of shorthand. How also he grew friendly with many 
celebrated Emigres, and how Madame de Genlis wished to adopt the 
baby Altona Gales, and again, how they saw General Pichegru, of the 
red Revolutionary Army of France, go skating to the conquest of Hol- 
land over the ice of the River Elbe. 

After all these exciting experiences the pair must have been glad to 
reach a quiet haven and a life of less uncertainty, when, in the fall 
of 1799, they came to Raleigh to start the Raleigh Register. 

Among the Xorth Carolina delegation to Congress, still meeting in 
Philadelphia, were Nathaniel Macon and Willie Jones. Both were 
JefTersonians. Then as now people were divided into two opinions. 

48 Twenty-second Annual Session 

Conservatives who did not fully trust the common man, liberals who 
were willing to trj him. At that time, much more than today, party 
lines were strictly drawn between these two camps. Jefferson, who 

was a strong enthusiast for the French ideals of liberty, equality and 
fraternity, gave his name to the rising party representing these senti- 

Xorth Carolina had at that time more population than New York 

President Adams and the Federalists had lately passed the "Alien 
and Sedition Acts," which were most unpopular. Xorth Carolina was 
a close State politically, and the JetTersonians saw their opportunity. 
They were glad to discover in Joseph Gales, lately come to Philadel- 
phia, an able man whose political opinions were distinctly Jeffersonian, 
who could worthily edit the paper they wished to start in Raleigh, that 
new little Capital-in-the-woods. 

Gales' new paper was the old Sheffield one revived. It bore the same 
name, The Register. It was decorated with the same emblem, or head- 
ing, of the liberty pole and cap, and it expressed the same sympathy 
for the under dog. It professed also the same passion for reform as 
when it had been issued in Sheffield. Its editor was from henceforth 
a part of this city. He was its mayor for term after term. He be- 
came State Printer after the Jeffersonians or "Republicans" came into 

He opened a book shop when he arrived in Raleigh, and among his 
first list of books for sale we find the authors Godwin, Paine, Rousseau 
and Adam Smith. In one of his early editorials occur these words: 
""What is the world but one wide family on which the Common Parent 
looks with the eye of equal protection." Again, "To choose a good 
cause is to select one which selfish men dislike." 

His paper became a great disseminator of information on agricul- 
tural subjects; it published careful accounts of the discoveries and 
improvements which came so thickly in the beginning of the century 
past. Mr. Gales was always a friend to every idea which meant prog- 
ress or benefit to those who could not help themselves. Education, 
Temperance, Gradual Abolition of Slavery, Care of the Insane, Internal 
Improvements — in all these questions he was far ahead of his fellow 

He trained three generations of editors. His son and his son-in-law 
were partners in establishing and editing the National Intelligencer, 
the first Washington newspaper, which save authoritative reports oi the 
debates of Congress. Another son and a son's son were successively 
editors of Raleigh. His descendants are nianv and worthy today. 


State Literary and Historical Association 40 

Such a man's influence is impossible to estimate, difficult to limit. 
I think we can take for granted for that time, ;is for this, the dearth 
of constructive reasoning and the lack of educational progressive leader- 
ship, and may be allowed to justify high praise of a man who supplied 
both to his State for many years, and indirectly to his country. 

Some one has said that the axis of the earth sticks out visibly at the 
place which each of us calls home. In connecting the life of Mr. Gales 
with our center, we noted the beginning, how it was rooted in signifi- 
cant times of his native England, while the flowering came with us. 
American history has not hitherto taken enough notice of or given 
enough credit to our ''Americans by Choice." 

The second of these chosen sowers of seed, of whom I am to speak, 
had indeed his dav in the great world, and. a glorious one; but it was 
here on our own soil, here on our own red clay hills that he had his 
origin. Some day we will better value the distinction which this 
gives us. 

The recently published Life and Letters of Walter K. Page, by Hen- 
drick, is an admirably planned book, with skillful selection of those 
letters which best show the mind of the man. It has one fault which 
slaps a Wake County, Xorth Carolina, person smartly in the face. Mr. 
Hendrick always thinks of Walter Page as a world figure. He would 
rather have him, as it seems, just happen, like Melchisedee, without 
genealogy or local attachment. He emphasizes this. He takes pains 
to tell us that Mr. Page's education was almost wholly obtained out- 
side of Xorth Carolina, and ignores the home influence on a young 
man's life and thought. He stresses the fact that Mr. Page was unap- 
preciated, and therefore had to leave us. 

Xow t when a man's forbears have lived for three generations in a 
locality, and when he himself has continuously remained there until his 
later teens, he can never lose the mark of his nativity, even if he wishes 
it very earnestly. Mr. Page never washed anything like that for a 
moment. People who knew him, and who knew his "folks," will main- 
tain that he is no "bud variation" or "mutation." He was the ''square- 
root of his ancestors." 

That exquisite precision of his in the use of words, whereby things 
are said finally, and the nerve of a fallacy is punctured so that it can 
never squirm again, is not unknown as a talent in some of his kin. As 
a boy he could marshal his thoughts and tell them in plain, well-selected 
words. That he was well educated was his own doing. It was the 
quality of the man who went to Johns Hopkins, and to Germany, which 
made the education effective. 

50 Twenty-second Annual Session 

When he came to Raleigh to edit the Chronicle he had beeome a most 
active principle, lit to stir up a passive society. Some people are born 
with the love of the past in their hearts, and others wirh the question- 
ing of existing institutions upon their lips. Of the latter was young 
Walter Page. 

Imagine such a man, in the vigor of his independent youth, turned 
loose in a land of sore memories. Here at that time it was like the home 
of the old, where all is kept sacred ; a place where, after supreme effort 
relaxed, the daily habit was to "sit in the sun and tell old tales.'' Being 
the man he was, he felt scant sympathy with ail this, as a regnant 
mood. He did not truly estimate the depth of the post-war ennui. He 
did not think seriously enough of the old soldier's inevitable worship 
of the past. 

They say that even today, in this America, there are young men who 
cannot get away from the World War, who cannot march breast forward 
into the new day. They turn back mentally, because they feel that their 
greatest significance a3 individuals is already past. 

Mr. Page loved Xorth Carolina. He saw her possibilities. He knew 
her latent power. He inspired many of those who have brought about, 
since then, the things that have counted for progress. He shot his 
ideas, like arrows, into the hearts of his circle of young men friends. 
The things he told, us, the shrewd comments he injected under our hides 
by his keen criticism, we have never forgotten. Even till this day we 
are taking the time to prove that he overstated, by doing all those things 
which he evidently feared we might not do. 

Prophets have been noted for telling unpleasant truths from the 
earliest times, and every young man who begins reformer is made to 
suffer for it. 

Very soon, because we could not pay him a living for his wares, he 
went to fill a more conspicuous place than that of the small town editor 
of a weekly newspaper. The editorship of several significant periodicals 
culminated for him in the chair of the staid, long-established, oracular 
Atlantic Monthly of Boston. From that he went to become founder of 
The World's Work, more his own pattern of a monthly. 

When he left Xorth Carolina he took her with him. As often as he 
visited his old home he brought her some solution to her problems. A 
man is — precisely what he does. For the great "State College" which 
calls its thousand young men each year and teaches them to use the 
State's resources, for the Xorth Carolina Woman's College which util- 
izes the real value of our girls' brains, so long a waste product — for the 
first and for the second of these educational aehievemenrs I am not 

State Literary and Historical Association ol 

{roina: to give him all the credit. Let li im portion out the prai-f- who 
can: so much to Pago, so much to the Watauga Club, so much to those 
other notable apostles of better education, such as Mclver and Aycock. 

Whatever was done then, Page was there, in word and inspiration, 
at the doing of it. But perhaps his greatest service to his own State 
was his interest in the health welfare of our Southern country. 

When Dr. Stiles, of the Education Bureau, gave in Raleigh his first 
semi-public lecture on the discovery of the cause of the malady which 
was killing so many at the South, I sat upon the front bench to hear 
him, the only woman there, eyed as a strange cat in the garret by the 
group of physicians, plus a few cotton mill executives, there assembled. 
The great calming satisfaction, felt when the true reason for a strange 
and baffling phenomenon is laid in one's hand to keep forever, was my 
abundant reward when I went away. 

We know all about these things now. A cotton mill village, a country 
school, may be as rosy and as healthy as to its children as the best resi- 
dence street. This also by the help of Walter Page. Yes, he has kept 
us on our toes, to show how well we can do, "but and if we would." We 
should thank him, we should honor him, we should never take it out in 
roasting his one novel, "The Southerner/' because in it he never quite 
guessed the feelings of the old Confederate soldier, first defeated, and 
then "excoriated" by Reconstruction doings! 

All the story of the great World War is not yet written. Page's 
acting of his own part as Ambassador to Great Britain, which I admire 
exceedingly, is however ready for posterity's verdict. 

Some recent reviewer has called him the 'Alodern Franklin," inas- 
much as he was the interpreter of things American to the great British 
Empire, when, lacking mutual understanding, we might have gone 
under together along with our common civilization. 

He seems also to have had laid on him the task of expressing Eng- 
land's inarticulate soul to America, to have combated successfully the 
dogged determination of certain elements not to consider the inevita- 
bility of our joining the Allies. 

International sympathy and international friendship was better than 
too much raw international candor; and here again I shall claim that 
old kinship; that Wake County, Xorth Carolina, folksyness, alive in 
her distinguished son, played a part in saving the world when it rein- 
forced the greater qualities possessed by Walter Hines Page. In Xorth 
( Carolina we enjoy people, we like kindly gossip, we discuss and taste 
the differences of personality among our friends with loving discrimina- 
tion, as some more sophisticated societies forget to do. 

52 Twenty-second Annual Session 

Mr. Page filled the conceptions of the English as to true democratic 
ways and easy manners. He liked their individuality, and they t- It it; 
he became to them a more idealistic Franklin, a truly democratic rep- 
resentative of a great Democracy. He was precisely the man; they 
esteemed him. 

Besides all this, we read in his letters how well his heart remembered 
the things his boyhood knew. 

How clearly we hear this when he chooses to touch that key. How 
he recalled the heart of the struggling woods where he roamed as a boy; 
how he remembered the smells of growing things outdoors under our 
sweltering summer sun ; how he saw in his mind's eye the glorious color 
of a clay bank in the golden light of autumn, and heard the whirr of the 
partridge startling out of the blackberry thicket in early winter. 

Xature he knew and loved as his boyhood had found it. The pine 
trees were always "kind to him." How dear to him was that "Little 
grove of long-leaved pines" in the country he called his own ! 

Yes, I take issue with his excellent biographer; he was a Southerner. 
He w r as far more that person than the gentleman in question might 
ever be able to guess. Because of that fact and that nurture he was a 
most important link, I am tempted to say the most important link in 
the final will united to victory of the Allies. 

Missions of the Moravians in North Carolina Among 
Southern Indian Tribes 

By Edmund Schwarze, Ph.D. 

Pastor Calvary Moravian Church, Winston-Salem, >*. C. 

History and fiction of which the American Indian is the subject are 
invested with peculiar fascination and interest. Those who remember 
the high privilege, while at school, of taking out a library book on 
Friday afternoons will, most likely, have a picture in their minds of the 
shelf upon which stood the Leather-Stocking Tales or other Indian 

Historic haunts of the Indian; scenes of his special activity, good or 
evil; arrow-heads and other Indian relics have about them an unfailing 
glow of romance. Indian names are retained regardless of difficult spell- 
ing and pronunciation. 

The writer has experienced all these thrills but wishes to record that, 
for him, the greatest interest attaching to the Indian has been to observe 
him responding to the Gospel. This is the best part of Indian lore. 

Moravian mission history is particularly rich in this field, for the 
Indians ever lay near to the hearts of the Moravian brethren who were 
constrained by the love of Christ to send companies from their congre- 
gations in the Old World as heralds of the Gospel to the aborigines of 

The story of this particular mission among southern tribes of the 
United States — only a small part of the manifold labors of the Mora- 
vians with the Indians — properly belongs into the history of "Wachovia, 
the Moravian settlement in Xorth Carolina which, in turn, is one of the 
main chapters in the history of our State. 

The essential values of a human life are spiritual. Beneath the 
civilization, progress and prosperity of today lie spiritual fundamentals 
which are in the greatest danger of being overlooked in our materialistic 
age. Christian missions have laid this foundation and failing to main- 
tain it will topple the whole superstructure man has built into ruin. 
Lest we lose our vision in the blinding glare of materialism; lest we pile 
things so high that we cannot see God; stories of the messengers of the 
Cross should continue to be written and read, and, above all, Christians 
need increasing^ to react to the Great Commission. 

The Moravian Church which undertook this mission to southern 
Indian tribes was organized in 1457 at the very dawn of Protestantism, 
by spiritually-minded followers of John Hus and embraced 400 parishes 

54 Twenty-second Annt.wl Session 

and ?0fi,noo members in Bohemia, Moravia, and Poland at the time 

when Martin Luther appeared. Seemingly crushed after the terrific 

convulsions of the Anti-Reformation during the Thirty Years' War, a 
"Hidden Seed" was preserved by God, and members of the Unit as 
Eratrum found asylum from persecution on the estate of Count Zinzen- 
dorf in Saxony in 1722. Here the Moravian Church was renewed by 
Divine power in 1727. Already in 1732, the first missionaries were sent 
to the blacks on the island of St. Thomas and the following year two 
brethren went to the Eskimos in Greenland. The men who were the 
pioneers in the evangelization of the southern Indians belonged to a 
church which regarded the Masters unmistakable "go" not as a sugges- 
tion nor an option, but as a command to be obeyed. The Moravian 
Brethren had one passion and only one : to make Christ known to all 
ranks and conditions of men. 

Hence, to hear of the Indians who inhabited the Xew World was a 
desire created in the hearts of the Moravians to take to them the Gospel. 
Incidentally, this would give their church a home in America, where, 
unfettered and unhindered, the Moravian Brethren could live and 
develop their own life of devotion to God. 

A liberal grant of land was secured in 1734 from the trustees of the 
Georgia colony near the town of Savannah, and early in 1735 a com- 
pany of ten men arrived, each master of a trade, and thus together 
fitted to form a settlement. This was begun close to the town and 
strengthened by the arrival of additional Moravian colonists. With 
characteristic thoroughness, substantial homes were built and fields 
planted. The congregation was fully organized and could now enter 
upon the undertaking for which it had been sent. 

Objects of the first endeavors were the Creels, probably so called by 
English traders from the large number of creeks in their country. 

Broadly considered, the Creek Xation was a confederacy of Uchees, 
Chocktaws, Chickasaws, and others, all belonging to the general family 
of Muskhogee. Their tradition points to the country west of the Missis- 
sippi as the primeval seat of this people. There they were mound- 
builders. The same tradition tells of the long and arduous journey inci- 
dent to their emigration from the ancestral home to the location where 
they were discovered by the white men. Opposed by numerous and 
valiant tribes, the Muskhogee had fought their way to present abodes. 

These were located chiefly in the northern Alabama and along the 
upper and middle valley of the Chattahoochie River in Georgia and 
the Creeks thus occupied a central position among the tribes of the Gulf 
States, parts of which tribes they were continually, by conquest, incor- 
porating into their Xation. 

State Liteeabt and Historical Association 55 

The Greeks lived in well-constructed log houses, provided with 
wooden, clay-lined chimneys. Villages were permanent and arr i 
in a rectangle around an open space reserved for public gatherings, and 
especially, the annual ''green corn dance" — a religious exercise of 

Each village had its chief and its own insignia. The work in the 
fields was usually done in common under the paternal supervision of the 
chief. Over an entire clan was the "micco" or head chief. 

A curious custom divided the towns into "white" and "red" — marked 
by poles of these colors — wdiich division was of great importance in 
deciding the policy of the Xation when an occasion for war arose : the 
"red" towns presenting the arguments for war; the "white" championing 

Characteristics of these Indians were life on a comparatively high 
moral plane; absence of the grosser forms of vice until corrupted by 
intercourse with unscrupulous whites; and eagerness to learn, coupled 
with great ability to master arts and crafts; vague ideas of a Supreme 
Being, and an immortality of the soul on a low 7 , material basis. Con- 
jurers and charms wielded a great influence among them. 

Wnen the English were establishing the Carolina colony the Creeks 
sent envoys to Charleston with offers of friendship and alliance, which 
treaty vras made and kept inviolable up to 1773. when the continued 
encroachments on the Indians' land by white settlers caused repeated 
uprisings. During the Revolutionary War the Creeks were generally 
hostile to the Americans and it was not until 1795 that peace was finally 
concluded. Again in the War of 1812 the Creeks allied themselves with 
the English and perpetrated some fearful massacres before they were 
completely crushed and compelled to sue for peace in which contract 
they were forced to cede about one-half their former territory. Sub- 
missively, they retired to their reservations and ultimately were trans- 
ported west of the Mississippi where they comprised one of the "Five 
Civilized Tribes." 

The Moravian settlers in Georgia continually came in contact with 
1 amacraw r clan of the Creeks whose chief, Tomotschatschi, was the firm 
friend of the whites, and he and his people paid friendly visits to the 
Moravians. They indicated a desire to have some of the Brethren come 
and live among them to teach useful arts and, especially, to tell them 
the "Great Word." Accordingly, in July, 1737, a Moravian missionary 
and wife went to live among them with intent to learn the language and 
to tell them of their Savior. 

Further development came when General Oglethorpe agreed to pro- 
vide a schoolhouse for Indian children near Tomotschatschi's village if 


the Moravians would build and man the school and preach tin 1 Gospel, 
which oii'er they eagerly accepted. The bouse was erected on an island 

in the Savannah River a mile above the town and school \va^ began 
under most favorable auspices: the children readily learning to read 
and write and memorize verses of Scripture; their ciders looking on with 
wonder and approval. 

Then, in 17')7 and 1738, came rumors of a threatened invasion of 
Georgia by the Spaniards from Florida, and the whole colony was called 
to arms. In vain the Moravian Brethren insisted on their previous 
agreement with the trustees, not to be required to bear arms : the ulti- 
mate verdict was that if they would not remain in Georgia as citizens 
they might not remain as missionaries. Thus, unexpectedly, the open 
door was shut. The Moravians were glad, in 1740, to accept the otter 
of George Whitefield to sail with him to Pennsylvania where possibili- 
ties for a Moravian settlement and missionary labors were developing. 
Within a few years they became firmly established around their northern 
center, Bethlehem, Pa., and inaugurated widespread and flourishing mis- 
sions among northern Indian tribes. 

A new sphere came for work in the South when leaders of the 
Moravian Church in England in 1749 began negotiations with Lord 
Granville for the purchase of a large tract of land in Xorth Carolina. 
One hundred thousand acres were purchased and selected in the Pied- 
mont section of our State for a settlement of the Brethren. The tract 
was named "Wachovia." As in Georgia, the two objects for the begin- 
ning in Xorth Carolina were: holiness of life and separation for mis- 
sion service. 

A company of twelve men left Bethlehem, Pa., October S, 1753, and 
journeyed through the trackless forests to Wachovia where they arrived 
on Xovember 17 and their first settlement, Bethabara, was begun in a 
beautiful location five miles northwest of Winston-Salem. Salem, the 
principal and central town was begun in 1766 and became, in 1771, the 
seat of a district Moravian center around which has developed the 
Southern Province of the Moravian Church in America. 

Attracted by kindness and hospitality, parties of Creek and Cherokee 
Indians soon made beaten paths to Bethabara which they called "the 
Dutch fort where there are good people and much bread.*' 

Xearness to the southern Indians, so desirable for the purposes of a 
mission, was very dangerous during the years 1759-1761, as the Creeks 
and Cherokees were embroiled in the French and Indian War. Beth- 
abara was stockaded and many refugees were accommodated. The mill 
supplied the surrounding country with flour during this perilous period. 
The Indians planned several times to attack the village. On one oc- 

State Literary and Historical Association 57 

easion, the ringing of the church bell struck fear into their hearts and 

they hastily withdrew, for they imagined tiieir plans had been dis- 
covered. Another assault was averted when the advancing a - were 
startled by the blast of the horn of the watchman who was merely an- 
nouncing the hour. 

When peace had come, the Brethren turned their attention, once more, 
to Indian missions. Several evangelistic tours were made into Creek 
and Cherokee settlements. Letters were sent to the Commandant at 
Foit Prince George, Cherokee country, to ascertain possibilities for a 
permanent mission. A courteous and favorable reply gave assurance 
that the Cherokees would welcome missionaries. A Cherokee chief who 
passed through Salem in 1775 expressed the same opinion. 

Preparations to send missionaries were at once made but were broken 
off by the Revolutionary War and it is to be ascribed to God's merciful 
Providence alone that the Moravian towns were not destroyed. 

Peace having been concluded and the Indian tribes having become 
wards of the United States Government, the Moravians resolved upon 
an official inspection of the Cherokee country along the Tennessee River. 
This was done in 17S4. By the kindness of the United States agent a 
Council was arranged in the vicinity of Knoxville and twenty chiefs 
assembled. Through an interpreter the Cherokees were asked whether 
they wished to be instructed about their God and Creator and whether, 
for this purpose, a few of the good Moravian men could live among 
them. The head chief, Tayhill, asked time for deliberation. After two 
hours, he rose and said he was glad for the men who wished to come to 
tell them about God, "the Great Man who lives above," but he could give 
no definite answer until the other chiefs returned from the hunt. At 
the annual Council on Long Island in the Holston River they would 
render definite decision. 

Before the expiration of the year new disputes arose involving the 
Cherokees in war with the neighboring states. To avoid further 
trouble, white people were forbidden to settle among the Indians except 
upon special license from the Government. For a period of fifteen 
years Moravian connection with the Cherokees was broken off. 

In 1799, a missionary sent by the u Xew York Missionary Society" 
to the Chickasaws embodied in his report this clause which had. as some 
of them said, "the effect of an electric spark" on the Salem Moravians : 
''The Cherokees who reside in the vicinity of Tennessee are desirous of 
having missionaries amon£ them.''' 

The Executive Board in Salem at once deputed two Brethren on a 
reconnoitering journey. They reached Knoxville Xovember 6, 1799, 
and proceeded to the Government Indian Agency at Tellico Blockhouse 

58 Twenty-second Annual Session 

where they were cordially received but learned they had come too 
for that year. Three weeks before there had been 4,000 Cheroke* - 
Tellioo to receive their annual presents from the Government. 
all were on the hunt and would not return until the end of winter. Th^ 
envoys from Salem set down the purpose for their coming in writing for 
the Commandant at Tellico who promised his good offices to secure the 
consent of the Chiefs. The paper ended with this sentence: "The hap- 
piness of the poor Indian is a weighty matter to our Society and the 
establishment of a mission among them is seriously thought of." 

Captain Buttler delivered a lengthy "Talk." on the basis of this paper, 
to Chiefs "Little Turkey" and "Bloody Fellow" on May 9, 1S00, urging 
them to accept the offers of the Moravians. His talk was well received 
by them and they promised to lay this business before the Council. 

The same deputies were sent from Salem September, 1800, to treat 
with the Cherokees when they would gather for the annuity. They ar- 
rived in good time, and after the business of the Government was com- 
pleted, a full Council of the chiefs was convened, before which the mis- 
sionaries made their plea in person. Long parleys ensued. The chiefs 
stressed mainly their desire to have the children educated, and insisted, 
also, that the missionaries feed and clothe them. They adroitly avoided 
any reference to the preaching of the Gospel. The Council met on suc- 
cessive days and sometimes it seemed as if the efforts of the Moravians 
to gain entrance to the Cherokees would be futile. At last "Doublehead" 
answered for "Little Turkey" as follows : 

Respecting those missionaries, it has been nearly twelve months since they 
paid us the first visit. Now I address myself to the chiefs of my nation. I 
hope it will be well understood. The desire of these gentlemen appears to be 
good, to instruct us and our children. These gentlemen, I hope, will make the 
experiment : we will be the judge from their conduct and their attention to us 
and our children. Should they not comply as now stated, the agent will be 
the judge for the red people. 

The Cherokees having given permission, application was made to 
President Adams for license to proceed, which was granted with wide 
liberties and issued by the Secretary of War. Thus, after years of 
blocked efforts and waiting, after strenuous and fatiguing journeys 
beset with difficulties and sickness, after long consultations with chiefs 
and Government officials, the way was now open for the Moravian 
Church in Salem to send missionaries to live among the Cherokees. 

The name applied to this tribe has no meaning in their own language. 
They called themselves by the name "Ani-yun-wiya," which means 
"real people." 

State Literary and Historical Association' 59 

Cherokees have been described as the "mountaineers of aboriginal 
America," and it is quite reasonable to believe that they were the 
original inhabitants of the southeastern portion of the Unite . - 
They could not tell, "when first found by the white man, whether they 

possessed their land by right of discovery or by conquest. 

Linguistically, the Cherokees belong to the Iroquoian stock, though 
grammatical differences indicate that the separation must have occurred 
at a very early time. 

In physical appearance the Cherokees were a splendid race, tall and 
athletic. The women differed from those of other tribes, being tail, 
erect and of a willowy, delicate frame with features of perfect sym- 
metry. Cherokees enjoyed greater longevity than any of the Indian 
nations: it was pure, mountain air they breathed and clear mountain 
streams from which they drank. 

They lived in permanent villages of substantially-built log cabins 
and depended for livelihood chiefly upon agriculture, raising large crops 
of corn, beans, and pumpkins. 

Cherokee women, far from being plodding squaw T s and slaves of their 
husbands, ruled the house; their power resting chiefly upon three ancient 
customs : 

1. Marriage could be dissolved when one of the parties so wished; 

2. Man and wife did not hold property in common; 

3. Children belonged to the mother and her clan, hence, if man and 
wife disagreed, his own children and his wife's clan were against him. 

There was considerable intermarriage of white men among the Chero- 
kees at an early date. They were traders of the ante-Revolutionary 
period or Americans from the back settlements. 

Cherokees believed in an Almighty Being who created all things; 
among others, he built the first Indian of red clay. They believed in a 
life after death, either blissful or baleful, as the result of the life lived 
on earth. Both good and evil spirits were recognized, and were able 
to live in man. Sacrifices were made and religious festivals observed 
in charge of sorcerers who had the Cherokees very much in their power. 
The Cherokees had well-defined traditions of the Deluge. Whether these 
date back only to teachers of the days of the Spanish invasion at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century or to remote antiquity, forever hidden 
with other mysteries about the origin of these children of the forest, is 
a matter of conjecture. 

The first political convention between the Cherokees and the English 
was held in 1730. Sir Alexander Cumings was agent of King George 
II, and on the appointed day the Cherokees seated Sir Alexander on a 


stump, well covered with furs, and stroked him with thirteen '- . 
tails and sang around him from morning to night, and then, on bended 
knee, declared themselves to be dutiful subjects of the King. 

This comity was interrupted during the French and Indian War, but 
peace was restored in 1761, and, in the following year, a British lieu- 
tenant, Henry Timberlake, visited Cherokee towns and persuaded three 
powerful chieftains to accompany him to England. They were pre- 
sented to King George III, and at court exhibited a dignity and bearing 
in keeping with their rank as representatives of a great Nation. 

During the Revolutionary War the Cherokees were powerful allies of 
the British until they were utterly defeated. They entered into formal 
treaty with the United States in 1781. 

To this interesting Xation the Moravian Brethren felt constrained 
to come as messengers of Christ, and this mission and those of other 
denominations which followed the Moravian pioneers are inseparably 
connected with and chiefly responsible for the rapid and remarkable 
rise of the Cherokees in enlightenment, civilization and prosperity. 
Their espousal of Christianity brought them out as the most highly- 
developed of all Indian nations. 

A kind of first-fruits of the Cherokee harvest was a Cherokee who had 
been taken prisoner in one of the many Delaware-Cherokee wars and 
brought into the vicinity of the Moravian mission among the Delawares 
in the Tuscarawas Valley, Ohio. Xoah had remained in this neighbor- 
hood after his release, became a convert and was baptized by Moravian 
missionaries on July 4, 1778, twenty-eight years before the Southern 
mission was undertaken. 

The Salem deputies, after securing the official permission of the Coun- 
cil, examined several tentative sites for the location of a mission, of 
which Conference chose a plantation of 60 acres two miles east of the 
Connesauga River and 80 miles south of Tellico. This tract was pur- 
chased and named "Springplace" because of several fine limestone 
springs thereon. Springplace was 400 miles distant from Salem by way 
of Knoxville, and the site of the present Springplace is Murray County, 

On the night of April 12, 1801, an inspiring service was held in the 
Salem Church at which the first missionaries to the Cherokees. Abraham 
Steiner and Gottlieb Bvhan. were solemnly set apart for this office. "And 
when they had prayed and laid their hands on them, they sent them 

On horseback, and with one packhorse. The two set out next morning 
"to prepare for the settlement of a mission by planting some ground 
with provision and providing an habitation/* They reached Spring- 

State Literary and Historical Association Ci 

place April 20, and for several weeks remained on the neighboring 
plantation of a half-breed until the occupant at Springplace had re- 

Services were begun at once, held in a building on Jamed Vann'a 

farm and were attended by half-breed Cherokees, and white and colored 

The missionaries were busily occupied planting their fields and fell- 
ing trees for their own dwelling. Three months after leaving Salem 
they could occupy their new cabin and at night, when they had lit 
their pine torches, they dedicated the place and themselves to the Lord. 

For the first months the Brethren lived on corn bread, eggs, and 
coffee. Once, several Indians came to remain over night, and they 
shared with them what their larder afforded and it was only bread and 
w-ater. They fared better when the garden yielded an abundance of 

Steiner was privileged to attend a Council at which a treaty between 
the United States and the Cherokees was to be concluded. Three 
hundred warriors had gathered for the proceedings. "little Turk . 
the head chief, did not come, and for this reason : the President of the 
United States did not come in person but sent deputies: therefore, 
"Little Turkey," principal chief of the Cherokee Xation, did not come 
in person but sent deputies ! The commissioners laid before the chiefs 
the main business, namely, complaints of the neighboring states about 
the Indian trails, too narrow for trade and intercourse. The Govern- 
ment wished to make them wider. Chief "Doublehead." after all had 
smoked in silence for a season, arose and flatly declined the road proposi- 
tion, saying, that evidently the narrow trails were wide enough for the 
white man to find the red man's land. Whereupon the meeting ad- 
journed sine die. 

A glimpse now of one of the many arduous journeys from Salem to 
Springplace. One of the missionaries was married in Salem, and with 
another missionary, the trip to Springplace was undertaken in a large, 
covered wagon. Friends from Salem accompanied them as far as 
Bethania, where a farewell service was held and the missionaries pushed 
on. They crossed the Little Yadkin, came over the Blue Ridge and the 
Kew River; next, the south and middle forks of the Holston River were 
negotiated and the party came to Knoxville and then to Teflieo Block- 
house. Here the road for vehicles ended and the wagon was turned for 
home, the missionaries hiring a paekhorse and an Indian guide for the 
rest of the journey. Spending the nights under the open sky they were 
drenched by heavy rains. Coming to the Hiwassee River they found 
that stream swollen. The guide put the lady across in a canoe and the 



one missionary managed to get over on his horse, but when the ot 
man attempted to follow on the packhorse, the girth tore and ir 
only after a desperate struggle that man and came to land. ( 
ing, finally, to their station after these trials, they found that most 
their household effects had been stolen and the place generally was in 
bad condition. Yet the diary records a praise service held that very 
night as it was held every night during the many years of the Spring- 
place mission. 

For the first years the outlook was dark and discouraging. The mis- 
sionaries could not talk to the Indians except there chanced to be an 
interpreter. Moreover, the difficulties in the way of learning the lan- 
guage seemed insuperable. The chiefs were becoming suspicious because 
the promise of a school had not yet been carried out. Imagine the con- 
sternation of the missionaries when an ultimatum was sent them either 
to start the school without delay or to vacate Cherokee land by Jan- 
uary first, 1804. Due to the intervention of the United States agent the 
threat was not carried out and the chiefs were prevailed upon to grant 
longer time. By Christmas, 1804, four scholars were at Springplace, 
two of them the sons of chiefs who had been most bitterly opposed to 
the mission. 

Two new log houses were now erected at Springplace for dwelling 
and school purposes. 

The year 1S04 marked the beginning of a new effort among the 
Creeks. Col. Hawkins, the Government agent among them had spent 
much time in turning the Creeks from hunting, fishing, etc., to the 
simple manufactures, knowledge of weights and measures and the 
like, and he had been very successful. Consequently, when two Brethren 
came from Salem to the Creek country, they were cordially received by 
Col. Hawkins, who promised to do all in his power to assist a mission 
among his wards. 

The Hawkins establishment was on the Flint River and being on the 
border of the Creek country missionaries could live here without obtain- 
ing permission from the Creeks. 

The Brethren were advised to send missionaries who were artisans — ■ 
carpenters, smiths, etc. — for the Creeks were very anxious to learn 
trades and therefore a missionary so trained could find easier entrance 
with the Gospel. 

In 1807 two men were ready, between them representing the black- 
smith, joiner and turner, gunsmith, and weaver trades. Among the 
Creeks their services were greatly in demand and they faithfully 
preached Christ where opportunity offered. Long evangelistic tours 
were made, for the situation at the agency did not reach many Indians. 

State Literary and Historical Association 63 

Six years passed and the missionaries saw hopeful signs that their 
labor was not in vam. Then came the War of L812, and the Creeks 
went on the war-path, rendering the position of the two Brethren on 

the Creek border extremely dangerous and finally untenable. They wore 
recalled in 1813. 

Meanwhile the light was dawning in the Cherokee Nation, its first 
beams arising, singularly enough, out of the school which the mission- 
aries so much dreaded. "With the" coming of John Gambold and wife 
to the work came a new era for the Cherokees. In gifts and conse- 
cration, Gambold was eminently the man for the place and Mrs. Gam- 
bold was even more valuable. For twenty years she had been principal 
tutoress in the school for young ladies at Bethlehem, Pa., and her talents 
of the highest order and lovely disposition had endeared her to students 
all over the country. These two gave the balance of their lives to the 
Cherokees. both filling a grave in the Indian country after many years 
of highly successful service. Under the blessing of God the mission 
blossomed like a rose in the desert of heathenism. When at Christmas 
1806, the Cherokee scholars sang: 

"Praise the Lord, for on us shineth. 
Christ, the sun of righteousness/' etc. 

the missionaries felt amply repaid for all trials they had endured in 
the dark years that lay behind. 

The work in the school was so satisfactory that Col. Meigs, the 
Cherokee agent, had no difficulty in securing an annual appropriation 
of $100 from the Government, More scholars were received and the 
curriculum was widened. Carefully the children were instructed, also, 
in the essentials of the Christian faith, and this was beginning to tell on 
them and was influencing their parents. 

On June 16, 1810, came the request of Margaret Vann, half-breed 
Cherokee, for baptism — the first fruits of this mission. She was bap- 
tized on August 13 in the large Springplace barn, set in order for the 
occasion, which was completely filled with reverent Cherokees. For 
many years, up to her death, Margaret remained a shining light in her 
nation. One man particularly moved at her baptism was Charles 
Hicks, scribe for the upper Cherokees and later principal chief of the 
nation. Baptized in 1813 he became, also, a principal man of God 
for his people. 

Yes, the tide was turning. A few years asro there was stolid indiffer- 
ence; even hostility. Xow, by a miracle of grace, a gracious influence 
from above, all hearts seemed open and the missionaries held the esteem 
of the whole nation. 


The school felt the new impulse. Writing in acknowledgment of the 
annual appropriation to the Secretary of War, Gambold says: 

Since last I wrote you, our scholars have advanced in arithmetic as far an 

the rule of three (Theory of Proportion — E. S. ) : made further progres* in 
reading, grammar, and writing; learned by heart a little of sacred history, 
and likewise the first rudiments of geography. They are willing children, 
whom we love sincerely, and would gladly sacrifice our days in their service. 

A striking testimony to the character of the work done at Spring- 
place is given in the words of a Catholic Abbe, on a tour of the United 
States, who abode at Springplace for a day and night : 

Judge of my surprise, in the midst of the wilderness, to find a botanic gar- 
den containing many oxotic and medicinal plants; the professor. Mrs. (Gambold. 
describing them by their Linnean names. Your missionaries have taucrht me 
more of the nature of the manner of promulgating civilization and religion in 
the early ages by the missionaries from Rome than all the ponderous volumes 
which I have read on the subject. I there saw the sons of a Cherokee Regulus 
learning their lesson and reading their New Testament iu the morning, and 
drawing and painting in the afternoon, though, to be sure, in a very Cherokee 
style, and assisting Mrs. Gambold in her household work or Mr. Gambold in 
planting corn. 

So successful was the school that in 1818 five of the scholars could 
be sent for higher education to a seminary in Cornwall, Conn., con- 
ducted by the A. B. C. P. M.* for the heathen youth of all races. The 
day of their departure was a high day. Mr. Gambold gave the boys 
$10.00 out of his own meagre pocket; fitted two boys with his own 
shirts, and another with vest and trousers. A gentleman going Xorth 
had the boys in charge, and they enjoyed quite a triumphal procession 
and were shown marked kindness everywhere and especially in Salem. 
At "Washington, all visited ex-President Jefferson, dined with ex-Presi- 
dent Madison and were introduced to President Monroe. 

Arrived at the school, the five gave evidence of such excellent train- 
ing that the Prudential Committee promptly voted $200 for the Spring- 
place school. One of the boys was adopted by Dr. Elias Boudinot, 
philanthropist, statesman, and author. All of them eventually filled 
careers of great usefulness; two as native helpers in the Gospel among 
their countrymen. 

Encouragement came to Springplace from another source. The same 
chiefs who, a few years ago, had signed the letter threatening eviction 
of the missionaries now sent another letter telling them to enlarge their 
fields at pleasure and that they dwelt in perfect safety in the land. 

* American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Congregational. 

State Litebaby and Historical Association 65 

The influence of Chief Charles Hicks was having a telling effect on 
ins countrymen. From forty, fifty, and sixty miles around they cam" 
to the meetings. This good work continued until, in the 1819, there 
was a signal outpouring of God's Spirit upon the whole Cherokee tribe. 
Many came to the missionaries with the Philippian jail r* - Lestion, 
"What must I do to be saved?" and men, women and children were 
added to the Lord. 

Wrote Col. Meigs, U. S. agent : ''You have succeeded as far as you 
and your Society could possibly expect. The persons you name as new 
members of your church are amongst the first characters in the Xation 
for understanding and respectability." 

A large and commodious church was erected at Springplace in 1819. 

Of missionary establishments among the Cherokees there were, in 
1819, four, of which the Moravian at Springplace was oldest, estab- 
lished in 1801; Congregational, at Brainerd, Tenn., established 1816; 
Presbyterian, at Tallony, 30 miles east of Springplace, begun 1810; 
Baptist, in the valleys of southern Xorth Carolina, organized 1819. 

The Moravians opened a second station, 1820, at Oochgelogy, 30 miles 
south of Springplace, in what is now Gordon County, Georgia. .V mis- 
sionary couple came to this station where a large two-story house was 
erected with second floor arranged for church and school purposes. 
School was begun and gradually a congregation was gathered, and this 
station, too, grew in numbers and influence under the smile of God. 

October, 1820, and February, 1821. brought an experience of quite 
another sort to the little congregation at Springplace. Margaret Vanu, 
first convert, consistent Christian, accurate interpreter and real evange- 
list, lay dying. After bidding her beloved missionaries an ailectionate 
"Good Xight/' after the manner of the early Christians, she ''fell on 
sleep," and the first of the Cherokee flock that was found of Christ was 
the first, likewise, to see Him "face to face." A dark cloud often is fol- 
lowed by another. Margaret's spiritual mother, Mrs. Anna Gambold, 
the light and life of the Cherokee mission, kept alive for the past year 
only by her indomitable will and the love for the Cherokees, to whom 
she had poured the past sixteen years of her rich life, was called to her 
eternal reward the following spring and was tenderly bedded beside her 
Cherokee sister in the little Springplace graveyard, amid the sons of her 
little Indian boy scholars who would not be consoled. 

The wonderful spiritual awakening among the tribe has been noted, 
♦lust at this psychological time "Sik-wa-yi," a remarkable Cherokee who 
never learned to read, write or speak the English language, came for- 
ward with a stone upon which he had scratched a Cherokee alphabet of 
86 characters, each representing a syllable. Visiting in a neighboring 

66 Twenty-second Annual Session 

village, he had observed that white men had a method of conveying their 
thoughts on paper and conceived the idea of inventing chai intel- 

ligible to his people. He submitted his alphabet to a pub] t the 

chiefs who placed Sikwayi and his son at some distance from each other, 
dictated sentences to them, and, having exchanged thern by tru.- r y mes- 
sengers, had each read the writing of the other. 

Within five years of the acceptance of Sikwayi's invention three 
presses in the Cherokee forests had turned off 800,000 pages of good 
literature. The whole Xation became an academy for learning the 
alphabet and reading good books. Everywhere one could see Cherokeea 
instructing one another in the art of reading and writing. Portions of 
the Scriptures appeared and, at length, the whole Bible in Cherokee was 
ready, the scholarly work of Dr. S. A. Worcester, Presbyterian mis- 
sionary among the Cherokees. The Moravian liturgy and hymns were 
printed. (Copies of these Cherokee editions are preserved in the Salem 
archives.) Appeared a national paper, also. The Cherokee Phoenix, 
edited by one of the five former Moravian scholars whom we have fol- 
lowed from Springplace to the Cornwall Seminary. In fine, the Chero- 
kees became a literary Xation and advanced in civilization and in the 
Christian religion by leaps and bounds. 

Into this glorious sunshine of material, mental and spiritual progress 
came the ominous shadows of gathering clouds followed by the storm 
of the expatriation of the Cherokee Xation. 

In 1802 a convention was entered into between the United States and 
Georgia which resulted in an agreement by which that State ceded to 
the United States all its territory west of the Chattahoochee River — 
out of which Alabama and Mississippi were formed — the United States 
promising to pay $1,250,000 and to extinguish the claims of Indians 
within the new boundaries of Georgia. The Cherokees clung tenaciously 
to the idea of tribal autonomy, as did the other civilized tribes, and 
Georgia began to insist more and more strongly that the Federal Gov- 
ernment carry out its agreement. A new home for the red man had 
become necessary, hence "Indian Territory,'' that great reservation west 
of the Mississippi, carved out of the immense "Louisiana Purchase" of 
the year 1S03. 

With carefully coordinated plans between Federal and Georgia gov- 
ernments the removal to the western lands could have been accomplished 
with a minimum of suffering for the Indians. The facts of the case 
are that it was not so carried out. State and Government authorities 
seemed hopelessly at variance, and the Cherokees were caught between 
the upper and nether millstones. 

State Literary and Historical Association 67 

Tha Cherokees themselves " ided on the issue, and there were 

two factions: the "Ross Party," opposed to treaty and removal, and the 
"Ridge Party," favoring a treaty on the best terms obtainable, per- 
ceiving the futility of further opposition. The Senate in May, 1836, 
ratified a treaty with representatives of the latter, and this led to bitter 

feud between the parties. 

In consequence, one of the saddest stories in American history is that 
of the removal of the Cherokees from their Eastern homos. Bet 
sixteen and seventeen thousand men, women and children left Hrainerd 
in the fall of 1838 with a winter's journey before them. Rigors of the 
weather and ravages of disease attacked the exiles with dreadful fatality 
and soon the great caravan became a monstrous funeral procession. The 
time of travel increased to ten months, and at the end of the journey 
one-fourth of the company had found graves by the wayside. 

When these storm clouds broke over the Cherokees their fury struck 
the mission stations also. Missionaries were arrested, but later released. 
The Cherokee lands having been previously distributed by lots, Ooch- 
gelogy was seized, and on January 1, 1833, claimants presented them- 
selves for Springplace. The missionaries sought refuge across the Ten- 
nessee line. The intruders had brought w T ith them plenty of whiskey, 
and when night came Springplace, where for many years each night had 
resounded the Indian children's sweet song of praise and the voices of 
united prayer, echoed with the discordant sounds of drunkenness and 

For several years the Moravian mission was maintained in Tennessee. 
At the last solemn Communion service before the Moravian Cherokees 
took their staff in hand, the missionaries announced that the Society in 
Salem had resolved to reestablish the mission in the new territory. 

Accordingly in September, 183 8, three Brethren set out in a sturdy 
covered wagon "Westward Ho!" They were forty-one days on the 
journey of over 800 miles. 

The large reservation for the Cherokees lay in the northeast corner 
of the Territory and covered about 3,800 square miles. Here the tribe 
was settled, and gradually the breaches between opposing parties were 
healed. Then followed for the Xation years of wonderful prosperity 
and advancement — political, educational, and spiritual. 

Of the Moravian mission in the new land only an outline can be given 
in the limited time of this paper. Four main stations and over a score 
of preaching places were established. Schools were maintained with 
splendid results until the Cherokee free schools and national seminaries 
to a large degree superceded the denominational school. There were 
repeated, spiritual revivals of religion and hundreds of Cherokees 


entered the Moravian household of faith. Moravian methods were 
but thorough. The long years of the maintenance of the i 

scarcely any lapses into heathenism, and Moravian converts were con- 
spicuous in positions of responsibility — schools, business enterprises, 
and offices of government. 

Other denominations prospered greatly. The Cherokees had em- 
braced Christianity and were experiencing that "Godliness is profitable 
unto all things," good houses, good churches, good schools, law and order, 
material prosperity, spiritual blessing, and life eternal. 

The heroic sacrifices entailed upon the southern Moravian Church and 
upon missionaries make the story of the work in the Territory a romance 
in the annals of God's Kingdom. Time fails to tell of the death of 
two young wives of missionaries, far from home and kindred, within 
the space of a few days, the husband of one making the caskets for both 
handmaidens of the Lord while blinding tears hindered his work. Diaries 
of the thousand-mile horse-and-carriage journeys repeatedly undertaken 
by missionaries and members of the Mission Board from Salem to 
Indian Territory are fascinating chapters of the narrative. On one 
such journey of visitation an aged Bishop of the church ventured with 
presentiment that he would never return alive. He died in Stone 
County, Mo., on the return journey and was buried by his faithful com- 
panion and sympathetic strangers. Later his body was brought to 
Salem. Within a few r days of the Bishop's death one of the missionaries 
died and the widow and little fatherless children made the sad, thousand- 
mile journey homeward. 

Came the convulsion of the Civil War which brought again a divided 
Cherokee Nation. One missionary was arrested and imprisoned for 
several months; another was murdered by a party of Cherokees and his 
body, mutilated by hogs, was found by the half -grown son of the arrested 
missionary. He and his mother dug a shallow grave. Within a few 
w r eeks the widow had succumbed to the shock. One of the stations was 
set on fire by hostile Cherokees and completely destroyed. The whole 
mission was disrupted for the remainder of the strife. 

Rehabilitated after the war, the mission continued for three decades, 
though carried on with increasing cost and difficulties, owing to the 
great distance from the home base of the church. One fatal defect of 
the Moravian mission lay in the failure to train the Cherokees to con- 
tribute to the work and to feel responsibility for their mission. Under 
these conditions the work depended for its life upon contributions from 
the Salem Church and the products of two 160-acre farms upon which 
the principal stations w T ere located. Under the Curtis Act, a compre- 
hensive legislative provision of Congress, finally ratified by the Chero- 

State Litkrary and Historical Association 69 

kees in 1809, Federal jurisdiction was extended over the entire Territory, 

lands were allotted in severalty and the [ndians became citizens of the 

United States. By the provisions of this law, churches were all 
but four acres each and the Moravian Board deemed it impossible to 

continue the work on this basis. Hence the venerable mission among 
Creeks and Cherokees, extending over 164 years, came to an end in 
1890, work among Indians in Canada and Southern California in a 
measure compensating for its loss. 

After a few years the Danish Lutheran Church entered the sphere of 
Moravian labors in the Territory. There are Moravian Cherokees still 
living, now under the care of this church. 

Had there been in the latter days spirits of the calibre of Chief 
Charles Hicks, of the old Springplace, Georgia, mission, there would be 
flourishing churches today in the Territory. 

The influence of the Moravian pioneer mission in the civilization and 
uplift of an entire Indian tribe is beyond estimation. The results of the 
mission are conserved in our Father's House. Its hundreds of Cherokee 
converts are at home with God, together with their missionaries who 
loved not their own lives unto death to hring to them the Gospel. 

Other denominations have nobly carried on the work and share its 

And in the Cherokee harvest the Lord "shall see of the travail of his 
soul, and shall be satisfied." 

Concerning a History of North Carolina Administrative 


By C. C. Pearson 

Wake Forest College 

There is no history of any ]N"orth Carolina State executive or admin- 
istrative department, board or commission. This lack, howeve 
rule in other States also; and it is only recently that departments 
Federal Government have received serious historical attention. Xor 
does the statement refer to special studies only. Our general histories, 
State and Xational, devote little attention to ordinary administration 
save when it has been extraordinarily bad. Yet consider the magnitude 
and importance of this work. The Xorth Carolina Blue Book of 1918 
lists twenty-eight separate State departments or boards or commissions, 
and if we add the boards of educational and charitable institutions ''as 
we should do) the total was sixty-one. Save for the small sums that go 
to members of the Legislature and the courts it is these that spend the 
tax money. One of them is now in process of spending a minimum of 
fifty millions in a great construction program. Another claims to be 
saving ordinary citizens one and a half millions a year in "cost values" 
and many millions more in "vital values." We have it on eminent 
authority that another has more power than Julius Ca?sar ever had — 
power over property, revenue and politics. Certainly in the course of 
their normal activities they reach into every factory, school and home 
with hands that help or hinder in no uncertain way. To these con- 
siderations let us add that some of them are very old, tracing their 
lineage in unbroken descent from colonial days, with a wealth of family 
records and traditions and perhaps, like our State Department, with 
offspring of no mean importance. These facts, I think, justify the in- 
quiry: Ought we not (1) secure special historical studies of our admin- 
istrative agencies and (2) incorporate their findings in our general 
histories? And if the undertaking is desirable, should not this Society 
lend encouragement and assistance? 

Let us approach our first inquiry by considering the character of the 
suggested special studies. They should be monographs, I am sure. Each 
will show, of course, the origin of the institution treated: was it in imi- 
tation of some other State or intended to satisfy some new want of 
society? If the latter, was it political or economic and social in nature? 
Was it a want of all the people or of some class or group \ How was 
sentiment in its favor developed, how crystallized and forced upon the 

State Literary and Historical Association 71 

attention of the Legislature? Perhaps there was an organized "move- 
ment" in favor of the idea and an organized opposition; these must be 

analyzed and described. The study will show the powers of the institu- 
tion and the machinery for giving them effect, carefully discriminating 
between real and nominal powers and clearly showing what could be 
done and how. If clumsiness or crookedness of law-making rendered 
the attempt abortive, this fact will be recorded. Since needs change, 
powers and machinery change; hence both must be traced in their de- 
velopment. Above all, the study must show how the office functioned, 
and in so doing it will take us away from the central office down to the 
county and the township and the individual — will show how much the 
individual was controlled, how much served, and how much taxed for 
each specific service. And lastly, it will describe the men who organized 
and ran the institution, our civil servants or masters. 

Xow what specific needs w T ould such special studies meet? The ques- 
tion must be answered, for in these days one may not encourage lightly 
a new series of monographs. The data supplied would certainly be 
very useful to our public men, our teachers and our general historians. 
Our public men usually approach an institutional topic from the histori- 
cal viewpoint: consider, for example, the almost invariable compilations 
which precede a constitutional convention — in States where such as- 
semblages are still permitted! And how can an administrator check 
his work and his ideas save by others' records? You say, he himself 
can look up the matter in laws, messages and reports. Can he I Only, 
I think, if he possesses the qualities of both administrator and historian, 
and the time of both. And consider the student of "Government.'' He, 
too, must approach matters historically. Where can he get his facts \ 
Yet there are many of this tribe, their number is growing, and they are 
going to play a conspicuous part in affairs of state. What a boon it 
would be to have, for example, data that illustrates how the public 
makes up its mind and how laws and officers are helpless before this 
public opinion ! And how could w T e obtain such abundant and concrete 
testimony as from an auditor who naively admitted the failure of a new 
tax law in the face of general opposition to paying the tax in the nine- 
ties or from prohibition officers wdio might allege the same in our own 

There remains to be stated the chief service which such studies would 
render. They would provide, I think, materials for the writers of our 
general histories and perhaps (let us say it to provoke discussion) sag- 
gest new points of view. The capacity of our recent historians requires 
ns to assume that they have been waiting for such careful preliminary 
work. For their stories are not rounded out and the lessons which these 


72 Twenty-second Anni ll - 

stories should teach are sometimes la sking, Fr.r example, among out 

favorite topics are movements, elections, personages, economic and social 

progress, and political theory. Now is the story of, .say, a far;, 
movement complete until we know whether the department aid the com- 
mission to which it led actually obtained for farmers the r - hich 
they sought? Elections, indeed, are often but games between rival tac- 
tions; but is the story of the game more important than the checking of 
the candidate's promises against his post-election performance \ And is 
it not time that we give to the man who year by year keeps the machin- 
ery of government going the same fullness of honorable mention that we 
accord to him who acted well in an emergency? Taxation statistics are 
dull and hard to remember; but how they could be made to illuminate 
the historian's paragraphs on social morality ! And how could a better 
commentary on our changing theory of the State be written than by a 
simple narrative of the departments' expanding services in everyday 
affairs? We began with a theory of political democracy, and we have 
given it a wonderful practical application. We began also with a theory 
of Urissez faire, but we have 'bout-faced toward State socialism. This 
change is profoundly important. Our people must be taught by their 
historians why it came about and how it came about and how it affects 
their individual lives. And I for one believe that historians must show 
likewise why we have had to change so largely from a government by 
laws to government by commissions, and how improper organization of 
our administrative agencies has cost and is costing us heavily in dollars 
and in service. 

To this argument it may be replied that State administrative agencies 
have but recently become of first rate importance. I answer, So much 
the better. If we hurry we can make our history take the dominant 
note of our times. That note is social. If we do not, how can we expect 
to influence our generation ? 

I shall have to admit that the task will be difficult and lacking in 
romantic interest. The bulkiness of our recent records, especially our 
newspaper records, is discouraging and their omissions alarming. Omis- 
sions we may supply, if we hurry, from the recollections of pioneer par- 
ticipants. The wisdom of the Society will, I think, readily suggest 
methods for stimulating interest and perhaps for diminishing the labor 
of the task. 


The Use of Books and Libraries in North Carolina 
By Louis R. Wilso.v 

Librarian of the University of North Carolina 

Speaking in Greensboro before rlie graduating class of the Si 
Xormal and Industrial School in June, 1897, the late Walter H 
Page, in the course of an address entitled "The Forgotten Man," said: 

There are no great libraries in the State, nor do the people yet read, nor 
have the publishing houses yet reckoned them as patrons, except the pub- 
lishers of school books. 

That was a quarter of a century ago, just when the first public library 
in Xorth Carolina was being established in Durham, and three years 
before the State Literary and Historical Association proposed the estab- 
lishment of what have come to be known as the thirty-dollar school 

Since 1897 the situation, which Mr. Page so correctly described, has 
vastly improved. But the improvement has fallen so far short of what 
it is desirable it should be that recent investigations made by Mr. Ben 
Dixon McXeill and Miss Xell Battle Lewis, of the News and Observer, 
and by the editors of the University News Letter, prove conclusively 
that what Mr. Pasre said in the late lS90's is relativelv true in the 
early 1920 ? s. Today North Carolin has no truly great library running 
up into the hundreds of thousands of volumes, aSTorth Carolinians by 
and large are not yet a reading people, and the publishing houses, other 
than those, that publish school texts or high priced but little used sub- 
scription sets sold by agents, have not reckoned Xorth Carolinians as 
their patrons, despite the fact that the State stands fifth in the total 
value of its agricultural products, ninth or tenth in the amount of 
Federal income taxes it pays, and is building roads at the rate of 
$30,000,000 biennially. 

Mr. Page offered no statistics in support of his statement. In the 
discussion which follows statistics are offered not so much for the pur- 
pose of supporting the statement as for showing just what the situation 
is in the State in order that proper measures may be devised to change 
the situation for the better. 

Public Libraries 

According to the statistics appearing in the June, 1922, issue of The 
North Carolina Library Bulletin, only 35 of the 62 towns in the State 
having populations of from 2,000 to 48,000 possessed public libraries, 

74 Twenty-second Anntal Session 

and the total number of public and semi-public libraries for 100 coun- 
ties and a total population of approximately 2,600,000 iras 64 for white 
people and throe for negroes. These 67 libraries contained a total of 

213,408 volumes (or one book to every 12 men. women and children f, a 
number which causes the State to rank 47th among the sisterhood of 
States, and which exceeds the number of automobiles and motor vehicles 
housed in garages in the State by only 64,981. Furthermore, 30 of tl 
64 libraries reported incomes for all purposes ranging from $16.95 to 
$950.17, and the 64 plus the 3 colored libraries reported a total income 
of only $33,031, or 3Vi cents per man, woman, and child for all Xorth 
Carolina. Winston, with a population of 48,395, led with $8,861, a per 
capita expenditure of IS cents, whereas the standard recommended by 
the American Library Association is $1, or five times as much. Char- 
lotte, Raleigh, and Greensboro had library incomes slightly above *S,000, 
while Asheville and Durham received $7,445 and $6,757 respectively. 
Similarly, statistics concerning the addition of new volumes, the num- 
ber of borrowers in the State, and the total circulation, show that 
although there were only 191,246 volumes on the shelves at the begin- 
ning of the year, only 22,162 new volumes — less than one to every 100 
inhabitants — were added during the year, that only So,SS2 inhabitants — 
one in every thirty — were registered as borrowers, and the total circu- 
lation of the 213,408 volumes among the 85, 8S2, not the 2,600,000. was 
727,905. Asheville, with a book collection of 10.949 and a population 
of 28,504, circulated 99,218 volumes, the largest total for any Xorth 
Carolina city, which, when measured by the standard American library 
turnover of live per capita, should have been 142,520, or 42 per cent 
greater than it actually was. In addition to these loans, the Xorth 
Carolina Library Commission circulated 616 traveling libraries of 40 
volumes each in 414 stations in 98 counties, and loaned a total of 15,659 
titles through its package library service. But with all this done, the 
circulation of public library books involved not more than 100.000 
families or 500,000 men, women, and children, leaving the remaining 
2,100,000 inhabitants without public library service. 

School and College Librakies 

The school population of Xorth Carolina today is approximately 900,- 
000, Of this number 850,000 are pupils in the common schools, 40,000 
are pupils in high schools, and 10,000 are college students. 

Prior to March, 1901, the common schools had, practically speaking, 
no books. By legislative enactment in 1901 provision was made for the 
establishment of $30 original libraries containing an average of S5 

State LlTERART and Historical ASSOCIATION 75 

volumes, and later $15 supplementary libraries containing 35 volumes. 
On November 30, 1920, there were 4060 of the original Libraries, 
taining a total of approximately 421,600 volumes and costing $1 18,8 
and 2,331 of the supplementary libraries, containing 81,565 volume* 

and costing $34,965. One half of the common schools of the State had 
no libraries at all. That is, in the twenty years from 1001 to 1920, 
$183,768 was spent to acquire 503,165 books for one-half of the school 
children of the State to read. To date, the other half have gone bookless, 
except as they have drawn upon funds other than those appropriated 
by the State and counties. 

In addition to the fact that no provision has been made for one-half 
of the schools, it is also true that failure to provide the most careful 
sort of oversight has resulted in many instances in only their partial use. 
Questionnaires covering the white schools of Orange, Guilford, and 
Wayne counties for 1921-22 show the following situation : 

Orange County. — Of 48 white schools in Orange, including the 
graded schools of Chapel Hill and Hillsboro, seven have no libraries 
whatever, and the 1,586 pupils enrolled have access to a total of 3,692 
volumes, or slightly more than two books per pupil. Eighteen of the 41 
libraries are open only during the session. In answer to the direct 
question, How much are the books used during term time ? ten out of 
the 25 teachers answering responded, Xot very much ! One high school 
spent $150 for new books. Three other schools spent $10, $20, and $5 
respectively for new books. The other 44 spent nothing. Four schools 
subscribed for a total of 23 newspapers and magazines, the other 44 for 
none. Practically every teacher reported the presence of some books in 
the homes of the pupils, but one concluded the questionnaire with the 
comment that the patrons seemed to take scarcely any interest in schools, 
books, or newspapers. 

Guilford County. — In Guilford County 70 schools reported 7,333 
pupils enrolled. The city schools of Greensboro, which own from 10,000 
to 12,000 volumes, and which are spending $2,000 for books and $250 
for periodicals this year, were not included. Forty-six of the schools 
taught only the first seven grades; 24 taught from one to four grades of 
high school subjects. Sixty-two of the 70 had libraries with a total of 
8,975 volumes. Only 25 of the libraries were open in the summer. 29 
reported a monthly total circulation of 1,165 or 40 volumes per school, 
and only $743.15, or ten cents per pupil, was spent for new books during 
the year. Twenty schools possessed an encyclopedia, 27 an unabridged 
dictionary, and 15 subscribed for newspapers and magazines. The 
others lacked these indispensable aids to first-class school work. Teachers 
indicated the presence of books and papers in the majority of homes, 

76 Twenty-second Annual Session 

and a number of schools reported the use of library material from the 
public library at Greensboro which maintains a county service. 

Wayne County. — Forty-Height schools outside of Goldsboro in Wayne 
County reported 3,331 pupils enrolled. Forty-five possessed libra fit- 
totaling 4,041 volumes, and 24 were open in the summer. Fourteen 
schools reported a total monthly circulation of 2.">4 volumes or an aver- 
age of 18 per school per month. Nineteen schools reported efforts to 
improve their libraries, a total of $19.". 10 having been raised for this 
purpose. Xine schools owned an encyclopedia, 26 an unabridged dic- 
tionary, and 13 subscribed for periodicals. Forty of the teachers re- 
ported the presence of papers and magazines in the homes of the pupils, 
and 37 the presence of books. 

High School Libraries 

Figures for high school libraries in Xorth Carolina are practically 
non-existent. Xo special fund other than that for the $30 and $15 
libraries has been appropriated by the State and counties for the pur- 
chase of books for high school libraries, and as a result no record has 
been kept by the State Department of Education. Schools here and 
there have secured funds for books in various ways, but, except in th^ 
case of a few of the larger city high schools, no permanent policy has 
been provided for their steady adequate upbuilding. Only in 1021 was 
the possession of a library of 300 volumes by junior high schools and 
500 volumes by senior high schools set by the State Educational Depart- 
ment as a prerequisite to being placed in the class of accredited schools, 
and an adequate list prepared by the State High School Inspector from 
which the books could be selected. 

Booh Collections Small. — How deplorable the situation has been was 
indicated by the answers to a questionnaire concerning high school 
facilities submitted to 100 Freshmen in the University in 1921-22. Of 
the 100 Freshmen, 96 replied that they had the use of some form of 
library in high school. Four had not. Seventy-six reported the presence 
of reference books in the school library. Eighty-five had access to an 
encyclopedia or unabridged dictionary, fifty-eight to an atlas, and 
thirty-nine, through their connection with the High School Debating 
Union, had used package library material from the University Library 
and twenty-six from the Xorth Carolina Library Commission. Only 
33 had had access to a public library, had learned how to use a dic- 
tionary-card catalogue, and were able on the first day of their college 
career, to use the tools which a great college library places at the dis- 
posal of its students. To the other 67 the card catalogue, the periodical 

State Literary and Historical Association . i 

indexes, the Bibliographical works, the whole library, In faer. around 
which their college work should revolve, was an unknown quantity. 
These 67 presented the necessary 15 units in English, history, science, 
and language. But the fundamental unit, the unit of knowing how to 
use a well-equipped modern library, they, and their less fortunate high 
school classmates who stayed at home and whose future self-education 
is almost entirely dependent upon the use of what Carlyle called the 
peoples' university — the public library — they failed to acquire. 

College Libraries 

College libraries, seemingly, have fared better than any other class in 
the State. From the report appearing in The North Carolina Library 
Bulletin for June, 1922, there were 416,353 volumes in the libraries of 
26 North Carolina colleges, the State Library, and the Library of the 
Supreme Court, and 27,960 were in the libraries of six colored institu- 
tions. The grand total was 444,313 volumes, the largest single collec- 
tion being that of the University, which numbered 108,405 volumes. 
These same institutions added a total of 25,479 new books during the 
year and regularly received 2,S07 newspapers and periodicals of a 
permanent nature. Xo statistics of income and expenditure were given. 
Six of the institutions added less than 100 volumes during the year. 
The actual figures were from 16 to 62. Five added between 101 and 
200 volumes, nine between 201 and 500, four between 501 and 1,000, 
six between 1,001 and 2,000, one between 2,001 and 8,000 and one over 
8,000. The grand total including State Library and Supreme Court, 
was only 25,479, a total less by 505 than the 25,984 added to the library 
of the University of California alone. The Library of the University 
of Michigan came within 26 of the total, Yale doubled it, and Harvard, 
with 73,100 volumes, practically trebled it ! 

Total Collections Small. — Xot only are the annual additions small, 
but the collections to which they are added are far too limited. To add 
16 volumes to a collection, which at the end of the year totals only 
2,014, is quite different from adding 2,047 to a collection, which at the 
end of the year totals 59,000, or 25,453, in the case of Michigan, to an 
exclusive total of 457,847. 

As compared with the libraries of colleges and universities in the 
Xorth and West, the libraries of these North Carolina institutions are 
fearfully outdistanced. Wesleyan University, the Methodist College 
of Connecticut, had 125,100 volumes in 1921. llaverford College, the 
Friends' college, of Pennsylvania, had 80,000; the State Normal College 
of Michigan had 45,000; the State Agricultural College of Iowa had 


80,000; Wellesley and Smith, two colleges for women in Massachu? 
had 100,000 and 78,600 respectively, and the collections at Johns Hop- 
kins and Princeton, not to mention the really big collections or* Columbia 
and Yale and Harvard, ran well up beyond the quarter-of-a-million 

Newspapers and Periodicals 

Since Mr. Page made his address in Greensboro, newspapers and 
magazines have sprung up on every hand. Daily rural free delivery has 
penetrated every quarter and, seemingly, the State has made a tremen- 
dous advance in its reading of these two types of literature. But when 
a study of the circulations of these types of publication is made, it 
becomes evident that North Carolina ranks approximately 44th or 45th 
from the top among the 43 states in its reading of material of this 
sort. According to The Editor and Publisher for June 10, 1922, North 
Carolina's 9 morning and 27 afternoon dailies were circulating 188,781 
copies, or one copy to every 13.5 inhabitants. Massachusetts led the 
country with a circulation of one copy to every 1.9 inhabitants. The 
average for the United States was one copy to every 3.6 persons. North 
Carolina ranked 45th from the top, or 4th from the bottom, with 
South Carolina, New Mexico, and Mississippi below. The mailing list3 
of the Greensboro Daily News, News and Observer, Charlotte Observer, 
North Carolina Christian Advocate, Biblical Recorder, Charity and 
Children, Orphans Friend, and University News Letter, run from 
17,500 to 30,000 and, if read by an average of 5 persons, reach from 
87,500 to 150,000 people, while The Progressive Former and The North 
Carolina Health Bulletin, with 50,000 circulation, reach approximately 
250,000 people, or one in every 10 in the State. 

Unpleasant Facts. — Statistics published in 1921 by the circulation 
and advertising departments of The Ladies' Home Journal, The Liter- 
ary Digest, and The Saturday Evening Post — three of the most popular 
and widely disseminated journals of the country — show that Xorth 
Carolina ranks low in her reading of these publications. 

One North Carolinian out of every 138 received a copy of The Liter- 
ary Digest in 1921, while the average for the United States was one in 
every 85. Only one person in 149 in North Carolina received a copy of 
The Saturday Evening Post, against an average of one in every 50 
throughout the rest of the country. North Carolina postmasters and 
news agencies delivered one copy of The Ladies' Home Journal to one 
person in 116, whereas their colleagues throughout the country did prac- 
tically twice as big business. Stated differently in the terms of rank 
among the forty-eight states, Oregon, which is a much younger State 

State Literary and Historical A.s-o< iatiok 7'j 

than Xorth Carolina, and lias its Japanese problem, ranks first in the 
circulation of The Ladies* Home Journal with one copy to every 33 
inhabitants, North Carolina ranks 40th, with one eopy to every 117, and 
Mississippi stands at the bottom with one copy to every 181 of her 
citizens. In the case of 27/. e Literary Digest and The Saturday El erring 
Post, Xorth Carolina ranks 42d and 46th respectively, while 73-year-old 
California leads in both instances with one copy to every 41 and 22 
inhabitants respectively. 

Among Ourselves. — Coming closer home than California, Xorth Caro- 
lina makes a poor showing among her immediate neighbors. In the 
case of The Ladies' Home Journal (the State makes its best showing 
in its reading of this publication, thanks to the women, rather than in 
The Literary Digest and The Saturday Evening Post) Xorth Carolina 
ranks 40th. Florida (assisted by her tourists, possibly) ranks 25th; 
Maryland. Missouri, Oklahoma, Virginia, and Texas also stand ahead 
of her. Tennessee equals her, and Kentucky, Arkansas. Georgia, South 
Carolina, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Mississippi stand below her. 

In the case of The Literary Digest Arkansas, Alabama, Georgia, 
South Carolina, Kentucky, and Mississippi fall below her, whereas in 
the case of The Saturday Evening Post all outrank her except Missis- 
sippi and South Carolina. 

County Quotas. — Coming still closer home, the analyses of circula- 
tions furnished by these three journals together with The Progressive 
Farmer make clear the further fact that not all Xorth Carolina counties 
read equally. The national advertiser who runs a page advertisement in 
The Literary Digest, for example, does not have the same number per 
capita of readers in all of the 100 counties. Only 3 copies of this pub- 
lication were received by or sold to residents of Graham county during 
the week in April, 1921, when the audit was made. But even with that 
the average of one copy to every 1,624 inhabitants was higher than that 
of Alleghany with 4 copies distributed over a total population of 7.403, 
or one copy to every 1,850 inhabitants! Buncombe, on the other hand, 
with its 64,148 inhabitants, received 1,454 copies, or one copy to every 
44 inhabitants, and thereby led the State, while Mecklenburg, Xew 
Hanover, Pasquotank, and Wake followed in close order with 65. 67, 
"0, and 73 respectively. 

Among the Farmers. — An analysis of the circulation of the Progres- 
sive Farmer shows the same thing, with the difference that the leader- 
ship passes from Buncombe to Randolph. Randolph, with a total mail- 
ing list of 97S (at the time the audit was made), led with one copy to 
every 31 inhabitants. Buncombe dropped to SSth positiou with one copy 

80 Twenty-second Annual Session 

to every 117 inhabitants, and Alleghany, moved up six plaees fron 
bottom to 94th, with one copy to every 160 of h<-r citizens, yielding th< 
lowest position to Dare with a total of twelve copies to a population of 

5,115, or one paper to every 426. 

Combined Circulation. — Analyses of the circulations of single papers, 
however, do not give an adequate picture of what Xorth Carolina coun- 
ties read. Consequently, the combined circulations of The Lit- 
Digest, The Ladies' Home Journal , The Saturday Evening Post and The 
Progressive Farmer give a cross-section picture of Xorth Carolina read- 
ing never given before, and one which should receive the careful study of 
every one interested in the economic as well as the social and cultural 
development of the State. 

Buncombe, with a total of 5,000 copies of the four papers combined, 
leads with the highest per capita circulation of one copy to every 13 
inhabitants. Mecklenburg has the greatest total, 5,310, but ranks 3d, 
being outdistanced by Xew Hanover with a total of 2,967, or one paper 
to every 15 people. Forsyth, in spite of the fact that it contains the 
largest city in the State, is outranked by 16 counties. 

At the other end of the table Alleghany, Ashe, and Graham fill the 
98th, 99th, and 100th positions, the 1,472 inhabitants of Graham re- 
ceiving 1 copy of The Ladies' Home Journal, 2 copies of The Saturday 
Evening Post, 3 copies of The Literary Digest, and 20 of The Progres- 
sive Farmer — 26 copies all told, or one to every 187 inhabitants. 

From even a most superficial study of this picture, two facts are 
distinctly clear. Xorth Carolina is not reading her quota of the stand- 
ard journals of the country; and the counties which do not contain 
large cities, with highly organized public libraries, bookstores, and 
news-stands, read far less than those that have these facilities. 

Two other observations might be made. Xorth Carolina country 
areas are largely unaware of what the rest of the world is thinking 
about, so far as it is reflected in the magazines of the day; and the high 
average for Buncombe and Moore counties (in which the principal 
tourists resorts of Xorth Carolina are located) may be due to the visi- 
tors rather than home-stayers ! 

Bookstores and Xews-stands 

Data concerning the sales of bookstores and news-stands is extremely 
meagre. A canvass of representative stores in Asheville, Charlotte, 
Winston, Greensboro, Durham, Kaleigh, and Wilmington, for example, 
showed total sales as follows of four books which were widely read 
throughout the rest of the country; Main Street, 1,180; Outline of 

State Litepary and Historical Association 81 

Uistory, 239; Economic Consequences of Peace, 3j // Winter Comes, 

784. Requests made upon bookstores for information concen 
of books published by local authors were answered negatively, with the 
result that data had to be obtained direct from the authors, the chief 
purport of which was that books like Hamilton's Reconstruction, 
Brooks' North Carolina Poems, Avery's Idle Comments. McNielPs Songs 
Merry and Sad, Poe's Where Half the World is Waking Up, and Connor 
and Poe's Life and Addresses of C. B. Aycoch, were sold in numbers 
ranging from 250 to 5,000, the latter being just one half of the number 
of copies of Wheeler's Hidory of North Carolina sold in the early 

News-stands and cigar stands sell thousands of magazines such as 
The Red Boole, The Cosmopolitan, and The American Magazine. The 
Independent, The World's T^or^, Scribner's, The Outlook, The Atlantic 
Monthly, and other magazines of a more serious type are rarely ottered 
for sale at all. But even with the assistance of the news-stands, the 
total sales and subscriptions of The Red Booh, for example, is one copy 
to 408 inhabitants, while the average for the United States is one copy 
to 147, and on the same basis the total sales in North Carolina showed 
that the State average for a dozen magazines of the most popular 
character was less than half of the average of the country at large. 

Books for Negroes 

Little comment has ever been made upon the use of books in the 
State by negroes. Until Professor W. C. Jackson, of the North Caro- 
lina College for Women, recently began an investigation of this subject, 
little data was available. From 35 answers to a questionnaire sent to 
the public libraries of the State, and from statistics published in The 
Library Bulletin for June, he discovered that the 750,000 or more 
negroes in North Carolina have a total of only five public libraries and 
24 county training school and college libraries. Information from the 
State Department of Education and from a number of county superin- 
tendents also indicates the presence of an occasional $30 library in the 
rural schools for negroes. In the absence of anything approximating 
complete information, it appears, therefore, that the public library 
book resources of this one-third of North Carolina's population are 
approximately 15,000 volumes, and that the private book resources of 
some 12 colleges and 12 county training schools for negroes are approxi- 
mately 30,000 volumes — a fact which inevitably must have a profound 
influence upon the State's ability to attain its fullest development. 

82 Twenty-second Annual Session 

Much Progress Has Been Made 

So much for the negative side of the picture- There is a posil 

side, and it is distinctly interesting. While there were no tax-supporre-i, 
free public libraries when Mr. Page made his address, there are 07 
today, with a total of over 200,000 volumes. There were no school 
libraries in 1S97. Today 500,000 volumes are in the keeping of rural 
schools and a beginning has been made in the careful upbuilding of 
high school libraries. In 1901 the circulation of all newspapers in 
North Carolina totaled 612,230. In 1922, it totaled 1,420,952, an in- 
crease of 131 per cent. In 1902 the Federation of Women's Clubs was 
organized, with a library extension department; in 1904 the Xorth Caro- 
lina Library Association began operation, and in 1909 the Srate estab- 
lished the Library Commission to operate traveling and package li- 
braries, and to promote every form of library activity. 1912 saw the 
organization of the High School Debating L T nion which has involve 1 
from 10,000 to 20,000 high school boys and girls in the careful use of 
library materials, and today over 440,000 volumes are available for the 
use of the students enrolled in Xorth Carolina colleges. In three in- 
stances a limited type of county-wide library service has been provided, 
and a method has been demonstrated by which adequate library service 
can be provided for the entire citizenship of Xorth Carolina. 

What Are the Causes? 

At the beginning of this paper it was made clear that the purpose 
of the study was not merely to get at the facts, but rather to discover 
the causes which produced the situation and effective means for changing 
it for the better. 

Of the causes, quite a few have been presented in the rather general 
discussion which has recently been carried on in the State press. Miss 
Elizabeth Kelly, whose work has been that of eradicating adult illiteracy, 
attributes a part of the lack of interest in books to inability to read. 
Miss Mary DeYane thinks that Xorth Carolinians, until recently, have 
not had sufficient leisure from the task of making a living to devote to 
reading. Mr. R. B. House contends that Xorth Carolinians are too 
good talkers to read. Miss Xell Battle Lewis finds the lack of an 
aristocracy to be the chief contributing cause. And still another says 
that no one can ever become a real lover and therefore reader of books 
who did not become one through reading as a child. 

To these causes, all of which have undoubtedly contributed to the 
production of the situation, I wish to add four others: (1) Xorth 

State Literary and Historical Association' S3 

Carolina is a sparsely settled agricultural State, whoso life until rec 
has been simple rather than complex; (2) books have been thought of 
largely in the terms of culture and not as tools or means of promoting 
individual welfare; (3) publicity concerning books and libraries has 
been extremely limited; and (4) those whose duty it has been to teach 
others the use of books have not been trained in their use themselves. 

Until the boll weevil complicated the growing of cotton, that agricul- 
tural activity in Xorth Carolina was considered, to speak in the ver- 
nacular, "fool-proof." But with the advent of the pest, the illiterate 
negro and the mule are having to give place to the man who can read 
a farmer's bulletin and follow instructions for the application of the 
poisons to insure the weevil's destruction. The boll weevil and the 
San Jose scale, to mention two enemies of the cotton grower and 
orchardist, have forced book-farming on at least two groups of Xorth 
Carolina farmers. And complexity of any sort whatever will inevitably 
furnish a stimulus for investigation and the use of books where stimulus 
has been wanting heretofore. 

From time immemorial the public has recognized the necessity of the 
lawyer, the doctor, and the teachers possessing books. But by and 
large Xorth Carolina has not thought of books as essential to the task 
of winning a living in other fields. When thought of at all, they have 
been thought of in the terms of "the higher culture," rather than as the 
tools of the banker, the merchant, the cotton manufacturer, the engineer, 
the architect, the city manager, the health officer. Again it is only 
within the past few years in Xorth Carolina that groups of students 
of the University and other institutions have discovered that books and 
trade magazines in the fields of accounting, salesmanship, and business 
administration can have a definitely practical value in fitting them for 
their careers in the business world, as well as aiding them in winning a 
degree, and, perhaps, stirring them with a great inspiration. Likewise, 
a profound change has been effected in the reading of women's clubs. 
Once this centered largely around literature and the fine arts. Today 
the emphasis is shifting. Literature and the arts have not been aban- 
doned, but home economics, public welfare, public health, citizenship, 
home and town beautification, and the more practical affairs of modern 
life have come in for far more consideration than ever before. 

Simplicity of conditions previously obtaining in Xorth Carolina and 
the placing of a wrong emphasis on the purpose of books, I believe, have 
contributed materially to the production of the situation I have de- 
scribed. But the two greatest causes have been the failure of librarians 
and teachers and editors to sell the book idea and teach the use of books. 
From 1909 to 1912. The News and Observer, through The Xorth Caro- 

84 Twenty-second Anmal Session 

Una Review, greatly stimulated interest in books and literature. The 

Library Bulletin began publication at the same time. But from 1912 
to 1921, a separate book page, devoted exclusively to the consideration of 
new books, was not carried us a regular distinctive feature of any 
Xorth Carolina daily. Fortunately, this situation was changed by tin- 
Greensboro News in 1021, and now a half-dozen pages of mu r r.-r con- 
cerning books of the day are appearing every Sunday in the Leading 
papers of the State, with the result that book sales have steadily multi- 

But the greatest cause contributing to this end has been the failure of 
those who have been in charge of libraries and books to instruct the 
public, particularly the school public, in the use of books. Although 
the State has placed over 500,000 volumes in rural school libraries, the 
teachers who have had charge of the collections have been given prac- 
tically no instruction in how to make them of use to their pupils. The 
reading habit is a habit that is acquired in childhood. It has to be 
developed. And if the teacher does not know how to interest children 
in books, the habit will not be acquired. Where teachers have known 
how to use books themselves, their pupils have learned to use them and 
love them. But until very recently such teachers have been exceedingly 
rare, and even now but little emphasis is being placed by the schools on 
the part books should play in the lives of their pupils and patrons. Stress 
is placed on the mechanics of reading, but not upon its real purpose in 
the life of the pupil. 

What Are the Remedies? 

In attempting to prescribe remedies for the improvement of this situa- 
tion, I am conscious that the advance must necessarily be slow, and that 
no one measure will bring about instantly the desired transformation. 
The processes now at work which have resulted in the progress evidenced 
in the past twenty-five years must be continued. However, I have three 
major suggestions to make: (1) that in the future public and school 
libraries stress the practical as well as the cultural value of books; 
(2) that the State Department of Education, in co-operation with the 
schools and colleges, provide adequate training on the part of teachers in 
the use of books; and (3) that the State commit itself unreservedly to 
a program of county-wide, tax-supported, free libraries which, with 
adequate financial support, can insure proper administration and ample 
book resources for the entire citizenship. 

I do not wish to preach a materialistic doctrine concerning books in 
this day when, apparently, we are already too materialistic. On the 

State Literary and Historical Associai 

contrary. I should like to place even greater emphasis upon the inspira- 
tional contribution books may make to men. But I do want the empha- 
sis to be placed at that point, be it what it may. that will gain the 

attention of the total adult citizenship; for books should appeal as 
much to members of Rotary and Kiwanis and Civitan clubs as to 
members of the Federation of Women's Clubs. And in neither <-•;!-<• 
should the reading of books be a fad, but a means to the living of a 
broader, better life. 

The State Department of Education, the Library Commission, and 
the colleges can, I am sure, greatly improve the school library situa- 
tion. Hereafter, in the county and college summer schools, teachers 
who are to have charge of schools containing libraries should be re- 
quired to study such library methods as will insure the proper use of 
the books by the pupils. For the grammar grades this instruction 
might be comparatively simple, but it should by no means be totally 
neglected. And for the high schools, which are just now being re- 
quired to provide libraries, a definite fund should be set aside in the 
school budget for their maintenance according to approved standards, 
and some teacher should be trained extensively in library manage- 
ment. In this respect Xorth Carolina should follow the lead of Wis- 
consin, which, in 1919-20, required every high school in that State to 
employ a library-trained teacher to have charge of the high school 
library. Xo high school pupil, whether he intends to go to college or 
not, should be permitted to attend high school without acquiring some 
knowledge of the specific character of information which encyclopedias 
and dictionaries and atlases and compendiums of various sorts contain. 
And to be sure that he does know this, special books should be care- 
fully studied and questions based upon them should be answered with 
volume and page references, just as a lawyer cites his references in 
making out his brief. With this done, biography, and fiction, and 
poetry, and drama, and history, and science, and the arts can be sup- 
plied in adequate measure, and a State inspector of high school libraries 
can be put in the field who can see that proper library standards and 
practices prevail. 

Xo single Xorth Carolina county has, to date, established a county- 
wide, tax-supported, free library. Guilford, Forsyth, and Durham have 
adopted the idea in part, and illustrate in a limited way what the func- 
tions of such a library are. But if North Carolina is to have adequate 
library service which will reach rural and urban dwellers alike, which 
will provide for both country and city schools, and will insure compe- 
tent, effective library administration, the county-wide library must 

88 Twenty-second Annual Session 

be made flip type through which this service shall come. In our 

sparsely settled country areas we should follow, and follow instantly, 
the example of California, in which 38 county libraries, in 1918, re- 
ceived an annual maintenance fund of $539,458, contained 945,856 
volumes, maintained 2,890 branch libraries, and served 1,549 school 
districts, every librarian being certificated, and serving under expert 
library supervision. 

This program, of course, will not usher in the millennium. That 
is too much to expect of it. But if it is adopted and carried out, it 
will be in key with our splendid progress in agriculture, and industry, 
and road building, and education. And it will contribute equally with 
them in the building up of a finer ^orth Carolina civilization. 

North Carolina Bibliography, 1921-1922 

By Maky B. Palmek 

Secretary North Carolina Library Commission 

{This Bibliography covers the period from Xovember 1, 1921, to 
Xovember 30, 1922. The term is here used to include the works of all 
native Xorth Carolinians, regardless of present residence, and the 
works of writers who, although not born in Xorth Carolina, have lived 
here long enough to become identified with the State. Pamphlets,, con- 
tinuations, and periodical articles are not included. 


(Abbreviations and Symbols: il., illustrated; p., pages; ed., editor; 
comp., compiler.) 

Adams, Randolph Greenfield. Political ideas of the American revo- 
lution: Britannic-American contributions to the problem of im- 
perial organization, 1765-1775. 207p. il. Trinity College Press, 
Durham, 1922. 

Bond, Paul Stanley and Sherrill, Clarence Osborne. America in 
the world war : a summary of the achievements of the great re- 
public in the conflict with Germany: a romance in figures com- 
piled from many official and unofficial sources. 177p. Banta, 
1921. $1.50. 

Brown, Richard L. History of the Michael Brown family of Rowan 
county. 190p. The author, Salisbury, X. C, 1921. $2.00. 

Chamberlain, Hope Sfmmerell (Mrs. J. R. Chamberlain). History 
of Wake county, Xorth Carolina ; with illus. by the author. 302p. 
Mrs. William Johnston Andrews, Raleigh, X. C, 1922. $5.25. 

Daniels, Josephus. Our navy at war. 390p. Doran, 1922. $3.00. 

Dargan, Olive (Tilford) (Mrs. Pegram Dargan). Lute and furrow 
(poems). UOp. bds. Scribner, 1922. $1.75. 


Fries, Adelaide L., ed. Records of the Moravians in Xorth Carolina, 
v. 1, il. Xorth Carolina Historical Commission. Raleigh, X. C. 

Hamilton, Joseph Gregoire de Roulhac and Knight, E. W. Making 
of citizens (Xational social science series). 146p. McClurg, 
1922. $1.00. 


Hamilton, Joseph Gregoire de Roi/lhac, ed. Selections from the 
writings of Abraham Lincoln; ed. for school use. (The Lak<- Eng- 
lish classics.) I24p. Scott, 1922. $1.00. 

Harper, William Allen. Church in the present crisis; introd. by 
Peter Ainslie. 272p. Revell, 1921. $1.75. 

Hoskins, Joseph A,, comp. President Washington's diaries, 1791 to 
1799. lOOp. J. A. Hoskins, Sumnierfield, X. C, 1922. $2.00. 

Jackson, Walter Clinton. A boy's life of Booker T. Washington. 
147p. il. Macniillan, 1922. 88c. 

Knight, Edgar Wallace. Public education in the South. 4S2p. Ginn, 
1922. $2.00. 

Koch, Frederick Henry. Carolina folk-plays. 160p. il. Holt, 1922. 

Lanier, John J. Washington the great American. Mason, Maeoy 
Pub. Co., 45-59 John Street, New York, 1922. $1.50. 

Lichtenstein, Gaston. From Richmond to Xorth Cape. 160p. il., 
1922. William Byrd Press, Richmond, 1922. $2.00. 

iSTewsom, Dallas Walton. Song and dream (poems). 174p. Strat- 
ford, 1922. $2.50. 

Pogue, Joseph E. The economics of petroleum. 375p. Wiley, 1921. 

Pollock, John Alfred (Ronleigh de Conval, pseud). Fair lady of 
Halifax, or Colmey's six hundred. 403p. The author, 411 X. 
Queen St., Kinston, X C, 1920. $2.00. 

Porter, Samuel Judson. Gospel of beauty, with a foreword by L. R. 
Scarborough. 13-llSp. Doran, 1922. $1.25. 

Poteat, Edwin McXeill. Withered fig tree; studies in stewardship. 
74p. bds. Am. Bapt., 1921. $1.00. 

Poteat, Gordon. Greatheart of the South, John Todd Anderson, medi- 
cal missionary. 123p. il. Doran, 1921. $1.50. 

Poteat, Hubert McXeill. Practical hymnology. 7-130p. il. Badger, 
R. G., 1921. $2.00. 

Smith, Charles Alphonso, ed. Selected stories of O. Henry. 255p. 
il. Doubledav, 1922. $1.25. 

State LlTEBASY and Historical ASSOCIATION 

Smith, William Alexander. Family Tree Book. 304p. il.; priv. ptd., 
1922. Airs. Bettie Smith Hughes, 102 N. Gramercy Place, Los 

Angeles, Cal. $10.00. 

Spence, Hebset Everett. A guide to the study of the English Bihle. 
178p. Trinity College Press, Durham, 192-5. 

Van Landing-ham, Mary Oate* (Spratt), ('Mrs. John van Landing- 
ham). Glowing embers. 307p. ; priv. ptd. The author, 500 East 
Ave., Charlotte, X. C, 1922. 

"Weaver, John van Alstyne, Jr. In America. 80p. bds. Knopf, 
1921. $1.50. 

Weaver, John van Alstyne, Jr. Margey wins the game. 9-110p. bds. 
Knopf, 1922. $1.50. 


The Cult of the Second Best 

By Walter Lippmann 
Author "Public Opinion," member editorial staff New York World 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Not so long ago Mr. Bernard Shaw wrote a play, or rather a whole 
series of plays, in which he said that there was no hope for mankind 
unless men learned to live at least three hundred years. He argued 
that civilization had become so complicated, and citizenship required 
so much more knowledge than people had time to acquire in one life- 
time, that the only way out was to live three or four times as long. 
Only then, only if we all went back to Methuselah, would we have time 
to grow wise, and would we have an interest in really settling our prob- 
lems. Today, said Mr. Shaw, we do not live long enough to become 
better than college freshmen and flappers in politics, and our attitude 
towards civilization is like that of an untidy tenant with a short lease 
who has no interest in the upkeep or improvement of the property. 

Mr. Shaw's advice that we should live as long as Methuselah is rather 
difficult advice to follow. But of course Mr. Shaw wasn't expecting 
us to take his advice. In fact, I fancy that if Mr. Lloyd George showed 
signs of living three hundred years, Mr. Shaw would promptly go out 
of his mind. What Mr. Shaw was doing was performing an old trick 
of his. The trick consists in getting hold of a perfectly solid truth, and 
then exploding that truth upon the public in the most outrageous and 
startling way he can imagine. 

Now the solid truth which Mr. Shaw had in the back of his mind 
was the conviction that men had in them the capacity to live splendidly 
if only they were not afraid to do so. His conviction is, I think, a 
very common one today. Wherever you go you run into the feeling 
that public life is kept second rate by great quantities of hokum and 
buncomb, by insincerities, by play to the galleries, by demagoguerv. 
by propaganda, by lack of moral courage. To put it briefly, there is 
a widespread feeling in the land that the first-rate men don't come to 
the top, or if they come that they are somehow compelled to conform 
to mediocre standards. This is an old charge against democracy. But 
in the past it has always been made by the aristocrats. Today it is 
perhaps the main topic of discussion among thinking people, and the 
charge of mediocrity in politics is made by democrats themselves. 

With your permission I shall tonight touch briefly on some aspects 
of this feeling that there is in public life a Cult of the Second Best. 

State Literary and Historical Association 91 


Let me begin by specifying a little more exactly what I mean by the 
Cult of the Second Best. Some months ago at a friend's house I ru<-t 
a very prominent member of the present administration. There is no 
need to mention his name, because I am not here to charge any one 
with anything but to illustrate a point which is a common experience 
in the daily life of almost every newspaper man. This prominent offi- 
cial talked to us at length that day on two questions which deeply con- 
cern the country. He talked about the coal strike which was then in 
progress and about the very bad economic organization of the bitumi- 
nous coal industry in particular. We asked him what was the remedy, 
and he then outlined in great detail a plan which was radical enough 
to make us all sit up straight. He said that no plan less radical than 
this one would cure the trouble, and that if the plan was not adopted 
the coal industry would drift from bad to w r orse. 

ZS~ow it is of no importance to us tonight whether the plan was a 
good one or a bad one. All I ask you to remember is that this very 
eminent politician believed whole-heartedly in it. I asked him when 
he expected to make the plan public, and he replied that he wasn't 
going to make it public because the voters would not understand it and 
the thing would cause an awful hullabaloo. So the public has never 
yet found out, and does not yet know, what one of its highest and most 
respected officials thinks about the coal problem. 

We then got on to the subject of the debts owed by European govern- 
ments to the United States. Our distinguished guest told us, as if it 
were the most obvious thing in the world, that of course a large part 
of these debts were uncollectible. We asked him whether it was not 
important that this should be explained to the American people, and 
he answered that Congress would probably eat him alive if he blurted 
out such an unpleasant fact. 

Xow here were two instances where a man of great ability in high 
place was thinking one thing privately and saying another thing pub- 
licly. Does not this strike you as somehow a dangerous and corrupting 
thing in a government supposed to be founded on free and frank dis- 
cussion of public affairs? It strikes me as very corrupting intellectu- 
ally to the public official who starts by being afraid to say what he 
thinks and often ends by thinking what he says. It strikes me as 
unfair to the people at large that they should have to vote and form 
their opinions without being allowed to hear the sincerest thoughts of 
those who are on the inside and have the best opportunity to form true 

These two instances are not in the least exceptional in my experi- 
ence. I was at Paris through some part of the Peace Conference, and 

92 Twenty-second Anntal Session 

nothing seemed to me so utterly depressing as the contrast befr 
what the men on the inside said in private and what they felt COl - 
pelled to do and say in public. The Treaty of Versailles has been mueh 
criticized throughout the world since it was published, but if was just 
as severely criticized by the insiders at Paris before it was publis 
Nevertheless, there were things put into the treaty which cvi-ry expert 
knew were unworkable and dangerous to the peace of Europe, bee 
outside the conference people were howling for those things. Our own 
delegates at Paris were forced to accept provisions in that treaty which 
they knew to be bad, because every jingo in the Paris press, every jingo 
in Senator Lodge's party, every Tory in England was demanding them. 
The story is now public property. You have only to read Ray Stannard 
Baker's story based on President "Wilson's documents to see how mueh 
wiser our delegation was in private than it was able to be in public. 

About a year ago in London I was talking to an Englishman who 
had been a member of the British delegation about this very thing, and 
he told me a story out of his own experience which I feel at liberty to 
repeat. The story is approximately this: The conference had reached 
a deadlock over the size of the indemnity to be imposed on Germany. 
There were two proposals, an American and a British. The American 
proposal called for a sum of about fifteen billions. This was both just 
and within the capacity of Germany to pay. It was a sum which every 
expert knew was possible, and therefore, if adopted, it meant that the 
financial recovery of Europe could begin. This plan was known among 
the British at Paris as the Heavenly Peace. 

The other plan called for the payment of the impossible gigantic sum 
which Mr. Lloyd George had promised to secure in the frantic khaki 
election of 1918. This plan was known as the Hellish Peace, because 
if it was adopted everybody foresaw the very thing which is now hap- 
pening in Europe. They foresaw that it meant a frantic and futile 
effort to achieve the impossible, accompanied by disorder and suffering. 

Mr. Lloyd George was undecided. He knew that the Heavenly Peace 
was best for the world in the long run, but very bad politics in England 
at that moment. He knew that the Hellish Peace was good politics 
at the moment, but very bad for the world in the long run. So he took 
his advisers off to the country with him for the week-end, and for two 
days they debated whether to make a Heavenly Peace or a Hellish 
Peace. The Heavenly Party won the debate and they returned to Paris 
feeling immensely noble. 

But one of the members of the other party wired the news of the 
decision to England. Immediately the Tories set to work. One hun- 
dred and fortv members of the House of Commons, whom somebodv 

State Literary and Historical Association !»:; 

described as men who had done extremely well for them* the 

war, signed a resolution threatening Ivlr. Lloyd George with political 
death if he yielded to the Americans. The N"orthcliffe press lei loo-f- 
all its thunder. This was more than Mr. Lloyd George could stand. 

So he switched over and demanded the Hellish Peace. 

These are sufficient illustrations of what is meant by the Cult of the 
Second Best. And I shall therefore ask you to consider next what such 
a condition means in popular government. It means in the first place 
that the people do not learn from the insiders what the insiders think 
is most true or most wise, hut what the insiders think the majority of 
voters will on the spur of the moment most like to hear. It mean- that 
public opinion, instead of being educated constantly by real discussion, 
is forced to chew dry straw. It means that public opinion suffers one 
disappointment after another until you reach the state of mind now- 
prevalent throughout the world. 

It is a state of mind which says that politics is a choice between 
tweedledum and tweedledee, that politics is a game for politicians. And 
this feeling has very dangerous consequences. It drives some of the 
people to despair of politics, and from despair to a belief in violence 
and direct action. It drives other people just out of politics altogether 
with a feeling that voting is hardly worth while and that public life is 
no place for them. 

There is no mechanical remedy for all this. You can't pass a law 
about it. The only thing you can do is by merciless criticism and by 
courageous example to make the cult of the second best extremely un- 

Now I have argued this question a good deal with politicians, and 
in the end the argument has always come down to one point, which is 
the substance of w T hat I have to say tonight. 

The politician in defending himself usually ends by saying that it is 
his business to serve the people by doing what they want him to do. 
And if he is a shrewd politician he has usually turned upon me and 
said : "You are a newspaper man, aren't you ? Well, why don't the 
newspapers take such splendid care not to step too much on their 
readers' toes?" 

And when I have thought of it in that way I felt a little more chari- 
table about the politician's weaknesses. So what I've got to say applies 
to pretty nearly everybody, including perhaps college professors, to 
anybody wdiose job depends upon votes, public favor, circulation or 

All of us are suffering from a confusion of mind which is, it seems 
to me, the foundation of our Cult of the Second Best. We have two 

94 Twenty-second Ax.xcal Session 

jobs to do. We have to serve the interests of the public. That i> 
thmg, and the most important. At the same *ime we have to make 
what we say or do interesting to the public. 

Xow there is a very great difference between the interests of the 
public and what the public finds interesting. A very great different-. 
Take yourselves as an example. You have an enormous interest in 
the proper settlement of the reparation problem. Have you read as 
much about reparations in the last two months as you have read, about 
the Kaiser's weddir.g and the stranded harem of the Sultan? You 
have a profound interest in the Lausanne Conference, but I am willing 
to wager fewer of you can describe the issues than could describe Prin- 
cess Mary's wedding gown some months ago. I am confident that more 
of you read about Charlie Chaplin's reported engagement to Pola Xegri, 
and that you thought about it more, than you have thought about 
whether Mr. Pierce Butler is a good appointment to the Supremo Court. 
The Stillman case was discussed a thousand times more than the tariff, 
and I could draw a bigger crowd in Xew York — Raleigh no doubt is 
different — tomorrow night if I promised to speak about the political 
views of Mary Pickford than I could if I offered to discuss Mr. Hard- 
ing's proposal for a ship subsidy. 

So there you are. That's what all men who depend upon public 
opinion are up against, whether they hold office or run newspapers. 
The interests of the public and what the public finds interesting do 
not coincide. And in my judgment a good sixty or seventy per cent of 
the insincerity, the buncomb and the hokum of public life is not due 
to fear of being punished, but to fear of being dull. We are much less 
afraid that you will lynch us than we are that you will yawn and go 
to sleep. 

2\Tow my theory is that you are tending to yawn and go to sleep any- 
way, that you don't take the politicians very seriously and that perhaps 
you don't take what we w T rite in the newspapers so very seriously either. 
That being the case, it seems to me that if everybody started to speak 
his w T hole mind on public questions the shock and novelty of it might 
almost make it interesting. At any rate, without taking ourselves too 
heavily, there is such a thing as a public duty, and in a democracy the 
highest intellectual duty is to make your public utterance conform to 
your best private opinion. At the risk of boring the public, at the risk 
of frightening the public, this is the only possible rule. For democracy 
can never work its way through the problems that confront it if the 
best informed opinion isn't courageously thrown into the discussion. 

It is necessary, therefore, at every turn to combat the notion that the 
public should be given what the public wants. That is an utterly cor- 

State Literary and Historical Association !>5 

rupting rule for politicians, newspapers, professors or parsons. The 
only rule for each of us is to give the public what he thinks the public 

ought to have, and then neither whine nor complain if the public re- 
jects him and goes elsewhere. There is nothing to be gained and every- 
thing to be lost by trying to serve the public by giving them what they 
are supposed to want. We shall serve the public best in the long run 
by giving them what we believe, while admitting in all humility that 
we may be talking nonsense. And when anybody comes to us, be he a 
political boss, or any other kind of boss, and tells us to give the public 
what they want, our reply ought to be, if we don't believe in that 
thing: If the public wants that, let them go find somebody who will 
give it to them. 

Unless we take that attitude the Cult of the Second Best will nourish 
among us like a green bay tree. Perhaps you will agree. But even if 
you do, you may be asking yourselves what the practical consequences 
would be to men who took such a stand. How would they earn their 
living? That is a fair question, for the consequences of what I've been 
preaching tonight would frequently mean that men would resign from 
very pleasant jobs. 

Xow I believe this, and I hope you will bear with me while I say it. 
I believe that no man is really fit to hold a public office, or any other 
job which depends upon public favor or has to do with teaching in any 
form, if that man isn't also capable of earning a living in some other 
way if necessary. That may sound a little strange at first, but I 
believe that there can be no real freedom or sincerity in any public 
service unless men in it are perfectly ready to resign or be fired at any 
time for their opinions. 

You know that one of the first ideals of this Republic was that a 
man should leave his plough in the furrow to do a public service, and 
that he should then return to his plough when the service was done. 
There was profound wisdom in that ideal, for it meant that the public 
servant had no fears for his private comfort. He was not dependent 
upon the public, and therefore he could serve it as a free man. 

This ideal we ought to resurrect. We ought to expect our politicians 
to have some other career to fall back upon besides politics, we ought 
to expect the whole intellectual class, teachers, writers, and the like, to 
learn trades so that they can afford to resign at any time and are, 
therefore, in the most practical sense of the word free men. I promise 
the professors, if there are any present, that their incomes would not be 
reduced much if, having been properly educated to the work, they 
suddenly had to turn bricklayer or steamfitter. I can assure them that 
as a writer I have felt ever so much happier and freer since I realized 

96 Twenty-second Annual Session 

that if the worst came to the worst I could probably qualify as a taxicab 
driver in New York City. 

At any rare, the way to destroy the Cult of the Second B. 
to me this: Give the public not what you think it wants, but what you 
think it needs. Take your chances on being dull and prepare yourself 
to resign at any moment by learning some other useful occupation that 
is not dependent upon public favor. Then you will be a free man, 
and as a free man you can remind the public with perfect safety to 
search its own heart a bit, asking whether the ease with which it is 
frightened is not in some measure responsible also for the second-rate- 
ness of public life. 


c n 

Members 1921-1922 

Randolph G. Adams, Durham. 
A. E. Akers, Roanoke Rapids. 
W. H. Albright, Liberty. 
Charles L. Alexander. Charlotte. 
Miss Julia Alexander. Charlotte. 
Miss Violet Alexander, Charlotte. 
Dr. Albert Anderson, Raleigh. 
A. B. Andrews. Raleigh. 
"William J. Andrews. Raleigh. 
Mrs. William J. Andrews. Raleigh. 
Miss Augusta Andrews. Raleigh. 
Miss Jane Andrews, Raleitrh. 
Miss Martha Andrews. Raleigh. 
W. J. Armfield, High Point. 
Capt. S. A. Ashe. Raleigh. 
Mrs. D. M. Ausley. Statesville. 
E. F. Aydlett, Elizabeth City. 
Mrs. Henry T. Bahnson. Winston- 
Miss Mattie H. Bailey. Raleigh. 
Miss Martha H. Bailey. Raleigh. 
Mrs. A. L. Baker, Raleigh. 
Rev. M. A. Barber. Raleiizh. 
George Gordon Battle, New York. 
Thomas H. Battle. Rocky Mount. 
Dr. S. Westray Battle. Asheville. 
Mrs. S. Westray Battle. Asheville. 
A. P. Bauman, Raleigh. 
E. C. Beddingneld. Raleigh. 
Miss Mabel Belk. Monroe. 
Rev. Morrison Bethea. Raleigh. 
Mrs. T. W. Biekett. Raleigh. 
Miss Anna M. Blair. Monroe. 
Mrs. Dorian H. Blair. Greensboro. 
J. J. Blair, Raleigh. 
William A. Blair. Winston-Salem. 
Hon. W. M. Bond. Edenton. 
Mrs. H. M. Bonner. Raleigh. 
John M. Booker. Chapel Hill. 
J. D. Boushall. Raleigh. 
John H. Boushall. Raleish. 
W. K. Boyd. Durham. 
Mrs. C. W. Bradshaw. Greensboro. 
J. C. Braswell, Rooky Mount. 
Charles E. Brewer. Raleigh. 
Col. J. L. Bridgers, Tarboro. 

Miss Elizabeth X. Briggs, Raleigh. 

W. G. Briggs, Raleigh. 

T. H. Briggs, Raleigh. 

Mrs. T. II. Briggs, Raleigh. 

Dr. Harry L. Brockmann. High Point. 

Mrs. Harry L. Brockmann. Hish Point. 

L. C. Broaden. Raleigh. 

Mrs. A. L. Brooks. Greensboro. 

Miss Carrie Brou^hton, Raleigh. 

J. M. Broushton, Raleigh. 

Mrs. W. S. Broughton. Raleigh. 

Frank C. Brown. Durham. 

Joseph G. Brown. Raleigh. 

Col. J. F. Bruton, Wilson. 

Mrs. J. F. Bruton, Wilson. 

J. Dempsey Bullock, Wilson. 

W. P. Bynum. Greensboro. 

Miss Rebecca Cameron. Hillsboro. 

J. O. Carr. Wilmington. 

Gen. Julian S. Carr. Durham. 

D. D. Carroll. Chapel Hill. 

Mrs. J. R. Chamberlain. Raleigh. 

J. L. Chambers. Charlotte. 

Rt. Rev. Joseph B. Cheshire. Raleigh. 

Mrs. Joseph B. Cheshire. Raleigh. 

Joseph B. Cheshire. Jr.. Raleigh. 

Mrs. Joseph B. Cheshire. Jr.. Ralei?h. 

Mrs. J. E. Clark. Washington. 

Hon. Walter Clark. Raleigh. 

Heriot Clarkson, Charlotte. 

F. W. Clouts, Wake Forest. 
Collier Cobb. Chapel Hill. 
Mrs. E. M. Cole. Charlotte. 
Mrs. Will X. Coley, Raleigh. 
Miss Jenu W. Coltrane. Concord. 
Hon. H. G. Connor, Wilson. 
Mrs. H. G. Connor. Wilson. 

R. D. W. Connor. Chapel Hill. 
Charles L. Coon. Wilson. 
W. R. Coppedge. Rockingham. 
Mrs. J. H. Cordon. Raleich. 
J. M. Costner, Raleigh. 
Bruce Gotten. Baltimore. Md. 
Mr. R. R. Gotten, Bruce. 
Mrs. R. R. Gotten, Bruce. 

G. V. Cowper. Kinston. 



Miss Clara I. Cox. High Point. 
J. -.... ■■ I Cox, Hi&h Point. 
Burton Ccaige, Winston-Salem. 
W. J. Craig, Wilmington. 
W. C. Cram, Raleigh. 
W. C. Cram. Jr.. Raleigh. 
Miss Flora Creech, Raleigh. 

E. B. Crow. Raleigh. 
W. E. Daniel. Weldon. 

F. A. Daniels. Goldsboro. 
Josephus Daniels. Raleigh. 
Mrs. Josephus Daniels, Raleigh. 

E. L. Baxter Davidson, Charlotte. 
Miss Penelope Davis, Raleigh. 
Thomas W. Davis. Wilmington. 
Miss Daisy Denson. Raleigh. 

L. A. Denson. Raleigh. 
Miss Sally Dortch, Raleigh. 
J. J. Douglass, Wadesboro. 
Rev. Robert B. Drane. Edenton. 
TV. B. Drake. Raleigh. 
Mrs. W. B. Drake, Raleigh. 
Mrs. E. C. Duncan. Raleigh. 
J. H. Eaves. Lonisbnrg. 

F. X. Ed-erton. Lonisbnrg. 

J. C. B. Ehringhaus. Elizabeth City. 

R. O. Everett, Durham. 

W. X. Everett, Raleigh. 

H. E. Faison. Clinton. 

Mrs. I. TV. Faison. Charlotte. 

Miss Louise Farmer. Raleigh. 

Rev. J. S. Farmer. Raleigh. 

G. S. Ferguson. Waynesville. 
Mrs. W. J. Ferrall. Raleigh. 
W. P. Few. Durham. 

W. W. Flowers. Xew York City. 
Mrs. Samuel Fowle, Washington. 
Miss Adelaide Fries. Winston-Salem. 
John W. Pries, Winston-Salem. 
H. E. Fries. Winston-Salem. 
Miss Susan Fulghum. Goldsboro. 
T. B. Fuller. Durham. 
S. M. Gattis. Hillsboro. 
Dr. J. B. Gibbs. Burnsville. 
William H. Glasson. Durham. 
Mrs. Sallie Clark Graham. Raleigh. 
Hon. W. A. Graham. Raleigh. 
Mrs. William A. Graham. Edenton. 
Daniel L. Grant, Chapel Hill. 
Louis Graves, Chapel Hill. 

T. S. Graves, Chapel Hill. 
James A. Gray, Winston-Salem. 
Mrs. James A. Gray, Winston-Salem. 
H. T. Greenleaf, Elizabeth City. 
Miss Lennie Greenlee, old Fort. 
R. L. Greenlee, Marion. 
Greensboro Publie Library. Greens- 

Mrs. B. H. Griffin. Raleigh. 
I. C. Griffin, Shelby. 
Mrs. Gordon Haekett. North Wilkes- 


B. F. Hall, Wilmington. 

Miss Susan E. Hall. Wilmingtoa. 
J. G. deR. Hamilton. Chapel Hill. 
W. C. Hammer. Asheboro. 
Frederic M. Hanes, Winston-Salem. 
Ira M. Hardy, Kinston. 
Frank Harper, Raleigh. 

C. J. Harris, Asheville. 

Mrs. J. C. L. Harris. Raleigh. 

T. P. Harrison. Raleigh. 

Miss Esther Hart. Raleigh. 

C. Felix Harvey. Kinston. 

Mrs. C. Felix Harvey. Kinston. 

Ernest Haywood, Raleigh. 

F. P. Haywood, Raleigh. 

Marshall DeLaneey Haywood. Raleigh. 

Archibald Henderson, Chapel Hill. 

C. A. Hibbard. Chapel Hilt. 
Miss Georgia Hicks, Faison. 
Henry T. Hicks, Raleigh. 

L. P. Hicks, Louisburg. 
T. T. Hicks. Henderson. 
Miss Mnttie Higgs, Raleigh. 
Mrs. J. V. Hi-ham. Raleigh. 

D. H. Hill. Raleigh. 

John Sprunt Hill. Durham. 
Miss Pauline Hill. Raleigh. 
Mrs. W. T. Hines. Kinston. 
Mrs. J. W. Hinsdale. Raleigh. 
Miss Mary Hi Ilia rd Hinton, Raleigh. 
Herman Harrell Home. Leonia. X. J. 
J. A. Hoskins. Summertie'.d. 
George Howe. Chapel Hill. 

E. Vernon Howell. Chapel Hill. 
Miss Irma Hubbard. Memphis. Tenn. 
D. E. Hudgiiis, Marion. 

Rev. A. B. Hunter, Raleigh. 
Carv J. Hunter. Raleigh. 

State Literary and Historical Association 

Mrs. Cary J. Hunter, Raleigh. 
J. Rutus Hunter, Raleigh. 
Miss Louise frhy. Greensboro. 
Mrs. C. L. Ives, New Bern. 
Miss Carrie Jackson, Pittsboro. 
Mrs. Herbert Jackson, Richmond, Va. 
W. C. Jackson, Greensboro. 
Murray James. Raleigh. 
B. S. Jerman, Raleigh. 

A. F. Johnson. Louisburg. 
Charles E. Johnson, Jr.. Raleigh. 
Rev. Livingston Johnson. Raleigh. 
Mrs. Edward J. Johnston, Winston- 

Miss Nellie Mae Johnston. Raleigh. 

W. N, Jones. Raleigh. 

J. Y. Joyner. Raleigh. 

Miss Elizabeth A. Kelley. Superior, 

Woodus Kelluni, Wilmington. 
Paul S. Kennett. Elon College. 
Horace Kephart, Bryson City. 

B. W. Kilgore, Raleigh. 
R. R. King. Greensboro. 

E. W. Knight, Chapel Hill. 

F. H. Koch, Chapel Hill. 
W. T. Laprade. Durham. 
William Latimer, Wilmington. 
Samuel Lawrence. Raleigh. 
Mrs. Samuel Lawrence, Raleigh. 
J. B. Lewis. Raleigh. 

Miss Nell Battle Lewis. Raleigh. 

Dr. R. H. Lewis. Raleigh. 

Miss Vinton Liddell, Asheville. 

Thomas W, Lingle, Davidson. 

Henry E. Litchford. Richmond. Va. 

Mrs. H. A. London, Pittsboro. 

H. M. London, Raleigh. 

Mrs. H. M. London. Raleigh. 

J. M. MeConnoil. Davidson. 

J. G. McCormiek. Wilmington. 

Mrs. Mamie G. McCubbins. Salisbury. 

Mrs. Herbert McCullers, Clayton. 

F. B. McDowell. Charlotte. 

A. C. Mcintosh, Chapel Hill. 

R. L. McMillan, Raleigh. 

Mrs. R. L. McMillan. Ralei-h. 

Franklin McNeill. Raleigh. 

Mrs. Franklin McNeill. Raleigh. 

Clement Manly, Winston-Salem. 

w. F. Marshall, Raleigh. 

Julius ( '. Martin, Asheville. 

II. I). Meyer, Chapel Hill. 

Mrs. J. W. Miller, New York City. 

W. R. Mills, Louisburg. 

Mrs. J. J. Misenheimer, Charlotte. 

Mrs. E. E. Moffitt, Richmond, Va. 

A. H. Moan, Louisburg. 

Mrs. A. R. Moore, Nov.- Brunswick, N. J. 

Mrs. James P. Moore. Salisbury. 

Rev r . W. W. Moore. Richmond, Va. 

John M. Morehead, Charlotte 

Mrs. John M. Morehead. Charlotte. 

Miss B. A. Morgan, Raleigh. 

Mrs. F. (). Moring, Raleigh. 

Mrs. T. S. Morrison. Asheville. 

Hugh Morson, Raleigh. 

Miss Lucile W. Murchison. New York 

Walter Murphy. Salisbury- 
Frank Nash, Raleigh. 
Mrs. Frank Nash, Raleigh. 
N. C. Newbold, Raleigh. 
Mrs. A. P. Noell. Greensboro. 
Eric Norden. Wilmington. 
Mrs. M. T. Norris, Raleish. 
George Norwood. Goldsboro. 
Jonas CEttinger. Wilson. 
Hon. Lee S. Overman, Salisbury. 
Miss Mary B. Palmer, Raleigh. 
Haywood Parker, Asheville. 
Mrs. C. M. Parks. Tarboro. 
Miss Rosa Paschal. Greenville. S. C. 
Mrs. S. T. Peace. Henderson. 

D. W. Pearce. Petersburg, Va. 
P. Pearsall, Wilmington. 

C. C. Pearson, Wake Forest. 
Mrs. W. J. Peele. Raleigh. 
W. M. Person. Louisburg. 

E. F. Pescud. Raleigh. 

Miss Annie F. Petty. Raleigh. 
William S. Pfohl, Winston-Salem. 
H. N. Pharr, Charlotte. 
Mrs. H. C. Pinnix. Oxford. 
T. M. Pittman. Henderson. 
Clarence Poe. Raleigh. 
Mrs. Clarence Poe. Raleigh. 
Miss Aline Polk. Guilford College. 
Miss Eliza Pool. Raleigh. 
Hubert M. Poteat, Wake Forest. 


Twenty-second Annual Session 

Miss Ida Potest Raleigh. 
W. L. Potest, Wake Forest. 

Mrs. w. L. Poteat, Wake Forest. 

Mrs. William H. Porter. Boston, Mass. 

E. K. Powe, Durham. 

Mrs. E. K. Powe, Durham. 

W. R. Powell, Wake Forest. 

Mrs. W. R. Powell. Wake Forest. 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Chapel Hill. 

James H. Ramsey. Salisbury. 

Mrs. R. B. Raney. Raleigh. 

W. T. Reaves. Raleigh. 

Miss Mattie Reese. Raleigh. 

Mrs. W. X. Reynolds. Winston-Salem. 

W. C. Riddick. Raleigh. 

Paul H. Ringer, Asheville. 

J. F. Roaehe. Wilmington. 

Miss Adaline C. Robinson, Greensboro. 

Miss Lida T. Rodman. Washington. 

Dr. Howard E. Rondthaler, Winston- 

Mrs. Howard E. Rondthaler, "Winston- 

Charles Root. Raleigh. 

George Rountree. Wilmington. 

H. A. Royster. Raleigh. 

W. I. Royster. Raleigh, 

William H. Ruffin. Louisburg. 

Robert L. Ryburn. Shelby. 

Miss Helen H. Sails. Oxford. 

W. M. Sanders. Smithfield. 

Dr. Edmund Schwarze. Winston-Salem. 

Miss C. L. Shaffner. Winston-Salem. 

Miss Cornelia Shaw. Lmvidson. 

Shaw University, Raleigh. 

Edwin F. Shewmake. Davidson. 

Mrs. M. B. Shipp, Raleigh. 

John A. Simpson. Raleigh. 

Col. Harry Skinner. Greenville. 

Benjamin F. Sledd. Wake Forest. 

Hon. J. H. Small. Washington. 

C. Alphonso Smith. Annapolis. Md. 

Charles Lee Smith. Raleigh. 

Ed. Chambers Smith. Raleigh. 

Mrs. Ed. Chambers Smith. Raleiirh. 

Rev. G. F. Smith. Louisburg. 

Miss Mary Shannon Smith. New York 

Miss Mildred Houze Smith. Raleigh. 

W. C. Smith, Greensboro. 

Willis Smith, Raleigh, 

D. T. Smithwick, Louisburg. 
Mrs. D. T. Smithwick, Louisburg. 
Mrs. w. o. Spencer, Winston-Salem. 

F. S. Spruill, Rocky Mount. 
.Limes Sprunt. Wilmington. 
W. H. Sprunt, Wilmington. 
W. P. Stacy. Raleigh. 
J. F. Stanbaek. Raleigh. 
Mrs. J. F. Stanbaek, Raleigh. 
Charles M. Stedman, Greensboro. 
George Stephens, Asheviile. 
Mrs. F. L. Stevens. Urbana. 111. 

C. L. Stevens. Southport. 
Mrs. C. L. Steven*. Southport. 
Charles S. Stone, Charlotte. 
W. E. Stone. Raleigh. 

Miss Kate Stronach, Raleigh. 
Edmund Strudwick. Richmond. Va. 
R. C. Strudwick. Greensboro. 
R. H. Sykes. Durham. 
Mrs. J. F. Taylor. Kin<ton. 
Walter D. Toy. Chapel Hill. 

E. J. Tucker. Roxboro. 

Miss Sarah C. Turner. Raleigh. 
Mrs. V. E. Turner. Raleigh. 
Miss Cornelia Vanderbilt. Biltmore. 
Mrs. John Van Landimdiam. Charlotte. 
Rev. R. T. Vann, Raleigh. 
Miss Eleanor Vass. Raleigh. 
W. W. Vass, Raleigh. 
Mrs. W. W. Vass. Raleigh. 
W^achovia Historical Society. Winston- 
Mrs. Amos J. Walker. New York City. 
Piatt D. Walker, Rnleigh. 
Mrs. J. A. Walker. Brown wood. Texas. 
X. W. Walker, Chapel Hill. 
Zebulon V. Walser. Lexington. 

D. L. Ward. New Bern. 
Rev. W. W. Way. Raleigh. 
Miss Aline Weathers. Raleigh. 
James L. Webb. Shelby. 
Mangum Weeks. Washington. D. C. 
Miss Gertrude Weil. Goldsboro. 
Mrs. W. S. West. Raleigh. 
Charles Whedbee. Hertford. 

Miss Julia S. White. Guilford College. 
Mrs. E. L. Whitehead. Raleigh. 
W. T. Whit sett. Whitsett. 

State Literary and Historical Association 

101 Ok 

J. Frank Wilkes. Charlotte. 
M. S. W Ulard, Wilmington. 
F. L. WilU'ox, Florence, S. C. 
Mrs. Marshall Williams, Faison. 
William H. Williamson, Raleigh. 
J. Norman Wills. Greensboro. 
E, E. Wilson, Wake Forest. 
H. V. Wilson, Chapel Hill. 
Louis R. Wilson, Chapel Hill. 
J. W. Winborne. Marion. 
Mrs. J. M. Winfree, Raleigh. 
Francis D. Winston, Windsor. 

George T. Win-ton. Ashevilte. 
R. W. Winston. Washington, I>. 
.1. II. Wissler, Moncnre. 
W. A. Withers. Raleigh. 
Frank Wood. Edenton. 

J. < ;. Wood. Edenton. 
W. F. Woodard, Wilson. 
Mrs. W. F. Woodard, Wilson. 
K. E. Wright, New Orleans, La. 

Miss Mary S. Yates, Raleigh. 
Harrison Yelverton, (roldsboro. 
J. R. Youn:;. Raleigh. 









A People Who Have IsTot the Pride to 
Record Their History Will £s*ot Long 
Have the Virtue to Make History That 
is Worth Recording. 



North Carolina Historical Commission 

December 1, 1922, to 
November 30, 1924 

Edwards & Bboughtoh PBiH«tiHG Company 

State Printers 



Thomas M. Pittata:*, Chairman, Henderson 

M. C. S. Xoble, Chapel Hill 
Eeaxk Wood, Edenton 
Heriot Claeksox, Charlotte 
W. X. Everett, Raleigh 

R. B. House,. Secretary, Raleigh 


To His Excellency, 

Cameron Morrison, 

Governor of North Carolina. 

Sir: — I have the honor to submit herewith for your Excellences 
consideration the Biennial Report of the North Carolina Historical 
Commission, for December 1, 1922-Xoveniber 30, 1924. 


Thomas M. Pittman, 

Raleigh, N. C, January, 1925. 



Secretary of the North Carolina Historical Commission 

DECEMBEB 1, 1922, TO NOTEMBER 30, 1924 

To Thomas M. Pittman, Chairman-, AT. C. S. Xoble, Frank TTood, 
Heeiot Clarksox, and W. X. Everett, Commissioners. 

Gentlemen : — I have the honor to submit , the following report of 
the work of the Xorth Carolina Historical Commission for the period 
December 1, 1922-Xovember 30, 1924. 


During the period covered by this report there have been changes 
in both the Historical Commission and in the staff employed by it. 

J. Bryan Grimes. Chairman of the Historical Commission, died 
January 11, 1923. To succeed him as commissioner, W. X. Everett 
was appointed by the Governor. 

At a meeting of the Historical Commission, held April 17, 1924. 
Thomas M. Pittman was elected Chairman. W. X. Everett, Vice-chair- 
man, and an executive committee elected, composed of Thomas M. 
Pittman, W. X. Everett, and AL C S. Xoble. All these appoint- 
ments and elections have continued to the date of this report. 

Daniel Harvey Hill. Secretary of the Historical Commission since 
1921, died July 31, 1924. At a meeting of the Historical Commission 
held October 17, 1924, E. B. House was elected to the office of Secretary. 
At this same meeting D. L. Corbitt was elected to the permanent 
staff of the Historical Commission as Calendar Clerk. 

By your direction I publish as an appendix to this report accounts 
of the life and services of J. Bryan Gimes and Daniel Harvey Hill. 

Office Force 

During the period covered by this report the following have com- 
posed the permanent staff of the office: 

Secretary, D. H. Hill (to July 31, 1924) ; R. B. House (October 

17, 1924 ). 

Legislative Reference Librarian, H. M. London. 

Archivist, R. B. House (to October 17, 1924). 

Collector for Hall of History, Fred A. GUIs. rjc~ r 5 i 

Tenth Biennial Report 

Restorer nf Manuscripts, Mrs. T . M. Winfree. 

Stenographer, Miss Marjory Terrell (through March 31, 1924) ; 

Miss Sophie D. Busbee (April 1, L924 ). 

Calendar Clerk, D. L. Corbitt (since April 1, 1924). 

Archival Clerk, Mrs. W. S. West. 

Reference Clerk, Mrs. W. J. Peele. 

Copyist. Miss Sophie D. Busbee (through March 31, 1924); Mrs. Marie 

Baumgardner (April 1, 1924 ). 

Messenger and Mailing Clerk, William Birdsall. 

The following were employed for temporary special service: 

Assistant Legislative Reference Librarian, R. L. McMillan (January 

and February, 1923: August, 1924). 
Compiler of Revolutionary Roster, Moses Amis (through February 

29, 1924). 


Classification and Arrangement of Papers 

State Administration Records 

Two hundred and eighty-one papers were filed in the papers of the 
Secretary of State.. Three hundred and seventeen papers were filed in 
the papers of the State Treasurer. Legislative Papers for the years 
1790-1792 were chronologically arranged. Six volumes were arranged 
in the papers of the Attorney-General. Journals of the Literary Board 
1826-1867, and Letterbooks of the Superintendent of Public Instruction 
1868-1906, were arranged. 

County Records 

Of wills, 2137 were alphabetically arranged in the papers of Chowan' 
Wayne, Tyrrell, Jones, and Rowan Counties. Material from 35 
counties, totaling 203 volumes, cases and bundles, was properly 
arranged. This material is listed in detail under "Accessions" below. 

The whole collection of county records, totaling 1177 cases and 
volumes, was carefully labeled, numbered serially, and indexed by a 
card finding-list. 

The most immediate and practical work of this division is the rough 
classification of all papers received, the careful chronological arrange- 
ment of these papers in permanent form as time permits, and the 
administration of our whole collections for the daily use of students. 
Our collections, totaling over five hundred thousand pieces, have been 
thus kept available. 

In addition to this work, which cannot be set forth in statistics, the 
following specific work has been done : 

*~ N. C. Historical Commission 7 

Records of Public School Education 

The whole collection of papers waa searched for document* on educa- 
tion by M. C. S. Xoble in preparation of a documentary history of 

Public School Education, and material found was copied and verified. 

Old Xewspapers 

Approximately 300 photostat copies of Xorth Carolina newspapers 
prior to 1800 were arranged. 

Historical Manuscripts 

920 separate items were arranged in the papers of "W. A. Graham, 
Minis Ward, Z. B. Vance, John L. Bridgers, Nathaniel Macon, B. F. 
Gatling, Robert Bingham, Kenneth Raynor, Kiffiu Rockwell, Walter 
Clark, John Branch, Hogs:, James Iredell. Andrew Jackson, "W. W. II ol- 
den, A. D. Murphey, R. W. Winston, and Philemon Hawkins. 

Use of Records 

With the growth of our collections there has been naturally a growing 
use of the records by students. Thousands of letters are handled in the 
office, either directly where time and other work permit, or by reference 
to researchers working professionally in their own right. Two hundred 
people have formally registered in the office and used the records made 
available. Of these 4S were either graduate students working on mono- 
graphs in Xorth Carolina history or investigators who published the 
results of their study here. 

Repair of Manx- scripts 
Of manuscript, 13,582 sheets have been repaired in various ways as 
follows : 

7782 mounted for binding. 
5183 repaired with paper. 
617 repaired with crepeline. 

In addition to this work numerous books, maps, land grants, and 
other papers have been repaired for immediate use. 


Thirty-four volumes were bound as follows : 

Governors' papers. State Series, 1814-1835, Vols. XLII-LXXI. 
Reports, Chairman County Superintendents Common Schools, 1841-1846. 
Confederate Hospital Records, Vols. I-III. 

Description and Calendaring of mss. 

Prior to xipril 1, 1024, several collections totaling 6000 papers were 
read and described for the Handbook of Manuscripts. On April 1, D. L. 

8 Tenth Biennial Report 

Corbitt began work as special Calendar Clerk on the .staff. The em- 
ploj-i I f , | ecialist to describe, calendar, and index its collections 
is a goal toward which the Historical Commission has been work 
for years. By remarkable diligence Mr. Corbitt has checked over and 
made ready for the press calendars of twelve collections previously pre- 
pared. He has prepared calendars for two more, has read and described 
several thousand pages of manuscript. His most important work, b 
ever, has been the preparation of a handbook describing county records. 
It numbers eighty-one pages and describes 565 volumes of manuscript. 


The following publications have come from the press : 

Bulletin 29, Ninth Biennial Report of the Secretary of the North Carolina 
Historical Commission, December 1920-November 30, 1922, Paper, 39 pp. 

Bulletin 30, Proceedings of the Twenty-second Annual Session of the State 
Literary and Historical Association of North Carolina. Compiled by R. B. 
House, Secretary. Paper, 101 pp. 

The North Carolina Manual for 1923. Compiled and edited by R. B. House. 
Cloth, 508 pp. 

The North Carolina Historical Review. Published quarterly. Volume I, 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4. 540 pp. 


In January 1924 was launched The North Carolina Historical Review 
as a medium for the publication and discussion of history in Xorth 
Carolina. This magazine is issued quarterly and a price of two dollars 
per year is charged for it. Members of the State Literary and Histori- 
cal Association receive it for the special price of one dollar per year. It 
goes free of charge to institutions with which the Historical Commission 
maintains exchange relations. The magazine has at present a circula- 
tion of about one thousand copies. 


By cooperation with the Printing Commission and the Council of 
State, the Historical Commission published The Public Letters and 
Papers of Thomas Walter Bickett, Governor of North Carolina. 1917- 
1921. Compiled by Santford Martin, edited by R. B. House, Cloth, 
394 pp. 

There are in press at this date, The Papers of John Steele, in two 
volumes, edited by H. M. Wagstaff; and Volume II of Records of The 
Moravians in North Carolina. 

N. C. HISTORICAL Commission 


The following documentary works are being made ready for the press: 

J. G. deR. Hamilton is editing the diaries of Randolph Shotwell, and 
he estimates that these will run into four volumes. 

J. G. deR. Hamilton and R. D. W. Connor are editing a history of 
constitutional conventions in North Carolina. 

Walker Barnette, under the supervision of the Department of His- 
tory in the University of North Carolina, is editing a history of political 
conventions in North Carolina. 

William K. Boyd is editing the records of the Lutherans in North 
Carolina and a series of reprints of Eighteenth Century tracts on North 

The above works will be published at the rate of two volumes a year. 
But chief emphasis is now being laid on getting in shape for the press 
the documentary volumes of "Public School Education in Xorth Caro- 
lina," by M. C. S. Noble. Mr. Noble, in addition to years of general 
work on this subject, has donated to the undertaking a year's leave of 
absence obtained from the University of North Carolina, where he is 
dean of the School of Education. 

This program of publication continues the policy of printing private 
papers, but lays special emphasis on a series of topical documentary 
histories now in grear demand. 



In 1916 the Historical Commission became trustees of a fund donated 
for the preparation of a history of North Carolina in the Civil War. 
This fund of $25,000 was donated by the late Robert H. Ricks of Rocky 
Mount to the North Carolina Confederate Yeterans' Association. Two 
conditions attached to the gift: (1) the late Dr. D. H. Hill was to 
prepare a history of this state's part in the Civil War; (2) the Histori- 
cal Commission was to supervise his work, pay his salary and office ex- 
penses from the fund, and supervise the publication of the completed 
work from such funds as might be available. Dr. Hill began his work 
July 1, 1916, and continued it diligently till his death in 1024. The 
Ricks Fund, however, was exhausred in 1922, and the Historical Com- 
mission made it possible for Dr. Hill to continue the work till 1921. 

At the time of his death Dr. Hill had completed a military history 
of the war in Virginia from the battle of Bethel to the conclusion of 
the battle of Sharpsburg, several chapters on North Carolina's blockade 
operations, the Federal invasion of eastern Xorth Carolina, and the 
state's munitions business. The whole amounts to about one thousand 
pages of manuscript. 

10 Tenth Biennial Report 

The Historical Commissi on directed a committee composed of W. V. 
Everett, M. C. 8. Noble, and the secretary of the Historical Commit 
to take steps for the publication and sal*; of this work, and the Historical 

Commission announced itself as ready to continue further work on the 
uncompleted history if sufficient funds could be found. 


Additions to Former Collections 

From one to a dozen pieces were added to the following collections of 
private papers: W. A. Graham, Minis Ward, Z. B. Vance. John L. 
Bridgers, Nathaniel Macon, B. F. Gatling, Robert Bingham, Kenneth 
Ray nor, Kiffin Rockwell, Walter Clark, John Branch, Hogg Papers, 
James Iredell, Andrew Jackson, W\ W. Holden, Archibald DeBow ALur- 
phey, R. "W. Winston, Philemon Hawkins. 

More numerous and important additions are as follows : 

Legislative Oath Book. 1784-1807, MSS. 150 pp. 

Treasurer's Papers, 317 pieces. 

Walter Clark Papers, 100 miscellaneous pieces. 

Attorney-General 1 s Papers. Five Letter-books, 1877-1903; One volume of 
opinions, 1869-1SS9. 

W. W. Holden. From Junius Grimes was received Commission appointing 
Wyatt Outlaw a member of the Union League of America, signed by W. W. 

Journals of Literary Board. 1826-1867: Letter-books. Superintendent of 
Public Instruction. These were found and brought in by M. C. S. Noble. 

Records of Ports of Roanoke. Bath and Newbern 

Wills (originals from Secretary of State), 1663-1700. 

W. A. Graham Papers. From Major W. A. Graham were received copies 
of two letters from W. A. Graham to William L. Herndon, on survey of valley 
of the Amazon, 1851, Feb. 15. Paper relating to W. A. Graham as Legislator 
and Governor, undated. Twenty pieces relating to charter of North Carolina 
Railroad and legislative proceedings, 1848-1849. George W r . Graham to 
"Willie," April 27. 1906. 

Photostats of Old North Carolina Newspapers, from the Massachusetts 
Historical Society: 

The North Carolina Journal 
Hodge & Wills, Halifax 

Year No. Date Year No. Date 

1792 3 August 1 1792 



August 1 






September 5 






October 3 


































N. 0. Historical Commission 


Year No. Date 

1793 2S January 23 
29 30 

Year No. Date 

1793 30 February 6 
31 13 

Printed by Abraham Hodge 

1793 32 February 20 

33 27 

34 March 6 

35 13 

36 20 

37 27 

38 April 3 

39 10 

40 17 

42 May 1 

43 8 

44 15 

45 22 

46 29 

47 June 5 

48 12 

49 19 

50 26 

51 July 3 

52 10 

56 August 7 

57 14 

58 21 

59 28 

60 September 4 

61 11 

64 October 1 

65 9 
&Q 16 
67 23 

1793 68 October 30 

69 November 6 

70 13 

71 20 

72 27 

73 December 4 

74 11 

75 18 

76 25 

1794 77 January 1 
78 or 79, Jan. 8 
or 15 — pp. 2 and 3 

80 January 22 

81 29 

82 February 5 

83 12 

84 19 

85 26 

86 March 5 

87 12 
SS 19 

89 26 

90 April 2 

91 9 

92 16 

93 23 

94 30 

1794 95 May 7 

96 14 

97 21 

98 28 

99 June 4 

100 11 

101 18 

102 25 

103 July 2 

104 9 

105 16 

106 23 

107 30 

108 August 6 

109 13 

110 20 

111 27 

112 September 3 

113 10 

114 17 

115 24 

116 October 1 

117 13 

118 20 

119 27 

120 November 3 

121 10 

122 17 

123 24 

1794 124 December 1 

125 8 

126 15 

127 22 

128 29 

1795 129 January 5 

130 12 

131 19 

132 26 

133 February 2 

134 9 

135 16 

136 23 

137 March 2 

138 9 

139 16 

140 23 

141 30 

142 April 6 

143 13 

144 20 

145 27 

146 May 4 

147 11 

148 18 

149 25 

150 June 1 

151 S 


Tenth Biennial Report 

Yeaj* No. Date 

17#5 152 June 15 

153 22 

154 29 

155 July 6 

156 13 

157 20 

158 27 

159 August 3 

160 10 

161 17 

162 24 

163 31 

164 September 7 

165 14 

166 21 
with 2 pp. supplement 

167 28 

168 October 5 
with 2 pp. supplement 

169 12 

170 19 

171 26 

172 November 2 

173 9 

174 16 

175 23 

176 30 

177 December 7 

178 14 

179 21 

180 28 
1796 181 January 11 

189 February 29 

April 4 

Extra, 2 pp. 

199 May 9 

204 June 13 

207 July 4 

208 11 
219 September 26 

230 December 12 

231 19 

232 26 
1797 233 January 2 

234 9 

235 16 

236 23 

237 30 

238 February 6 

239 13 

240 20 

241 27 

242 March 6 

243 13 

244 20 

245 27 

247 April 10 

248 17 

249 24 

250 May 1 

Yeab No. Date 

1797 251 May 8 

252 15 

253 22 

254 29 

255 June 5 

256 12 

257 19 

258 26 

259 July 2 

260 10 

261 17 

262 24 

263 31 

264 August 7 

265 14 

266 21 

267 28 

268 September 4 

269 11 

270 18 

271 25 

272 October 2 

273 9 

274 16 

275 23 

276 30 

277 November 6 

278 13 

279 20 

281 December 4 

282 11 

283 18 

284 25 
1798 285 January 1 

286 8 

287 15 

289 29 

290 February 5 

291 12 

292 19 

293 26 

294 March 5 

295 12 

296 19 

297 26 

298 April 2 

299 9 

302 30 

303 May 7 
with extra, 4 pp. 

304 14 
extra only, 4 pp. 

305 21 

306 2S 

307 June 4 
with extra, 4 pp. 

309 IS 
with 4 pp. extra 

310 25 

N. G. Historical Commj 


Yeah No. 

D its 

1798 311 

July 2 



with 4 pp. extra 




August 6 








September 3 








October 1 










November 5 








December 3 










4 pp. 


1802 530 

No. Date 

338 January 







346 March 

with 4 pp. 

350 April 

with 4 pp. 

with 4 pp. 
355 May 

with 4 pp. 

with 4 pp. extra 

357 20 

408 May 12 

2 pp. 

September 13 




















The following newspapers were found by D. L. Corbitt of the His- 
torical Commission staff. These newspapers are mutilated and in some 
instances can scarcely be read, due to the fact that they had been 
pasted together and formed the backs to Court Records of Tyrrell 
County. It was in this service of over 100 years that they became so 
badly worn. 

The importance of these newspapers lies in the fact that all ±sTorth 
Carolina histories give the date of the earliest publication of a news- 
paper in the State as 1755. However, R. D. \T. Connor in 1920 un- 
earthed a copy of the North Carolina Gazette published in 1753\ But 
the finding of these papers sets the date back two more years, and it is 
known that Xorth Carolina did have a newspaper as early as 1751. 
The earliest copy of the North Carolina Gazette now known to be in 
existence i3 dated November 15, 1751, and is number 15, which makes 
the probable date of the first issue sometime in July 1751. 

14 Tenth Biennial Report 

These papera Law. been unpasted, washed, pressed smooth, and covered 
with crepeline, and are ready for use. They are: 

The North Carolina Gazette 
James Davis, Newbern 

Year No. Dave Remarks 

1751 15 November 15 The original is crepelined. 

1752 March 6 The original is crepelined, mutilated. 
1752 32 March 13 The original is crepelined, mutilated. 
1752 The original is crepelined, mutilated, pp. 1 

and 2. 

1768 — 21 The original is crepelined, mutilated, pp. 1 

and 2. 

Martin's North Carolina Gazette 
F. X. Martin, Newbern 

1793 The original is crepelined, mutilated. 

The State Gazette of North Carolina 
Hodge & Wills, Edenton 

1792 337 June 29 The original is crepelined. 

The Post-Angel, or Universal Entertainment 
Printed for Robert Archibald by Joseph Beasley, Edenton 

Vol. I 

1801 28 April 9 4 pp. mutilated 

Virginia Gazette 
By William Hunter, Williamsburg 

1752 Mutilated 

The North Carolina Journal 
By Abraham Hodge, Halifax 

1800 430 October 13 Mutilated, pp. 1 and 2. 

Maps. — The following maps were received : 

Photostat of a new Map of Carolina, by Robert Morden, 16S7. 

Photostat of a map of the bundary line between North Carolina and 

Virginia, October. 1726. 
Lands granted by George II to Earl of Granville, March and April, 1746. 

Confederate Records. — The following Confederate records have been 

A Reminiscence of 1S63, pamphlet, S pp. From Robert Bingham. 
Confederate War Diary of Captain H. H. Chambers. 
Three Hospital Record Books, 1S63-1S64, MSS. 350 pp. From Mrs. 
J. S. Wellborn. 


N. C. Historical Commission 


The Currency of the Confederate States, one volume of currency 
mounted and described. Fron elen Chaffer Howard. 

Confederate Naval Records, Cfer. 200. From W. II. McElroy. 

Special Orders Confederate States Military Prison at Salisbury, N. C. 
Copy of original book in MSS. From W. M. Saunders. 

Reminiscence of Confederate Days; State of North Carolina in ac- 
count with F. H. Fries, MSS. From John W. Fries. 

Complete Roster of Men and Boys who enlisted from Nash County, 
MSS. Cir. 150 pp. From Mrs. Tempe W. Holt. 

List of North Carolina Men in Winchester (Va.j Cemetery, MSS. 20 
pp. Acquired by purchase. 

Revolutionary Records. — The following Revolutionary records have 
been received : 

"A Brief Memorandum of John Walker," etc., MSS. 8 pp. From Miss 

Hannah Patterson Bolles. 
A General Return of the Third N. C. Regiment, August 16, 1779. 
Revolutionary Land Warrants, indexed. 
Muster Roll, 1777-1779, MSS. 20 pp. By purchase from Anderson 


Secretary of State's Papers. — The following papers from the office 
of the Secretary of State have been received : 

Boundary of North and South Carolina. Reports of Commissioners, 

1805-1815, 1 Vol. MSS. 
Cherokee Lands — Surveyors' and Commissioners' Report. 1S24. MSS. 

1 Vol. 
311 miscellaneous pieces. 

World War Records.- 
received : 

-The following World War records have been 

War Diary of the 120th Infantry, 191S-1919. 1.000 pieces. 

Officers and Enlisted Personnel Headquarters Company, 324th Infan- 
try, pamphlet, 32 pp. From A. D. Cashion. 

Monroe Canteen Register, containing autographs of Marshal Foch. 
Woodrow Y\'ilson, General Pershing. From Mrs. A. L. Monroe. 

Photograph of the 318th Field Artillery Regiment. From J. F. Roach. 

History of the Wake Forest Chapter Red Cross. 1918-1920, MSS. 6 pp. 
From Mrs. J. M. Brewer. 

Letters of Arthur Bluethenthal, 10 pieces. From L. Bluethenthal. 

Sergeant Halyburton. the First American Soldier Captured in rhe 
World War. By Charles W. Hyams. Dixie Publishing Company. 
Moravian Falls, N. C. 1923, paper, 79 pp. 

Halifax County records. 300 pieces. From Mrs. E. L. Whitehead. 

One hundred pieces relating to Council of Defense. From D. H. Hill. 

Sketch of Kiffin Yates Rockwell, aviator in Eseadrille Lafayette. 

Society of the First Division: History of the First Division During 
the World War, 1917-1919. Philadelphia: Winston. 1^22. 450 pp. 
By purchase. 

Bach and Hall: The Fourth Division. Its Services and Achievements 
in the World War, 1920. Issued by the Division Association. One 
volume, 369 pp. with maps and illustrations. By purchase. 

16 Tenth Bieitwial Repoet 

Huidekoper: The History of the 33d Division. Illinois State HI 

..uiiuu Library. Four volumes. 
Starlight: Political Record of the 27th Division. New York: Harpers, 

1919, 250 pp. 
George and Cooper: Pictorial History of the Twenty-sixth Division. 

Boston: Ball, 320 pp. 


Fred A. Olds, Collector for the Hall of History, has brought in for 
the period covered by this report the following county papers : 

County Matekial. — The collection of county materia] for the arch- 
ives department began in 1017, and has been diligently pro^cuted ever 
since. The growth of this section of the archives department has been 
remarkable. In many cases the bound books and loose documents were 
found in very bad condition. This work is now nearly completed, and 
1925 will no doubt see its finish. During the two years ending Decem- 
ber 1, 1924, there were brought in the following county records from 34 
counties : 

Chatham. Original will books, 1793-94; 1794-98; 179S-1S18; 1S17-57. 
Inventories of estates, 1S01-12; 1809-12; 1809-22. County Court 
minutes, 1774-79; 17S0-S5; 1790-94; 1794-99; 1811-16; 1816-22: 1^22-27; 
1S2S-33; 1S34-41; 1842-49; 1849-58; 1860-61. Court of Equity minutes. 

Edgecombe. County Court minutes. 1757-64: 1764-72; 1772-76: 1778- 
84; 1784-90; 1790-92; 1792-94; 1795-97; 1797-1S00; 1800-04; 1804-07; 
1807-11; 1811-13; 1813-16: 1816-19; 1819-20; 1820-26; 1S26-31: 1831- 
40; 1840-44; 1844-48; 1848-52; 1853-57; 1S57-63; 1863-68. Inventories 
of estates, 1733-88: 1788-90; 1790-92: 1798-1SC0. Crown docket, 
1755-62. Register of marks and brands of cattle, 1732-1809. Execu- 
tion docket, 1769-71. 

Franklin. Marriage bonds (additional). Original wills prior to 
1800. Inventories of estates prior to 1800. Lists of taxable property 
prior to 1800. 

Nash. County Court minutes. October, 177S; 1779-85; 1787-88; 1791- 
93; 179S-1S04; 1804-07; 1807-15; 1815-21; 1824; 1825; 1S26-2S; 1S2S- 
31; 1837-43; 1844-51; 1851-64; 1864-68. 

Jackson. County Court minutes, 1S53-63. Marriage record book, 

Wilkes. County Court minutes. 177S-S5. 

Polk. Marriage bonds. County Court minutes, 1S47-4S and 1S66-68. 

Ashe. County Court minutes. Marriage bonds. Record book, wardens 
of the poor, 1S32-55. 

Transylvania. County school records. 

Richmond. County Court minutes, 1779-86; 1786-92: IS'jO-04: 1S04-08; 
1809-19; 1S30-38; 1833-43; 1843-47; 1847-50; 1S66-6S. Marriage bonds. 

Carteret. Original wills to 1S00. 

Onslow. Original wills to 1800. 

N. C. Historical Commij 


Chowan. Original wills, 1723-1799. Marriage bonds, 1740-1868. im '■■ 

tories of estates?, 1777. L ons, 1766*67; 1798. 

County Court minutes, 172."; 1727-28; 1730; 1732-34; 1736; 17 

1747; 1749: 1752-59; 1780; 1787; 1788-91; 1791-98; 17:).:. D 

1699-1800. Records of Port Roanoke. 
Perquimans. Original wills (additional), 1751-1800. Court docun 

of Bath, New Bern and Xewton (the first name of Wilmin 

Inventories of estates. Lists of taxable persons; slave sales and 

miscellaneous court papers. Land patents of Chowan, Perqu 

Edgecombe and Craven. Assize docket. 1742, at Bath, for Beaufort 

and H3*de. Assize docket, 1742, at Wilmington tor New Hanover, 

Onslow and Bladen. Court dockets, 1743-46, for Edgecombe and 

Northampton. Original act of 1746, making New Bern the seat of 

Robeson. Original wills to 1803. 
Waf.een. Original wills to 1800. 
Orange. Grant book. 17S4-95. Original wills, 1757-1S00. Register of 

negro cohabitation, 1S65-6S. 
Tyrrell. Original wills to 1S00. County Court minutes, 1758. Deed 

books. 1750-55; 1756-57; 1792-94; 1816-19. Land entry books, 1773- 

80; 1779-81; 17S3-91; 1792-96. 
Pasquotank. Original wills to 1800. Settlements of estates, 1777-98. 

Deed books, 1700-47; 1735-59; 1759-62; 1764-66; 1778-85. 
Beaufort. Deed book, 17S4-1S06. 
Martin. County Court minutes, 1847. Equity Court minutes, 1809-29. 

Deed book, 1774-87. 
Currituck. County Court minutes, 1851-68. 
Halifax. Original deed book, 1796-1802. 
Gates. Original wills to 1300. Marriage records, 1851-66. Public 

school records, 1S41-61. 
Northampton. Original wills to 1S00. 
Cumberland. County Court minutes. 1755-59; 1759-65; 1772-76; 1777- 

78; 177S-83. 
Mitchell. County Court minutes, 1861-68. 
Cabarrus. County Court minutes, 1793-97. 
Rowan. Docket of Supreme (Superior) Court. Rowan, Orange and 

Bladen, 1756-70. Original wills, 1753-1S20. 
Stokes. County Court minutes. 1790-93; 1793-95; 1795-9S; 1798-1800. 

Lists of taxable persons, 1790-93; 1793-95; 1795-98; 1798-1800. Lists 

of taxable persons, 1790-1SOO; 1801-06. Inventories of estates, 1790- 

1800. Public road records. 1806-21. 
Yadkin. County Court minutes, 1851-58; 1S5S-68. Marriage bonds, 

Caswell. Original wills to 1800. County Court minutes. 1777-81; 

1788-91; 1733-94; 1792; 1797; 1798; 1794; 1801; 1803-06; 1809-13; 

1814-19; 1819-23; 1S35-39; 1839-43; 1S43-44. Land entries. IT 

1788-1858. Read book, 1822. 
Bladen. Deed books (originals), 1734-35; 1792-1804. County Court 

minutes, 1366-67. 
Jones. County Court minutes. 1807-16; 1808-10; 1808-25; 1833-41; 

1841-51; 1851-60; 1360-68. Original wills, 177S-1S07. 
Surry. Miscellaneous court papers. 

18 Tenth Biennial Repori 


Autographs. — From C. Alphonso Smith the Historical Commisc 
received the following autographs: A. L. S. Theodore Roosevelt, De- 
cember 20, 1916; A. L. S., W. S. Porter CO. Henry), February 2 1. I 

The B. F. Stevens Facsimiles of Manuscripts in European Arch- 
ives Relating to America, 1773-17S3. Twenty-four MSS. 
(2,107 pp.) One ease of index. This is a famous transcript of older 
records relating to America. It contains some Xorth Carolina material. 

Civil War Newspapers. — From J. K. Little were received the fol- 
lowing newspapers: Xew York Herald, 1861-1865 (incomplete set); 
Boston Liberator, I860, 1863. 

Southerland, Hill, and Turner Genealogy. — This is a manu- 
script of 24 pages presented by E. R. Voorhees. 

Political History of the Confederacy. — Manuscript of W. A. 
Montgomery. From the family of the late Judge Walter A. Mont- 
gomery was received this work of several hundred pages of manuscript. 
It contains valuable material, the result of several years of research. 

Walker Papers. — 1700-1901 (62 pieces). This collection was given 
to the Commission by the Walker and related families of Wilmington. 

Carey's General Atlas, 1814. — This atlas contains a valuable map 
of Xorth Carolina. 

Robert F. Hoke Papers. — From Van Wyck Hoke were received 
fifteen letters of his father, General R. F. Hoke. 

American Loyalists' Papers. — In the summer of 1922, R. D. W. 
Connor, as special agent for the Historical Commission, searched for 
Xorth Carolina material in the British Public Records Office and the 
British Museum, and reported his findings to the Historical Commis- 
sion. His list of documents bearing on Xorth Carolina that ought to 
be copied covers over sixty typewritten pages. But Mr. Connor specially 
recommended that certain papers relating to American Loyalists in the 
Audit Office Papers be copied at once because they were rapidly de- 
teriorating. The Historical Commission accordingly arranged with 
B. F. Stevens and Brown of London to begin copying these papers at 
once. This work is still in progress and to date several hundred sheets 
of transcript have been delivered. 


Some years ago the Historical Commission erected a marker at the 
grave of Nathaniel Macon. In May 1923, the people of this community 
dedicated Macon's grave and a large plot of ground around it as a park. 

On June 7, 1923, the Richard Dobbs Spaight Chapter, Daughters of 
the American Revolution at New Bern, unveiled on the court house 
square three handsome bronze tablets to Abner Nash (1780-1781), 

N. C. Historical Commission 


Richard Dob! i Sj : : "- 1 -'- (1792-1795), and Richard Do 
(1835-1836), the three Governors of th< Si te furnished by • 
County. The Historical Commission contributed toward th< • I i 
and took part in the unveiling exercises. 

In May, 1024, the Raleigh Chapter of the Daughters of the Revolu- 
tion unveiled a marker on the old Ramsgate Road. Thia tablet 
erected in cooperation with the Historical Commission. 


As a gift from the Grimes family, the Historical Commission 
received an oil portrait of John Bryan Grimes, 1866-1923; Secret 

of State of Xorth Carolina, 1900-1923; member of the Historical ( 
mission almost from its beginning in 1903, and Chairman of the C 
mission at the time of his death. The portrait is by Louis Freeman of 
Washington, D. C. It was presented to the Historical Commissi i i 
December 6, 1923, in appropriate exercises in connection with the 
twenty-third annual session of the State Literary and Historical As- 
sociation. The address of presentation was made by J. Y. Joyner r 
that of acceptance by W. X. Everett. The portrait now hangs in 
the eastern Hall of History. 


As a gift to the State of Xorth Carolina from the State Literary and 
Historical Association, the Historical Commission received as custo- 
dian an oil portrait of Walter Hines Page, late Ambassador to the 
Court of St. James. The portrait is by the artist, Philip A. de Lazlo. 
and is a copy of the original by de Lazlo that now hangs in the American 
Embassy in London. The address of presentation was made by 
Frederic M. Hanes, of Winston-Salem ; that of acceptance by Governor 
Cameron Morrison. The portrait now hangs in the eastern Hall of 


I have called your attention to the splendid work of Fred A. Olds In 
bringing in material from the counties. I now call your attention to 
his report as Collector for the Hall of History. He has lectured to 177 
groups of school children from all sections of the State, and shown 
them objects of interest not only in the museum, but in tin- city of 
Raleigh. In addition he has shown uniform courtesy and considera- 
tion to several thousands of visitors, particularly during the time of 
the State Fair. His report follows : 

20 Tenth Biennial Report 

Report of the COLLEOTOB FOB the Hall of Histoky 

Raleigh, X. C, November 30, 1924. 
Mr. R. B. House, Secretary: 

I take pleasure in reporting as follows: 

During the two years now ending, 177 schools or classes in BChools, from 
places other than Raleigh, came here and were shown the Hall of History, 
the total number of teachers and pupils being over 5,300, these coming from 
33 counties, some as far east as Chowan, and some as far west as LeakSYille. 

All the counties were visited in the two-year period, and talks on history 
were made to schools of all sorts, as well as talks on other subjects to Sun- 
day schools and church congregations, the schools thus visited numbering 392. 
Aid was given in teaching history in the summer schools at Cullowhee and 
Boone (the Appalachian) a week at each place. 

Two hundred special articles were prepared and published, including the 
histories of all the one hundred counties. The laws from 1790 to date 
were carefully abstracted and published. The wil ls from 1760 t o isoo 
abstracted and are in type, ready to appear in January or February, 1925.' 

The collections during the two-year period have been both numerous and 
varied, and covered some new fields. Among these was a photograph of the 
only known portrait of General William Lee Davidson. This is placed in 
the notable collection of pictures of persons for whom our counties are 
named — the only collection of the sort possessed by any State. Engravings 
of the Duke of Albemarle, the Earl of Clarendon and the Earl of Bath 
are other additions, as are also rare lithographs in color of General Andrew 
Jackson, and William A. Graham as a candidate for Vice-President of the 
United States. 

Among the long list of notable gifts and loans are the following: An 
extremely rare and most interesting map of what is now Xorth Carolina, 
made in 1687, by Robert Morden. London. The original record books of 
Port Roanoke (Edenton) and of Port Brunswick (old Brunswick town, now 
extinct) were gifts, the latter by Dr. James Sprunt. Earrings of Miss Anna 
Wake, sister-in-law of Governor William Tryon, and of Mrs. John Baptista 
Ashe, who was Miss Montford of Halifax. Sir Walter Raleigh's History of 
the World, first edition, 1634, London, a gift from Mr. Eric Xorden of 
W T ilmington. Earrings of Martha Lenoir (12 years old in 1780) made by a 
blacksmith and lent by her great grandson, Mr. Gordon Hackett of Xorth 
Wilkesboro. The music (Swiss) which led to the writing to Xorth Caro- 
lina's song, "The Old Xorth State Forever." The certificate of honor for 
75 years of service as a school teacher, presented by Governor Morrison 
and State Superintendent Eugene C. Brooks to Captain George L. Cathey 
of Macon County, soon after his 101st birthday. Thirty-one pen-and-ink 
sketches of notable buildings in Raleigh and Wake County, made by Mrs. 
J. R. Chamberlain and presented by the D. A. R. Oil portraits of Walter 
Hines Page, American Ambassador to Great Britain: of J. Bryan Gr 
Secretary of State, and of James I. Metts, of Wilmington, commanding the 
North Carolina Confederate Veterans, are gifts of note. 

Nine oil paintings and eighteen other pictures, illustrating the 30th 
Division of the American Expeditionary Forces in France and Belgium, 
painted on the spot, by Lieutenant-Colonel Gordon S. Hutchins of Argyle 
and Southerland Highlanders, who aided in training that division and then 
served with it, forms an invaluable part of the World War collection. 

X AU this is being done privately by Colonel Olds. 

N. C. Historical Commie 



Particularly attractive wearing apparel of the period 1800-1861; Ph:' 
Battle Curaiture of Chapel Hill, 1847; a "beaver" hat, 1800; dreesei of Mrs. 
TV. H. C. Wfcitlng, Wilmington, 1861. 

Photographs of "Big Bertha*" the long-range German cannon, which fired 
on Paris from a point 75 miles distant, and of the first airp: tit by 

the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk, N. C, December 17, 1903; also of the 
new ['. S. cruiser Raleigh. 1924. 

The sword of Col. Paul F. Faison, 56th Regiment of N. C. State Tn 
€. S. A.; State flag of the 33th Regiment N. C. State Troops, Col. William J. 
Hoke, commanding. 

The decoration of the order of the "Tower and the Sword,'' conferred by 
the Republic of Portugal on the colors of the 120th Infantry (borne by that 
regiment as part of the National Guard j and so placed by Cen. A. J. 

Photographs of the dedication of the memorial at the grave of Nathaniel 
Macon, in Warren County; that at the grave of Gen. W. D. Pender, C. S. A., 
in the Tarboro Episcopal churchyard, and that at Bath to commemorate 
its 219th anniversary. 

The city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, made a gift of a section of the 
''Washington Elm," under which George Washington took the oath as com- 
mander-in-chief of the American Army, July 5, 1773. 

A proclamation of the war with Spain, by King George 1st. posted on 
the courthouse of Perquimans County. A splendid set of medals awarded by 
France to be placed on the uniform coat of Kiffin Rockwell, of the Eseadrille 
Lafayette. Engraving of the Battle of Southwest Creek near Kinston. 
March S, 1S65. The original act making New Bern the capitol of the 
Province of North Carolina. 

The original lists of Colonial magistrates, 1763-1769; the military land 
warrants to North Carolina soldiers of the Continental Line of the Revo- 
lution; the original wills and the inventories of estates filed with the State, 
1663-1760, were all collected, as were court documents of Bath, New Bern, 
and Newton (the first name of Wilmington); the letters and documents of 
James Glasgow. Secretary of State; very important letters to and from 
James Iredell. Sr., of Edenton; and a letter by Iredell and other Judges. 
1792, to the President of the United States. 

Complete sets of photographs illustrating the Cherokee Indians of North 
Carolina, who became citizens by act of Congress, June. 1924; the Stonewall 
Jackson Training School and of various other institutions of the State, court- 
houses, public highways, schools, etc. 

The manuscript roster of the North Carolina troops of the Continental 
Line, War of the Revolution. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Fred A. Olds. 


Below will be found the report of the Legislative ReiY-reuce Libra- 
rian. During the period covered by this report the Legislative Reference 
Library has moved into new quarters made available by the Library 
Commission's having vacated rooms belonging to the Historical Com- 
mission but loaned to the Library Commission until new quarters for 
it in the Agricultural Building were available. The Legislative Libra- 
rian has issued five bulletins and has drafted six hundred and fifty 
bills for members of the General Assemblv. 

22 Tenth Biennial Repoet 

TL:j report follows: 

Report of the Legislative Reference Librarian 

Raleigh, N. C, December 1, 1924. 
Mr. R. B. House, Secretary, 

North Carolina Historical Commission, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Dear Sir: I beg to submit herewith a report of the work of the Legislative 
Reference Library from December 1, 1922, to November 30, 1924: 

During the past two years the following publications have been prepared 
and distributed among the various libraries and interested citizens and 
organizations throughout the State: 

1. A booklet of 31 pages giving the official vote by counties for members 
of the Corporation Commission, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, 
Judges of the Superior Courts. Congressmen, Solicitors, and Constitutional 
Amendments. A similar booklet covering the 1924 election is now in the 
hands of the printers. 

2. In January, 1923, a Directory of State and County Officials, containing 
71 pages, was issued and a second edition was printed due to the increased 
demand for this useful booklet. 

3. Bulletin No. 3. 43 pages, containing amendments to the Consolidated 
Statutes enacted at the regular session, 1923. 

4. A synopsis of the game laws of the various counties, containing 35 
pages, was published in the summer of 1923. This booklet was distributed 
among the county officials and a copy sent to every newspaper in the State, 
so that the public might be advised as to the more recent changes in the 
local game laws. 

Following the extra session in 1924, another synopsis was compiled and 
issued, bringing the game laws up to date in the one hundred counties in 
the State. 

5. In the summer of 1923 a Court Calendar, covering the biennium ending 
June 30, 1925, was compiled and published. This, being the only calendar 
of the kind published, was especially helpful to court officials and others 
interested in keeping up with the courts. 

During the fall of 1924 the public was advised as to the nature of the 
proposed Constitutional Amendments to be voted on at the November 

Soon after the election in November, 1924, a list of the members-elect of 
the next General Assembly was compiled and published, and the following 
letter mailed to each member: 

I am enclosing a list of the members of the incoming Legislature. If 
either your name or address is not correctly given, kindly advise and cor- 
rection will be made in all future publications. During the session of the 
Legislature the office of the Legislative Reference Librarian, on the second 
floor of the Supreme Court Building, will be prepared to draft any bills 
desired and to look up any laws of this or other States on subjects desired. 
I trust you will call by soon after your arrival in January and let us be 
of service to you in any way possible. 

During the regular session of 1923 over 500 bills were drafted for Legis- 
lators, and during the Extra Session of 1924, 170 bills were similarly pre- 
pared in the Legislative Reference Library. 

N. C. Historical Commi- 


Many requests have b or> r y members-elect of the incoming General 

Assembly for information on probable legislation, and the same la I 
given, prompt attention. 

At the request of the incoming Governor, there is being compiled available 
data from the various counties as to whether the present court system is 
adequate, economical, and expeditious. 

In April, 1923, the Reference Lfbrarian attended the meeting of the Ameri- 
can Library Association in Hot Springs, Arkansas, conferring with the 
charge of work similar to that in the Legislative Reference Library. He has 
also attended meetings of the State Library Association. 

During the past two years it may be safely said that the Legislative 
Reference Library has been of increased service to legislators, officials and 
the public generally. Year by year the services afforded are increasing in 
value and helpfulness. 

Respectfully yours, 

H. M. LoffDOir, 
Legislative Reference Librarian. 


The various and numerous services rendered the public by the His- 
torical Commission staff cannot be adequately summarized. But the 
following analysis of the foregoing report will show the main features 
of the work for the past two years. 

1. A collection of over 500,000 documents was kept available to the 
public. Several thousand inquiries were answered by letter. Two hun- 
dred students were served in the Historical Commission's rooms. 

2. 3,655 separate pieces were properly filed in various collections. 
220 volumes were properly labeled, filed, and catalogued. The County 
Records collection of 1177 cases and volumes was re-labeled, arranged, 
and catalogued by cards. 

3. The whole collections were searched for documents bearing on 
education, and the documents selected were copied and verified. 

4. 13,582 pieces of manuscript were scientifically repaired and 

5. 34 volumes were bound. 

6. 3 collections, a total of 570 volumes were calendered or described. 

7. 5 publications were issued. 

8. 8 publications are under way. 

9. The North Carolina Historical Review was founded. 

10. 34 collections were added to. 

11. 9 new collections were secured and arranged. 

12. Work was begun on a new series of the Colonial Records of 
Xorth Carolina. 

13. 4 historical markers were erected. 

14. Material was furnished for use in 4S monographs or serious 
studies on North Carolina history. 

24 Tenth Biennial Report 

15. 177 classes of school children, a total of 5,300 pupils, visited 
me Hall of History and received lectures on Xorth Carolina. 

16. Numerous objects of value and interest were added to the Hall 
of History. 

17. In addition to lecturing in all part3 of the State, the Collector 
for the Hall of History wrote 200 articles and abstracted thousands of 
records otherwise inaccessible. 

18. 5 publications were issued by the legislative Reference Library, 
and 670 bills were drafted. 

Respectfully submitted, 
R. B. Houss, 
Raleigh, N. C, December 1, 1924. 

N. C. Historical Commission 



(By direction of the Historical Commission the following remarks of 
James Y. Joyner on J. Bryan Grime3, and the sketch of D. H. Hill are 
printed: ) 


Born June, 1868, in Raleigh, reared at Grimesland, Pitt County, 
educated at several of the leading private academies of the State and at 
the University of Xorth Carolina, son of one of the most distinguished 
Generals of the Confederacy, descended on his mother's side from one 
of the most intellectual and distinguished families of the State, elected 
in 1900 Secretary of State of Xorth Carolina, filling this high office 
with rare efficiency, acceptability and popularity until his death. Chair- 
man of the State Historical Commission, Trustee of the University of 
Xorth Carolina, member of its Executive Committee, active and in- 
fluential member of various farmers' organizations, the Grange, the Al- 
liance, the Partners Union, the cotton and tobacco cooperative market- 
ing associations, in the latter of which he was a director, member of the 
following fraternal organizations : Masons, Knights of Phythias, Junior 
Order United American Mechanics, Sons of the Revolution. Died Jan- 
uary 11, 1923. 

Such is the brief statement of the principal incidents in the outward 
life of J. Bryan Grimes. It is indicative of the wide range of his in- 
terest and activites in the civic, agricultural and political life of hi? 
State. It is the character of a man that creates his life history. He 
lived as he did because he was what he was. I have chosen, therefore, 
to devote most of the brief time allotted for the presentation of his por- 
trait to a sympathetic contemplation of his character. TTith us. his 
friends, gathered here to honor his memory and mourn his loss, it is 
the memory of what he was that lives and lasts to dull the edge of our 
sorrow at his untimely taking off in the prime of vigorous middle age, 
in the midst of a useful life that affords a measure of compensation for 
the loss of communion with him in the flesh till in the fulfillment of our 
Father's promise, we shall meet and know him again where partimr is 
no more. It is the memory of what he was to us who were privileged to 
call him father, husband, brother, friend, and who loved him for what 
he was, that shall shine like a star upon our pathway to guide, inspire 
and comfort through the long or may be short night of our earthly sepa- 

He was a patriot, loving his State and his people with a passionate 
love that ever moved him to tireless and unselfish service of them. I 
have known few men in my day who loved his State as well and none 
who loved her more — none who found rn<~>re genuine joy in her service. 

26 Tenth Biennial Report 

He was proud of her history and jealous of her honor, quick and eager I 
defend both. To him North Carolina was a sort of pe] 
whom he Loved with a tenderness and a loyalty akin to that which a tru<- 
son cherishes for his mother in the flesh, lie was a zealous studei 
Xorth Carolina history and a recognized authority on it. Few men 
his or former generations have acquired such an accurate and compre- 
hensive knowledge of it. He had accumulated a large and valuable 
lection of books and pamphlets pertaining to its history — probably one 
of the largest and most valuable private collections in the State. It 
a joy to travel with him through the historical sections of the State and 
listen to his interesting stories of men and places. He was largely re- 
sponsible for the establishment of the State Historical Commission and 
as its chairman for many years was deeply interested and very influen- 
tial in directing and planning its splendid activities and in ^curing ap- 
propriations for its work. This was a labor of love with him and an 
expression of love of his State. He gave freely of his time and thoug;.* 
to it. 

For twenty-two years he served as Secretary of State. As a public 
officer he was wonderfully efficient and was the incarnation of courtesy 
and accommodation. The moment one, even a stranger, stepped into 
his office and into his presence, he unconsciously felt that he was in an 
atmosphere of efficiency and courtesy. He reorganized, greatly ex- 
panded, and systematized almost perfectly the work of his office. He 
possessed the highest and rarest sort of executive ability — the sort that 
gets things done promptly and efficiently without noise, confusion or 
friction. He was painstaking and thorough in all his work. He had 
the gift of securing team work, of getting the best out of his employee.- 
by his own example and high ideals of public service, by his kindly 
consideration, sympathetic interest and appreciative encouragement, 
by inspiring in them a pride in their work, a love of it, and a sense of 
loyalty to him and it. The constantly increasing work of his great office 
was so well planned and executed that it moved like clock-work. 

He was a man of strong convictions, firm and tenacious of them, but 
never dogmatic or intolerant in the assertion of them. He was a man 
of rare physical, intellectual and moral courage. He had an eye and 
a soul that quailed not before power, position, wealth, or danger. He 
was wise in counsel and his associates in public and private life sought 
his advice and vespected and relied upon it. He was equally wise in 
taking counsel. He never obtruded his views or advice upon others. He 
welcomed and often sought the views and advice of friends. He was 
careful and chary in the choice of his intimate friends. He never wort- 
his heart on his sleeve. Like most strong choice spirits, he was re- 
served. He opened his heart and his mind to his intimate friends, 
trusted them implicitly and was implicitly trusted by them. He grappled 
them to him with hooks of steel and loved and served them with a loyalty 
that won and held their love and lovalty. 

N. C. Historical Commission 


Confederate veterans, comrades of Lis Boldier-father, whose mem 
he revered, were i jects of liis I He 

lost no opportunity to aid with pe and per- 

sonal work every effort and plan to lighten the load and ighten the 
pathway of these old heroe3. 

He was a rare and fine combination of aristocrat and democrat. 
With a just pride in his honorable ancestry, reaching in an ll 
line to the English nobility of the "Middle Ages'' and including many 
of the distinguished and dominant men in war and peace in every per- 
iod of his State's history, he never paraded it, rarely alluded to it, and 
was without semblance or suggestion of vanity or snobbery on account 
of it. He possessed many of the virtues and few, if any, of the faults 
of the aristocrat and cavalier. In the finest sense he was broadly demo- 
cratic in feeling and sympathy and in the ordering of his life, public and 
private. In prince and peasant he saw the man, and the humblest and 
the highest received like consideration at his hands. 

A more loyal friend, I have not known; a more devoted husband, 
father, son, brother. He was my friend, faithful and true. He is gone ! 
But the memory of that friendship remains. I would not exchange it 
for all the gold of **Ophir or all the wealth of India.''* 

It is well, it is fitting, that the portrait of J. Bryan Grimes should be 
first to be hung in the Hall of History by the request of the Historical 
Commission, of which he was the able chairman for so many years, for 
the establishment of which he was largely responsible, and in the work 
of which he was so actively and deeply interested. Xo son of Xorth 
Carolina has loved her history more, made more valuable contribut: . 
to its preservation, or been more active and successful in securing just 
recognition and appreciation of it at home and abroad. Measured by 
the highest standards of personal worth, private citizenship, and public 
service, J. Bryan Grimes was the peer of any man of our generation, 
and we honor ourselves in assigning him a place in Xorth Carolina's 
"Hall of Fame'* by placing his portrait in this Hall of History. 

Mr, Chairman, on behalf of his family I have the honor and the 
pleasure to present to your Commission in compliance with its request 
this portrait of J. Bryan Grimes. 

May succeeding generations of the Xorth Carolina youth passing by 
his portrait hanging here pause to pay a reverent tribute to one who 
loved his State and served her well, be stimulated to study his life and 
work, to emulate his virtues, and to imitate his example. 

Tenth Biennial Repobt 


On July 31, 1024. the Secretary of the Historical Commission, [ I 
Harvey Hill, died. He was the son of Lieutenant-General Daniel il. 

vey Hill (Confederate Stares Army; and Isabella (Morrison) Hill, 
born January 15, 1859, at Davidson College, X. C, and educated 
institution. From 1880 to 1008, be was a teacher of English, fin 
Georgia Military and Agricultural College till 1907, and secoi 
North Carolina College of Agriculture and Engineering till 1908. From 
190S till 1916 he was president of this latter institution. But in July, 
1916 be resigned from the presidency of this institution to accede to the 
request of the State Confederate Veterans Association to write, on I 
Kicks Foundation, a history of Xorth Carolina in tbe Civil War. Be 
continued on this occupation till bis deatb. His completed work com- 
prises a military history of tbe war in Virginia from Bethel to Sh 
burg, with supplementary chapters on tbe invasion of eastern North 
Carolina, and tbe blockade and munitions business of Xortb Carolina. 
In addition to tbis work be wrote : General Greene's Retreat, Raleigh: 
1901; Agriculture for Beginners, Boston: 1903; Hill Readers, Boston: 
1907; Young People's History of North Carolina, Charlotte: 1907: 
Corn Bool:, Boston: 1920; and also numerous essays and studies in 
Xortb Carolina history. He was a member of tbe Xortb Carolina His- 
torical Commission. 1904-1921, Secretary of tbe Historical Commission, 
1921 till bis deatb, Chairman of tbe State Council of Defense during the 
World War, President of the Xorth Carolina Teachers Assembly. 1910, 
of tbe Xortb Carolina Folk Lore Society, 1920, of tbe State literary 
and Historical Association. 1921. 

No Man is Fit to be Entrusted with 
Control of the Present Who is Ignor- 
ant of the Past; and Xo People Who 
are Indifferent to Thejb Past Need 
Hope to Make Thfir Future Great. 

rj-- IJ ■ ■■ 1 — ■»—»» I ■ 







Corrected to 
ember I 





D. U. CORB1TT, Calendar Clerk 

edwards & bbdught02i printing company 

State Printers 


In 1916 the Xorth Carolina Historical Commission began systematic- 
ally to collect the non-current records in the several counties. It has 
been literally a work of rescuing valuable material from precarious 
situations. Eire, water, vermin, thieves — in fact all the enemies of 
archives have preyed on these county recoils, and there are conse- 
quently many and serious gaps in them. 

There is nothing mandatory in the law permitting counties to 
deposit their non-current records with the Historical Commission. 
Their action in this matter is entirely discretionary. Consequently, 
some counties have preferred as yet to retain custody of their records. 
But the fact that so many counties have thus enabled the Historical 
Commission to centralize this material and care for it is at once 
evidence of forethought and historical mindedness on the part of their 
officials, and of the tact and efficiency of Fred A. Olds, who did the 
work of finding and collecting this material. 

In 1924 the Historical Commission employed D. L. Corbitt to list, 
describe, and calendar its collections. So rapidly had the collection of 
county records grown, and so constantly had it been in use, that it 
was deemed necessary to issue this report as the first step in describing 
the total collections. 

Persons interested in records of the counties may, by reading this 
report, know with some degree of definiteness whether or not a trip to 
Raleigh will give them access to the material desired. There is listed 
in it only the material which is actually on the shelves of the Historical 
Commission, and which can be had for examination in the rooms of 
the Historical Commission upon application to the persons in charge, 
except when some of it may be temporarily withdrawn for repairs. 

Researchers are welcomed to the rooms of the Historical Commis- 
sion, and correspondence concerning this material is invited. However, 
the staff of the Historical Commission is too limited to permit it to 
engage in private researches, especially those pertaining to genealogy. 
Unless questions of this nature can be readily answered, it is the policy 
to refer them to competent persons in the city of Raleigh, who will 
arrange terms and prosecute the research independently. 

R, B. House, 




=a s|s |~ 



The following is a list 1 of the counties in the Stute; the date of the 
formation of each; and the names of the county or counties from which 
each was formed. The list includes one hundred and, four counties, but 
there are now only one hundred counties. Four were abolished and 
others made from them. 

Date of 



County from Which Formed 






Iredell, Caldwell, Wilkes 












Mitchell, Watauga, Caldwell 












New Hanover, Bladen 



Burke, Rutherford 












Burke, Wilkes 



























Rutherford, Lincoln 



Bladen, Brunswick 












Currituck. Tyrrell, Hyde 












New Hanover 



Orange. Wake 




1 Data taken from the North Carolina Manual 1913. 

- Rure was abolished and Franklin ami Warren were formed from it in 1779. 
;i This dare is sriven as "about 1712 ' 

* Dobbs was abolished in 1791 and other counties formed from it. 

* Taken from Whe^lrTS map <.,.' the formation of the counties. 

tf/o 6 

North Carolina Historical Commission 

Date of 



County from. Which Formed 












Chowan. Perquimans, Hertford 

Glasgow 5 ! 














Rowan, Orange 















Chowan, Bertie, Northampton 



Cumberland. Robeson 

Hyde 6 








Haywood, Macon 



Craven , 



Craven y 



Chatham, Moore 



Dobbs, Craven 









Buncombe, Yancey 



Halifax, Tyrrell 



Rutherford, Burke 






Yancey, Watauga, Caldwell, 










New Hanover 











Granville, Johnston, Bladen 



Craven, Beaufort 






New Hanover 












Rutherford, Henderson 















** Anson 



Tryon. Burke 



Duplin. New Hanover 

Burke, Mo 

5 Glasgow was abolished in 1799 and Greene was made from it. 
8 Called Wickham until about 1712. 
t Taken from Wheeler"? map of the formation of u\>* counties. 


nty Records 

Date of 

County Formation County from, Which Formed 

Scotland 1890 Richmond 

Stanly 1841 Montgomery 

Stokes 1798 Surry 

Surry 1770 Rowan 

Swain 1871 Jackson, Macon 

Transylvania 1861 Henderson, Jackson 

Tryon't 176S Mecklenburg 

Tyrrell 1729 Albemarle 

Union 1842 Anson, Mecklenburg 

Vance 1881 Granville, Warren, Franklin 

"Wake 1770 Johnston, Cumberland, Orange 

Warren 1779 Bute 

Washington 1779 Tyrrell 

Watauga IS 19 Ashe, Wilkes, Caldwell, Yancey 

Wayne 1779 Dobbs, Craven 

W T ilkes 1777 Surry, Burke 

Wilson 1855 Edgecombe, Nash, Johnston, Wayne 

Yadkin 1850 Surry 

Yancey 1833 Burke, Buncombe 

There are forty-one counties in the state from which there is no 
material available in the archives of the Historical Commission. Some 
of these counties have been so unfortunate as to lose by fire or during 
the Civil War all of their records, while some of them are so young 
as to have no records except those which are now in use in the county 

The following is the list of the counties from which there is material 
available. A fuller description of this material is given elsew r here in 
this report. 


County Seat 


County Seat 








Currituck Court 

















Buff aloe 



(abolished in 











Camden Court- 


Swan Quarter 






















abolished 1799 and other 


counties made from it. 


7 Try on was 

X Taken from Wheeler's mar of the f< 

rotation of the counties. 

North Carolina Historical Commission 


NTnTv Hanover 










County Spat 
' nil gton 
Elizabeth City- 











County Seat 





Warren ton 





The following is a list of the counties from which there Ls no material 
in the collections of the Historical Commission. 







Anson . 



Elk Park 




























Snow Hill 








































Bryson City 







The marriage bonds from the following counties are open to the 
public for use in the rooms of the Historical Commission but there is 
no other material on these counties : 


County Seat 

Number of Boxes 


New Bern 


























All of these marriage bonds are arranged alphabetically so a? to 
eliminate useless searching as much as possible. 




Ashe County was formed from Wilkes in 1799. Was named in honor of 
Samuel Ashe, who Was at one time Governor of North Carolina. 

There is very little material on xYshe County. What material there 
is consists of one book of Records of Wardens for the poor, including 
the years from 1S32 to 1855, and two volumes of County Court Minutes, 
the first of which dates from 1806 to 1821, and the second from 1821 
to 1S26. There are a few marriage bonds dating from 182S to 1SS9. 

The Court Minutes are more valuable than the Records of the War- 
dens for the poor. The Justices of the Peace who held the Quarter 
Sessions are listed for each term, as well as the regular and grand 
jurors. These books contain such material as the appointment of con- 
stables of the county; records of all deeds being acknowledged; records 
of summonses; records of court proceedings with some judgments; 
powers of attorney; inventories of estates; records of petitions and 
exparte proceedings (division of land to heirs of a deceased person) ; 
and a few wills. It is quite evident that the books served in some cases 
the purposes of both the register of deeds (as they contain material 
belonging in the office of the register of deeds) and as a record for the 
courts. They contain all cases and records of deeds filed from 1S06 to 

The Wardens' Records give the names of the various wardens and 
the names of those to whom funds were paid, together with the amount. 
Some wardens were appointed to do one specific thing and no more, 
while others were to feed and clothe certain people, and still others 
were to have complete responsibility for persons assigned to their care, 
and in almost every case it was for a definite period. 

The marriage bonds are arranged alphabetically. 


Beaufort County was formed from Bath in 1705, and was named for Henry 
Somerset, Duke of Beaufort. 

There is not much material available on this county. One minute 
book dating from 1756 to 1761, one book of the list of taxables for the 
year 1784, a book of deeds for the years 1795-1S07, and an abstract of 
wills form the entire lot. 

The minute book contains such material as follows: Acknowledg- 
ments of deeds; acknowledgments of inventories; powers of attorney; 

10 jS'orth Oakolina Historical Commission 

records of flesh marks and brands; acknowledgments of options; ree 
of apprenticing minor.-; acknowledgments of deeds of gifts; granl 

licenses for attorneys: probations of wills; records of appointments of 

executors and administrators ; acknowledgments of bills of sale of 
negroes; and acknowledgments of deeds of surrender. 

The List of Taxables contains the names of the freeholders and the 
valuation of the listed property for the several districts, and then 
there is a recapitulation of the whole taxable property, which amounted 
to £211,713.10.1. (This amount was for year 1734.) 

The deed book contains deeds, deeds of trust ; and bills of sale for the 
years 1795-1807, which are copied from the originals. 

There are no marriage bonds from Beaufort County. 


Bertie County was formed from Albemarle in 1722, being named for John 
and James Bertie, two of the Lords Proprietors, who together owned one- 
eighth of Carolina. 

There is a fairly good collection of material from this county, which 
includes one Crown Docket, 16 volumes of Court Minutes, one volume 
of land entries, and the marriage bonds. 

The Crown Docket dates from 1762 to 1775, and contains the record 
of cases, of which the following is an example : 


The King 


Thomas Pearce 




Defendant appeared and submitted himself to 
the court. Fined -£o 

From this docket it is found that in those days a great many cases 
were continued, and also that many defendants failed to appear. 

The Court Minutes are contained in sixteen volumes, of various sizes. 
These records date from the year 1767 to 186S. 

In the first volume of the County Court Minutes 1767 to 1772, there 
is a list of the Justices of the Peace, and the regular and grand jurors 
for each term of the Pleas and Quarter Sessions of Court. The book 
contains acknowledgments of deeds ; appointments of overseers of roads ; 
orders for apprenticing minors ; orders for the Sheriffs to make returns 
of accounts; orders for auditing the accounts of deceased men; proba- 
tions of wills ; appointments of constables ; powers of attorney ; acknowl- 
edgments of bills of sales; orders for recording inventories of the 
estates of deceased persons; orders for appointments of guardians; 
orders for sale of property of orphans ; security bonds ; orders for men 
to work the roads, etc. There seem to be no records of court trials and 
decisions in this volume. 

Handbook of County Records 11 

Vol two, 1772 to 1777, ins practically the same kind of 

material as described above. There are, however, one or two 

court trials recorded in this hook, but there seems to be no judgments. 
Volume three, 1778 to 1792, contains material of the same nature 
and, in addition, the establishment and recording of flesh marks, ap- 
pointment of Sheriffs, etc. From this book the following was taken 
from the May Term 1780: 

Ordered the tavern rates are as follows Viz. For a hot dinner of good 
provisions twelve dollars and a half. Breakfast of tea or coffee bread and 
butter six dollars. Supper of meat eight dollars, if coffee or tea six dollars, 
for a gill of good west India rum ten dollars, country brandy whiskey and 
toffy five dollars per gill for lodging and night two dollars for storage for 
horses for twenty-four hours four dollars corn twelve shillings per quart, 
fodder or hay sufficient for a bait for a horse twenty four shillings. 

Other court records in the volume are : Order for Sheriff to mend 
the gaol; cases tried and judgments rendered; releasing a cripple from 
poll tax; the names of the districts of the Justices of the Peace to list 
the taxable property in each. 

Volume four, 1793 to 1801, is a continuation of the preceding mate- 
rial. However, there is a record in this book of the court's appointing 
a County Surveyor, special commissioners to receive roads for public 
use, and others to make private examination of wives for the proper 
execution of deeds. In the last part of this volume is given the court 
cases and the number of the jury opposite each case.. 

The volume of 1803 is small and contains very little material. The 
material is of the same nature as that of the preceding volumes. 

From 1803 to 186* there are nine volumes which are dated as follows: 
1803-1805, 1S05-1S07, 1808-1813, 1813-1818, 1818-1S22, 1822-1832, 
1832-1841, 1812-1853, 1853-1867, and 1868. All these volumes contain 
such material in general as that described. There are, however, records 
of various petitions such as petitions for dowers; petitions for parti- 
tions of land;; petitions for year's provisions for widows; various se- 
curity bonds given in full; orders given for funds to be paid for the 
building of bridges; orders for the register of deeds to be paid. (It 
appears from these books that the court by 1820 was exercising the 
function of the present day county commissioners and auditors.) The 
last volume contains the proceedings of May Term 1868. 

The volume of County Court Minutes dated 1842-1 843 contains the 
court proceedings from February Term 1842 to and including the Feb- 
ruary Term 1*43. But in the back of this volume is a record of a bond 
issue dated January 1, 1872. 

There was one series of bonds of $20 denomination which num- 
bered consecutively from 1 to 220; there was another series of $100 
denomination which ran consecutively from 1 to 130; and the coupons 
of all were due at different times between January 1, 1873, and Janu- 

12 North Carolina Historical Commission 

ary 1, 1583. These bonds bore six pur cent interest and wrere i 

under Act of . (The Act* was omitted). The nam' 

the bondholders are listed. 

There is also a book of land entries dating from May 13, 1778 to 
February 14, 1781, and it contains 275 entries. 

The marriage bonds are arranged alphabetically. 


Brunswick County was formed in 17G4 from New Hanover and Bladen. 
Was named in honor of the famous House of Brunswick, of which the four 
Georges, Kings of England, were members. 

There is a medium amount of material from this county. Some of 
the counties have a great deal more and some a great deal less. Of 
the total collection there are nine volumes of County Court Minutes; 
three volumes of wills; one volume of public school records, and one 
volume of Register of Officers' bonds, and the marriage bonds. 

The County Court Minutes date as follows: 1782-1801, 1805-1820, 
1820-1823, 1824-1830, 1831-1839, 1839-1845, 1545-1852, 1S50-1S59, and 
1866-186S. The material is of the nature of the material in other coun- 
ties, which is as follows: Acknowledgments of deeds and deeds of trust; 
appointments of commissioners for special duties such as to make 
navigable certain streams; appointments of patrols; acknowledgments 
of bills of sale; cases and disposition of them; acknowledgments of the 
returns of inventories; records of guardians returning their accounts; 
records of administrators' returns; lists of the Justices of the Peace 
and petit and grand juries; appointments of auditors to settle the 
accounts of deceased persons; records of granting licenses for retailing 
liquor ; some wills ; petitions for dowers, year's provisions, etc. ; ap- 
pointments of auctioneers; records of filing security bonds; appoint- 
ments of overseers of roads; records of flesh marks; lists of land sold 
for taxes; and records of peace warrants. 

There are three volumes of wills dating 1781 to 1822, 1822 to 1827, 
and 1829 to 1841. These books contain only the wills. 

The volume of Public School Records dates from 1840 to 1860. 

The volume of the Register of Officers' bonds dated from 1796 to 

The marriage bonds are arranged alphabetically. 


Burke County was formed in 1777 from Rowan. Was named in honor of 
Dr. Thomas Burke, a member of the Continental Congress and Governor of 
North Carolina. 

Have been unable to locate Art authorizing this bond issue. 

Handbook of 'County Records 13 

There is little material from this county. Three volumes of County 
Court Minutes are on the shelves which flat, respectively L807-1818, 

1818-1829, 1830-1840. There is one case of original wills dating from 
1704 to 1866, and also two boxes of Court Papers dating respectively 
1782-1842 and 1783-1843. There are also some marriage bonds. 

The County Court Minutes contain the same general material as in 
other Court Minutes of that time. The most numerous things recorded 
are the acknowledgments of deeds; lists of the Justices of the Peace, 
and petit and grand jurors; appointments of special commissions; road 
overseers; letters of administration; lists of justices to make lists of 
taxable property; acknowledgments of wills; appointments of guar- 
dians; the apprenticing of orphans; petitions of various kinds such as 
for dower, for roads, and for year's allowance; cases, judgments, and 
executions; and appointments of patrols.. There are also records of 
several cases where the court ordered certain sums to be paid out of the 
public money for the scalps of wolves and panthers. 

The case of wills is small and does not contain many papers. How- 
ever, there are some that reach as far back as 1794. The latest are 
dated 1868. 

The two cases of Court Papers are very interesting. They contain 
such material as letters, warrants, appearance bonds, appeal bonds, sub- 
poenas, capiases, executions, ejectment proceedings, commissions of the 
Justices of the Peace for special trials, summons to take depositions, 
depositions, surveyors' reports, and a copy of the Xational Intelligencer- 
Extra, which contains the special message of President John Tyler 
which was delivered to a joint session of Congress June 1, 1841. 

There is one box of marriage bonds. 


Buncombe County was formed in 1791 from Burke and Rutherford. Was 
named in honor of Colonel Edward Buncombe, a Revolutionary soldier. 

There are three volumes available from this county. There is a 
Trial Docket dated 1796-1805, a volume of County Court Minutes 
dated 1822-1S24, and a volume of marriage records dated 1851-1870. 

In the Trial Docket is such material as follows: 

9 William Galloway 2 The defendant came in court 

vs. case acknowledged the service of 

John Odel 2 writ 

War. required Gen issue 
jury charged non suit 

There were no other records kept in this volume. 

The volume of County Court Minutes dating from January 1822 
to October 1824 contains such material as the lists of the Justices of 
the Peace, and the petit an i grand jurors for each term of the court 


>f y] is and ■' i< bid in addition there are records of 

granting letters of administration; records of Deputy S 
bond; appointment of Commissioners to lay off year's allotm< 
support; records of cases and disposition of them; records of bindi : 
out orphans; granting licenses for retailing liquor; records or" exparte 
proceedings (petition and the granting of the petition to divide the 
land of a deceased person among his heirs) ; decrees allowing specified 
prices for daily board,; and itemized inventories of estates of deceased 

The volume of Marriage Records dates from 1851 to 1870. In the 
first part of the book is the complete certificate of the marriage, which 
is known as a marriage bond, except that this is a copy, but in the last 
part are mere statements that certain persons were legally married, 
giving the date and the name of the minister or magistrate. 

There are no marriage bonds of Buncombe County. 


Bute County was formed in 1764, from Granville. Was named in honor 
of John Stuart, Earl of Bute, one of the principal Secretaries of State, and 
also First Lord of the Treasury under King George III. Because of the un- 
popularity of the Earl, the General Assembly in 1778 passed an act which 
wipe Bute County from the map, and Warren and Franklin counties were 
erected from its territory. 

The duration of this county was short, and in consequence there could 
not have been a great deal of material from it.. And as it is, all the 
original material is not available. There is one volume of County 
Court Minutes dating from 1767 to 1776; one case and part of another 
case of County Court papers dating from 1765 to 1779; one case of 
original wills dating from 1764 to 1779; two cases of inventories of 
estates dating from 1764 to 1779; and one book of land entries. 

The County Court Minutes dating from 1767 to 1776 contain such 
material as the acknowledgment of deeds and bills of sale; probation of 
wills; appointments of overseers of roads; lists of the Justice of the 
Peace, and the lists of the petit and grand juries for each term of Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions of Court; various kinds of petitions; special or- 
ders for the erection of bridges ; various kinds of bonds proved in court ; 
records of guardians being appointed; and records of apprenticing 
orphans. On page 1S1 of this volume is listed the price of Liquors and 
various kinds of drinks, and board and lodging as passed on by the 
court. On page 191 is a record of the court's not recognizing tho 
authority of the Royal Governor, William Tryon. 

In the case of Court Papers is such material as officers' bonds; con- 
tracts; records of apprenticing orphans; demand and promisory notes; 
deeds of gifts; notices of appeal; agreements for the division of negroes 

Handbook of County Records 15 

of deceased persons; guardians' bonds and administrators' bonds; peti- 
tions for relief from paying taxes and from public service; bills of sale 

and inventories of estates; royal commisfi fice of .sheriff, 

etc. There is also a list of taxables for Bute County dated 1771 as 
well as a copy of land entries, which is dated 1778-1779 and contains 
330 records of land,. Also at the front and back of this book is a page 
giving a list of articles at the naval office at New Bern, N. C. These 
pages are torn, but sorno of each is legible. 

The case of wills dates from 1765 to 1779, and contains the original 

The two cases of inventories include materials between the years 1764 
and 1779. There are inventories of estates of deceased men made by 
administrators before disposition of property. There are also accounts 
of the sale of property, and bills of goods purchased. In one case 
there is a list of vouchers paid out of the public funds for the year 1760. 

There are 89 marriage bonds. 


Cabarrus County was formed in 1792 from Mecklenburg. Was formed in 
honor of Stephen Cabarrus, of Edenton, several times a member of the Leg- 
islature and often Speaker of the House of Commons. 

There is only one volume of County Court Minutes from this county 
and it is dated from 1793 to 1797. On the first page of this volume is 
the following: 

State of North Carolina — 

The minutes and proceedings of the county court begun and held in the 
county of Cabarrus agreeable to an Act of Assembly of the State of North 
Carolina made for the purpose of dividing the county of Mecklenburg and 
erecting a separate and distinct county by the name of Cabarrus at the house 
of Robert Russels the third Monday of January in the year of our Lord one 
•thousand seven hundred and ninety three and in the seventeenth. of our In- 

The material usually recorded in court minutes is included in this 
book. There are acknowledgments of deeds, powers of attorney, ap- 
pointments of various kinds, lists of jurors, and Justices of the Peace; 
bills of sale and several petitions recorded. There are a few records of 
marks and brands. 

There are 22 boxes of marriage bonds which are arranged alpha- 


Camden County was formed in 1777 from Pasquotank. Was named in 
honor of the learned Englishman, Charles Pratt, who was Earl of Camden, 
and one of the strongest friends of the Americans in the British Parliament. 

16 North Carolina Historical Commission 

The material from this county is very scanty, there being only two 
volumes, one of which is County Court Minutes, and the other Orpb 

Accounts. There are no marriage bonds. 

The County Court Minutes date from 1855 to 1868 and contain such 
material as acknowledgments of deeds, bills of Bale, etc.; lists of the 
Justices of the Peace and jurors for each term of the Court of Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions; records of the appointments of guardians and 
their qualifying by giving bond ; various petitions ; orders for special 
audits of estate; letters of administration; special orders for road over- 
seers and patrols; and the probation of wills. The records in this book 
are in excellent condition, and were exceedingly well recorded. 

The first part of the Orphans' Account Book is pasted up with other 
material which is very valuable. The accounts of the orphans date from 
1803 to 1809. The accounts are records of the expenditure of money 
(and for what purpose) of the orphans of Camden County. 

The papers pasted in the front of the book pertain to several matters. 
There are notices sent out by the Secretary of State to the clerks of the 
counties informing them of the laws passed by the General Assembly; 
commissions from the Governor appointing Justices of the Peace ; mili- 
tary circulars and orders; various lists of taxables and tax returns for 
both real and personal property and privilege taxes ; letters and articles 
from State officials, some of which interpret the laws for the benefit of 
county officers. There are also military pamphlets pasted in this 

There are no marriage bonds from this county, but there is recorded 
in the book of orphans' accounts the act passed by the General Assembly 
requiring the county officers to keep a record of all persons married as 
well as a record of their parents. 


Carteret County was formed in 1722 from Bath. Was named in honor of 
Sir John Carteret, afterwards (1744) Earl Granville, one of the Lords Pro- 

There is a^great deal of material on Carteret, and some of it is very 
old, going back as far as 1717. There are grant books, deed books, 
County Court Dockets, County Court Minutes, lists of taxables, mar- 
riage bonds, and miscellaneous records, as well as abstract of wills 
to 1800. 

There are more than 25 volumes of County Court Minutes, including 
many pamphlets dating from 1724 to 1808. The volume, or rather the 
cover of the volume, dated 1724, has only one page, and that is badly 
torn. The next volume according to date is of the nature of a pamphlet. 
It is dated 1764-1767, and contains the material generally found in 
court minutes of that time. The next volume is dated 1771-1775, and 

Handbook of County Records 17 

the others as follow*: 177M7S1, 178KL782, L783-1785, 1703-1796, 

1796-1700, 1700-1804, 1804-1813, 1813-1820, 1821-1 . M -'<; (there 

are several pamphlets between these dates) ; 1826-1827, 1831-1837, I 
1845, 1S40-1S41, 1842-1845, 1845-1848, 1849-1852, 1853-1858, I -. 

There is no record in this volume for the year 1863. Some of 
volumes contain some very interesting material. In the back of the 
volume dated 1804-1813 is a list of the jurors, the number of miles each 
traveled to reach court, and the amount paid for his services. The list 

contains the jurors for 'he years 1807-1812. In the back of the volume 
dated 1313-1S20 is a list of the names of persons granted li< 
retail small quantities of liquors. These licenses were granted at the 
terms of court held in the years 1817-1821. In the same book is a 
drawing or map of land which was divided among the heirs of Gabriel 
Holmes. In the volume dated 1821-1830 there is also a list of the per- 
sons to whom licenses were granted to sell liquors in small quantities. 
There is also in this book the list of property sold for taxes and the 
amount of the taxes In the back of the volume dated 1831-1 837 is a 
list of the Justices of the Peace who were commissioned and who quali- 
fied, and also receipts signed by the Justices of the Peace who received 
a copy of the revised statutes of 2)\"orth Carolina. 

In the volume dated 1853-1868, on page 2, is a record of a suit growing 
out of a controversy between the Justices of the Peace of Carteret 
County and the Atlantic and jSTorth Carolina Railroad for 850,000 
worth of stock. The agreement between these parties is recorded, which 
included an order for $50,000 worth of bonds to be issued with which 
to purchase the stock. Also there is between pages 211-212 a proclama- 
tion issued to the people of North Carolina by William TV. Ilolden, 
Provisional Governor, informing the people of his appointment, and 
giving his purpose and plan of reorganization of the government, and 
beseeching the people who are or were loyal to support him. Between 
pages 215-21G is pasted another proclamation of William TV. Ilolden, 
Provisional Governor, giving the number of people to be elected from 
each county to represent it in the State Convention. Also there is the 

I list of the 14 classes forbidden to take the oath of amnesty. 

Besides the -special things mentioned, there is such material as ac- 
knowledgments of deeds and bills of sale; appointments of road over- 
seers; lists of the Justices of the Peace and the petit and grand jurors; 
various kinds of petitions, such as petitions for partitions of land, for 
year's provisions, for dowers, for the sale of real and personal pr< 
to create assets to pay indebtedness; probations of wills; various court 
cases and their disposition; rate of taxes; lists of land sold for raxes 
both for the county and town. 

Among the pamphlets of County Court Minutes in the case dated 1764- 
1782 is a copy of a docket dating from 1741 to 1856. It contains the 
case referred to or appealed to the Superior Court. 


Noeth Caeolixa Historical Commi- 

Among tli< i ..;.. til .' C Court Minutes in the case dated 

1724-1796 is a pamphlet of deeds dating from 1740 to 1752. 

In a case labeled, "Carteret County Court Docket, 1731-1784/' are 
eleven pamphlets, which contain appearance and reference - -. Refer- 
ence petitions, and execution dockets. An example of the material is as 
follows : 



David Cooper 

Wm. Smith 




dismissed, clerk's fee paid 

There is a grant bock dating 1717 to 1724, and two deed books dating 
1752-1759 and 1765-1775. These books are the originals. 

Among the pamphlets and copies in the case labeled ''Deeds 1721- 
1783" is a copy of Court Minutes dating 1841-1842; a copy of the 
records of deeds, but not the deeds as labeled on the cover. This book 
is dated 1745-1756. There is a large volume of deeds dated 1757-1766 
and a small pamphlet dated 1721-1723, containing deeds which were 
given for land sold under authority of an Act passed by the Assembly 
which gave power to sell land upon which the quit rents had not been 
paid. There is also in this case a list of taxables for the year 1754. The 
book gives the names of the people, the number of acres, the district, the 
white and black polls, and the total taxes due or paid, and at the end 
there is a grand total of all taxes. 

There are also three volumes of taxables which include the years 
from 1802 to 1819. From these three volumes can easily be ascertained 
the number of polls for each year, taxable property, etc. They are in 
good condition. 

There is a case containing a little miscellaneous material such as 
security bonds, inventories of estates, one will loose, and a book of wills 
and bonds, and one copy of powers of attorney. These books are in 
poor condition. 

There are seventeen cases of marriage bonds, which are arranged 


Caswell County -was formed in 1777 from Orange: Was named in honor 
of Richard Casweil. member of the First Continental Congress, first Governor 
of North Carolina after the Declaration of Independence, six times reelected 
Governor, and Major-General in the Revolutionary Army. 

There are County Court Minutes, marriage bonds, lists of taxables, 
inventories of estates, wills, and land entries. 

It is an exceptional thing that the first volume of County Court 
Minutes has been preserved, and is in splendid condition. The first 

Handbook of .County Records 19 

session of ^ Court t T " s rid Qu rl as held in June 

1777. This volume includes tne proceedings from L777 to 1781. 
other volumes are dated as follows: 1781-1788, 1788-1794, 1794-1601, 
1801-1809, 1809-1813, 1814-1819, 1819-1823, 1823-1* 15-1839, 1839- 

1842. These volumes contain material ordinarily found in such records. 
There are also several books of various sizes of County Court Minutes 

in a box with lists of taxables. These records are small pamphlet-like 
volumes, or are parts of larger books which have come apart. These 
books or pamphlets are dated as follows: 1822, 1843-1843, 1843, 1834, 

The box of wills is dated from 1777 to 1800 and they are arranged 

There are several volumes of lists of taxables, which are dated, and 
include the following dates: 1781, 1787, 1788, 1791, 1792, 1797, 1798, 
1803, 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806. 

These lists give the names, the number of acres, the number of polls, 
both white and black, and the assessed valuation of the property. At 
the end of each, year is a recapitulation of the entire list. 

There are two boxes labeled "Inventories of Estates," and they are 
dated 1777 to 1800. These boxes should be labeled ''Miscellaneous 
Court Papers," for they include powers of attorney, deeds of gift, bills 
of sale, election returns, witness tickets, guardians'' returns, and bonds, 
as well as inventories of estates. 

There is one volume of land entries, which is dated 1788 to IS 63. 
These records give the name of the person, the number of acres, the date, 
and a meager designation of the location of the land. 

There are 23 boxes of marriage bonds, which are arranged alpha- 


Chatham County was formed in 1770 from Orange. Was named in honor 
of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, who was the most eloquent English de- 
fender of the American cause during the Revolution. 

The material on this county consists mostly of County Court Minutes, 
but there are several copies of inventories of estates and wills. There 
are no marriage bonds. There is also one copy of Minutes Docket of 
the Court of Equity. 

The Court Minutes begin at the year 1774 and run to 1861. How- 
ever, there are some copies missing. The first volume is dated 1774- 
1779, and the others as follows: 1781-1785, 1790-1794, 1794-1709. 
1799-1800, 1S11-1S16, 1816-1822, 1822-1827, 1828-1833, 1834-1841, 
1842-1849, 1849-1858, and 1860-1861. These volumes contain the gen- 
eral material found in the average Court Minutes of the period. There 
were kept the names of the Justices of the Peace and the petit and srrand 
jurors for each, term of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions; 

20 North C.veolina Historical CoMMiflsioji 

acknowledgments of deeds, bills of sale; appointments of road 01 
appointments of guardians, and records of letters of administrators, 
various court easts and the disposition of them; apprenticing of orph 

lists of property sold for taxes and the amount of taxes due on each; 
in some volumes are found the rates of taxes levied for the year, and 
records of various bonds and petitions. 

There is a copy of the Minute Docket of the Court of Equity, dated 
1821-1839. This book contains many cases in dispute in equity. The 
details of the complaints and the answers are not given, but the de' 
are given. 

There are six will books, dated respectively, 1703, 1794-1708, 1798- 
1819, 1798-1834, 1817-1857, 1784-1794, the last of which contains some 
deeds and inventories of estates. 

Besides the volume dated 1 784-1794, in which there are some inven- 
tories of estates, there are tw T o large volumes of inventories of estates 
dated 1801-1S12 and 1S09-1S22. These volumes are in excellent con- 
dition, and the inventories were very well recorded. 

The marriage bonds have been lost. 


Chowan County was formed in 1672 from Albemarle. Was named for an 
Indian tribe in the northeastern part of the State when the English first 
came to North Carolina. 

There is a fairly good collection of material from this county, yet 
there are not the County Court Minutes as of some counties, especially 
Carteret. There are County Papers, deeds, lists of taxablcs, and marriage 

The County Court Minutes begin at 1704 and run to 1798, but even 
between these dates the minutes for some years are missing. Some of 
the minutes books have come to pieces and have to be kept in cases. 
They are, therefore, not arranged chronologically, but they have the 
records of the period of development and procedure recorded. The 
things recorded are lists of Justices of the Peace and jurors for the 
sessions of court ; acknowledgments of deeds ; bills of sale, etc. : commis- 
sions of appointment of various kinds : orders by men of high authority 
to petit officers; acknowledgments of letters of administration and 
records of bonds being given; and the records of cases. Most of these 
minutes are in the pamphlet style of book. The books dated from 
1780 to 1798 are the regular size minute books. 

There are several lists of taxable* which date from 1708 to 1798. 
Some of these lists give the names and the amount, while others give 
the valuation, etc. 

There are also several deed books, but they are in such condition as 
to have to be put in cases. They date from 1699 to 1760. 


Handbook of Col-ntv Records 

Thero i> n ca se labeled "Procession Docket* and "County C 

Papers." The Court Papers consist of various material such u 
pcenas, court orders, etc. Tiie Dockets are records of cases in the Court 
of Pleas and Quarter Sessions. 

In addition to that material there are 19 volumes of County Papers, 
bound, 17 of which date from 1685 to 1805. They contain a great va- 
riety of papers such as grants, deeds, indentures of apprenticing, various 
bonds, petitions, appointments, subpcenas, capiases, etc. 

There are 10 boxes of marriage bonds arranged alphabetically. 


Columbus County was formed in 180S from Bladen and Brunswick. Was 
named in honor of the Discoverer of the New World. 

The material from this county is so small as to amount to almost 
Dothing. As a matter of fact, there is only one volume available, and 
it dates from 1838 to 1846. This is a volume of County Court Minutes 
and it contains the material usually recorded in Court Minutes of that 
period of our history. There are lists of Justices of the Peace, and 
jurors for the different sessions of court ; acknowledgments of deeds 
and bills of sale, etc. ; letters of administration, appointments of various 
kinds; licenses to sell liquors in small quantities, petitions of diiferent 
kinds; records of many kinds of bonds being recorded, and a few cases 
and the disposition of them. 

No marriage bonds or other kinds of material have been obtained. 


Cumberland County was formed in 1754 from Bladen. Was named in 
honor of William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, second son of King George 
II. Cumberland was the commander of the English army at the battle of 
Culloden, in which the Scotch Highlanders were so badly defeated. Many 
of them came to America, and their principal settlement was at Cross Creek 
in Cumberland County. 

There is quite a bit of material from this county, but the major part 
consists of County Court Minutes. There are 32 volumes of them, dating 
from 1734 to 1365. There are also two volumes of County Road Dockets 
and one volume of tax lists, and one case of loose material on the Town 
of Fayetteville, besides 10 boxes of marriage bonds. 

The County Court Minutes do not contain any unusual material. 
They consist of the materials ordinarily found in records of those 
periods which give the progress and achievement of the county and the 
County Court. There is such material as lists of the Justices of the 
Peace and petit and grand jurors; acknowledgments of le<ral papers such 
as deeds, bills of sale, letters of administration, apprenticing of orphans, 
appointments of various kinds, reports of officers' lists of property sold 

22 Nobth Carolina HlSTOBlCAL Commission 

for taxes, and property advertised to be sold at different years. There 
are a ±Vw deeds recorded in some of these books and oaths of naturali- 

This is the first county of which notice has been taken of the fact 
that it kept a special court minute book for the appointment of road 
overseers, their lahorers, and their reports. There are two rolumea of 
these books, dating from 1825 to 1855, and they contain the various 
appointments, etc. pertaining to Cumberland County. 

There is also one volume of the lists of taxahles, dating 1777-8-9-80. 
This volume also contains the lists of men who had not taken the oath 
of allegiance. 

There is a volume of Equity Minute Docket, dating from 1788 to 
1829. This hook consists of various cases in equity and the settlement 
of them. 

There are 19 cases of marriage bonds arranged alphabetically. 

By far the most interesting material on this county or on any part 
of it, is that labeled "Fayetteville Papers/' which date from 1S20 to 
1870. This ease contains material of many kinds, such, as petitions for 
the organization of a company to supply water to the town, reports for 
health protection by a committee appointed to investigate and suggest 
methods of prevention of diseases; estimates of losses by fire; various 
kinds of paper money; reports of receipts and disbursements for the 
maintenance of the town government; a copy of the Raleigh Register for 
the year 1823, which contains an almanac and lists of the county court 
clerks and sheriffs for the counties of the State. There are also official 
letters included in the material. 

In the County Court Minutes, dated October 1787 to February 1791, 
on the last page of the book is an oath of allegiance to the United States 
and a denouncement of allegiance to George III. 

There are five volumes of County Court Minutes which are dated as 
follows: 1755-1759, 1759-1765, 1772-1776, 1777-1778, 177S-17SO. These 
books contain the material ordinarily found in the court minutes. 


Currituck County was formed in 1672 from Albemarle. It was named after 
an Indian tribe. 

All the material available from this county is County Court Minutes 
and marriage bonds. There is one case of marriage bonds and four 
volumes of County Court Minutes. 

The four volumes of County Court Minutes date somewhat as follows : 
Three volumes date from 1799 to 1830, and then there is a break until 
1851, after which they run to 1868. The material is of the usual kind 
recorded in Court Minutes. It is true there are a few deeds recorded 


Handbook of County Records 23 

in the last volume, hur there are only a few. There are court 
recorded and Justices of the Peace and jurors at the many termi of the 

Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions. There are acknowledgi 
deeds, bills of sale, petitions of various kinds, such M for 
visions, for dowers, petitions to sell negroes, petitions for par- 
land, the probations of wills, etc. Three of the four books are ir, - . 
bad shape as to have to be kept in eases for proper pre.-ervati-jn. 
There are about 100 marriage bonds. 


Duplin County was formed in 1749 from New Hanover. Was named in 
honor of George Henry Hay, Lord Duplin, an English nobleman. 

There is no variety of material on this county. In fact, there are 
only 11 cases of marriage bonds and 16 volumes of County Court Min- 

The County Court Minutes date from 1784 to 1852, but some between 
these dates are missing. They date as follows: 1784-1791, 1703-1700, 
1801-1802, 1802-1804, 1S04-1810, 1810-1816, 1817-1810, 1819-1822. 
1823-1828, 1S32-1834, 1837-1838, 1840-1843, 1843-1845, 1845-1846, 
1851-1852. They contain the materials ordinarily kept in such records, 
i.e. the lists of the Justices of the Peace, and the jurors, petitions of 
many kinds, appointments of every kind, court cases and the disposition 
of them, acknowledgments of deeds and the probation of wills, f tc. 

The marriage bonds are arranged alphabetically, and there are 11 


Edgecombe County was formed in 1735 from Bertie. Was named for 
Richard Edgecombe, who became Baron Edgecombe and was a lord of the 
English treasury. 

The variety of material on this county is not so great, but it is better 
than that of some other counties. There are County Court Minutes, 
inventories and sales of estates, Xegro Cohabitation bonds, and mar- 
riage bonds. Some of the material is well preserved, while some of it 
is in bad condition. 

The County Court Minutes are by far the greatest in number, there 
being 24 volumes, which date from 1757 to 1863. The first volume, 
dating 1757-1764, contains records of courts held at Tarboro and 
Enfield. After that date, however, all courts were held at Tarboro. 
The records contain such things as the acknowledgments of deeds; 
probations of wills; powers of attorney; appointments ot road over- 
seers; various court cases: appointments of Justices to take the lists 
of taxables; the names of the Justices and the jurors that sat at the 
different terms of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions; various 

24 jS t okth Carolina Historical COMMISSION 

orders for people to build or repair bridges, open new roads, and i-jr the 
county ,: . • paj tke bills ork was accepted by the 

court; apprenticing of children; appointmi 

minutes date as follows: 1757-1704, 1704-1772, 1772-1770, 1778-1784, 
1784-1790, 1790-1702, 1792-1794, 1795-1797, 1797-1800, 1800-1804, 

1804-1807, 1807-1811, 1811-1813, 1813-1816, 1-10-1819, U 
1820-1826, 1826-1832, 1833-1840, 1840-1844, 1844-1848, 1848-1852, 
1853-1857, 1857-1863, 1863. 

There are 6 volumes of inventories of estates which date as follows : 
1735-1753, 1764-1772, 1783-1788, 1788-1790, 1790-1792, 1792-1794, 
1798-1800. These volumes have an index at the back of each book which 
facilitates the finding of any particular item. The inventories are 
recorded in various styles, and of various items such as inventories of 
goods sold, while some are records of the deceased person's estate. 

There is one docket of executions which begins with the May Term 
1769, and ends with the February Term 1772. In this docket there 
is very little stated about the cases. 

There is one Crown Docket which begins with the May Term of 
Court 1755, and ends with the March Term 1762. This docket is much 
on the order of the execution docket, the records being made in prac- 
tically the same manner. 

There is a docket or record of marks and brands which dates from 
August 1732 to May 1809. This record was kept very uniformly, 
giving the mark and brand, when the person had a brand, and the 
name opposite, with the date of recording it above. 

There is a volume of the minutes of the Commissioners of Tarboro 
dating from September 20, 1760. to July 26, 1793. They consist of 
appointments, orders of many kinds, petitions, etc. 

There is one box which contains Edgecombe County Xegro Cohabita- 
tion records for the years 1866-1867. Some of these records not only 
tell the number of years certain parties have cohabited, but also the 
number of children they have. 

There are 19 boxes of marriage bonds, which are arranged alpha- 


Franklin County was formed in 1779 from. Bute. TVas named in honor of 
Benjamin Franklin. 

There is a fairly good collection of material from this county. 
There are 18 volumes., of County Court Minutes, one volume of deeds, 
two volumes of lists of taxable*, and one case with original wills, inven- 
tories of estates, lists of taxables, and a few papers of wardens' reports; 
and eleven boxes of marriage bonds. 

The County Court Minutes date from 1785 to 1863, of which the 
different volumes date as follows: 1785-1794. 1794-1800, 1800-1805, 

Handbook of Ootjnty Record* 25 

1803-1810, lSlO-LSi:}, 1824-1817, 1818-1820, 1819-1821, L820-1 
1820-1824 1822-1824, 1825-1827, L828-1830, 1881-1836, L 836-1 840, 
1840*1844, 1844-1847, 1S47-185S. i . ma to be nothing out of 

the ordinary recorded in these papers, which contain such thil 

lists of the Justices of the Peace and jurors at each term of the ( 

of Pleas and Quarter Sessions; acknowledgments of deeds; probations 

of wills; appointments of road overseers; acknowledgments and grant- 
ing letters of administration; records of apprenticing children; court 
cases and in some instances the disposition of them. 

The two volumes of the lists of taxables date from 1804 to 1836. 
They contain the lists of taxables for the different districts, after which 
there is a recapitulation of the entire tax for the county for each year. 
Because of the arrangement of the records, it is easy to compare the 
taxes and valuation of the property for the different years, which seem 
to rise one year and fall the next or the following years. 

The volume of deeds dates from 1797 to 1799. In the back of the 
book is an index by which one can easily find the deed wanted. 

There are 17 papers of orphans accounts, dating between 1794 and 
1795, in a case labeled "Wills, Inventories, Lists of Taxables." In the 
same case there is a list of inventories of estates for the year 1795. 
There are also a few original wills dating between 1794 and 1795. 
And in addition to these, there are a few lists of taxables for the year 

There are 11 boxes of marriage bonds which are arranged alpha- 


Gates County was formed in 1778 from Chowan, Perquimans, and Hert- 
ford. Was named in honor of General Horatio Gates, who commanded the 
American army at the battle of Saratoga. 

Almost all the material from this county consists of County Court 
Minutes. There are three large volumes of these and several copies of 
small pamphlet-like volumes. There are also two reference dockets, 
and one case of court papers, besides six boxes of marriage bonds. 

The County Court Minutes date from 1779 to 1868, with the cases 
containing the pamphlet-like volumes dating as follows: 1779-1796, 
1796-1815, 1815-1830, 1830-1858, and the three large volumes are as 
follows: 1835-1841, 1551-1854, in the back of this volume is the pro 
bation of deeds, mortgages, and chattels which date 1878-1SS2, 1559- 
1868. These books contain the records ordinarily made in Court Min- 
utes of those times. There are the lists of the Justices of rhe Peace, 
and the jurors for each term of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Ses- 
sions; probation of wills (in the volume dated 1833-1841, in the last 
part of the book, is the will of Abraham W. Parker) ; acknowledgments 

26 North Carolina Historical Commission 

of deeds; appointments of various kinds; many kinds of court orders, 
such as the closing oi roads an*; the opening of new oi 

of new bridges, etc.; many court cases; in ike 

were orders to pay certain persons for the care of soldiers, and for the 
support of infirm person*, and for provisions supplied to soldiers; 
there is one commission from Governor Martin appointing a Jusl 

of the Peace; records of granting licenses to people to retail liquor, i 
is also a report of the Sheritf for the special taxes or privileges licenses 
granted in the county, including the mention of stage players and rope 
dancers. After 1840 there were records of the amount of money spent 
for common school purposes, and many other things of like nature. 

It seems that the volume dating 1851-1854 was discarded for a time 
before all of it was used, then later used to record the probation and 
acknowledgment of deeds, mortgages, and chattels for the years between 
1878 and 1882. 

There is one case containing two dockets of trials and references. 
These dockets include the years between 1784 and 1786. 

There is also one case containing court papers, which consist of bonds 
of various kinds, such as bonds for the appearance to court of certain 
parties, and bonds for the faithful performance of the duties by officers. 

There are six boxes of marriage bonds, which are arranged alpha- 

There is one volume of Public School Records, which is dated 1841- 
1861.. This book contains the records of the schools in Gates County, 
and there are several returns for the election of committeemen, which 
are included on loose paper. 

There is one box of inventories of estates, which is dated 1779 to 1300. 

There are two boxes of wills, which are arranged alphabetically. 
There are no d,ates on these boxes, but of course the wills are dated. 
These wills have been abstracted. 

There is one volume of the list of taxes for 1784-1S06. The names 
are arranged alphabetically for the different years and for the districts. 

There is one volume of the Records of Marriages, of which the dates 
range from 1851 to 1S66. 

There is one volume which is a record of the proceedings of the 
Commissioners of the town of Gatesville in 1833, also of the registra- 
tion of slaves to work in the Great Dismal Swamp from 1847 to 1561 
(as provided by the Legislature at the Session of 1846-47). There 
are also a few loose court papers in the volume, which are certificates 
of employment, etc. 


Granville County was formed in 1746 from Edgecombe. Was named in 
honor of John Carteret, Earl Granville, who owned the Granville District. 
He was Prime Minister under King George II, and a very brilliant man. 

Handbook- of County Recovda 87 

There are several volume* of County Court Minutes, one Trial 
Docket, two volumes of the Lists of Taxables, one volume of I 
entries, and one volume of Execution Docket. Thus it IS quiti 
that there is not much material available from this county. 

The County Court Minutes date from 1786-1789, 1796-1799, : 
1802, 1803-1806, 1806-1810, 1810-1813, 1813-1816, 1816-18] 
1820. They contain lists of the Justices of the Peace and the jurors 
for each term of the Court of Pleas and Quarter 8 - : acknowledg- 

ments of deeds; probation of wills; appointments of road over* 
etc.; many court cases and the disposition of them; court orders for 
the erection of bridges, and for the county trustee to pay the bill when 
the work was completed. 

The two volumes of the Lists of Taxables contain the names of the 
persons, the valuation of property, and the number polls. These 
volumes date 1796-1802 and 1803-1809. At the end of the lists for the 
year is a recapitulation for the entire year. 

The volume of land entries is dated 1778-1735. 

The trial docket dates 1764-1776, and is in the same order as the 
execution docket. 

The Execution Docket is dated 1765-1767. 

There are no marriage bonds from this county. 


Halifax County was formed in 175 S from E'dgecombe. Was named in 
honor of George Montague Dunk, Earl of Halifax, president of the Board 
of Trade, which had control of the colonies before the Revolution. 

There is by far a greater variety of material from this county than 
from the majority of them, but there are fewer County Court Minutes 
from this county than from the majority. But the variety makes the 
material much more interesting. There are County Court Minutes, 
marriage bonds, wills, deeds, county tax book, deeds of Edgecombe 
Precinct and county, Bertie Precinct and Halifax, county trustee 
records, inventories of estates, school records, and Superior Court Dis- 
trict records. 

The County Court Minutes do not run to completion according to 
date, as there are missing copies. There are only four copies, which 
are dated as follows: 1784-1787, 1796-1790. 1799-1802, and 1883-1824. 
They contain the lists of the Justices of the Peace and. the jurors for 
the different terms of the Court of Pleas aid Quarter Sessions; ac- 
knowledgments of deeds: probation of wills; appointment of overseers 
of roads; orders to audit and settle estates; acknowledgment of deeds; 
probation of wills: appointments of overseers of roads; acknowledg- 
ment of powers of attorney; orders for the payment of sums for the 

28 North Carolina Historical Commission 

repairing of bri lg< \ etc.; and various other things of like namre. 

There is one volume of Superior Court records, dated 1783-1789, 
which is the records oi the Superior Court of Equity. Iu this book is 
recorded the full complaints and the answers as filed, and in some c 
the decision of the court or the disposition made of the cases. There 
are a few records of the Court of Equity of some other counties, but 
this book has the fullest account of the proceedings of any noticed. 
There is another volume labeled "Minute Docket from 1797 to l v 
which is the record of the Court of Equity of Halifax District, and 
contains similar material as the one above. 

There is a volume of the County Trustee's records, which is dated 
1826-1851. This is the first book of that nature observed, and is a very 
good book because of the fact that the material that it contains is 
rarely had or known. It contains the number, payee, and the amount 
of the vouchers paid out by the Trustee. At the end of the year's busi- 
ness is a balance of money from receipts and expenditures. It seems 
from these recapitulations that the County Trustee was compensated 
for his services by a fee of six per cent on disbursements. The Finance 
Committee audited the report of the County Trustee each year. 

There is one copy of Halifax Trial Docket, which is dated 1766-1770, 
and contains only the names of the plaintiffs and the defendants, and 
in some cases the decisions of the court. 

There is one volume of the Halifax Tax Book, which dates 1784- 
1834. It contains the name3 of the persons, the number of acres of 
land, the number of both white and black polls, the number of carriages, 
wheels of pleasure, the public tax, the county tax, and the parish tax. 
After the list of the above-mentioned things for the different districts 
for the year, there is a recapitulation of the districts of the many items 
taxed and the taxes collected. There is a case with lists of taxables in 
it, but these lists are summarized in the regular tax book dated 1784- 
1830. In the same book are inventories of estates, apprenticing of 
children, orders to take depositions, and depositions, an affidavit of 
denouncement of allegiance to kings, princes, or potentates, affidavits 
for the continuance of court cases, lists of insolvent debts, a proclama- 
tion of Governor Richard Caswell, and a book of race courses. 

There is one volume of inventories of estates, dated 1773-1779. This 
book is in bad shape, but contains valuable material about the size of 
estates of deceased people. 

There are three volumes of deeds, one of which contains original 
deeds. These books include deeds from 1755 to 1781. In addition to 
these books there are three boxes of original deeds. 

There are also two boxes of wills which are arranged alphabetically. 

Handbook of County B 

There is ^ne box of negro marriage bonds whi th WTeepooda to the 

negro cohabitation bonds. These bonds are for t) 1866-1867. 

There are 15 boxes of white marriage bonds, which are arranged 

There is one volume of deeds, which is dated 1700 to 1802. This u 
by far the largest of any volume obtained from the counties. It has 
only the deeds recorded, but has been well kept and contains a great 
number of deeds. 


Hertford County was formed in 1759 from Chowan, Bertie, and North- 
ampton. Was named in honor of Francis Seymour Conway, Marquis of 
Hertford, an English nobleman. He was a brother of General Conway, a 
distinguished British soldier and member of Parliament, who favored the 
repeal of the Stamp Act. The word '"Hertford" is said to mean "Pv.ed Ford." 

The only material from this county is a list of taxable3 for the year 
1782. This list contains the names of the persons taxes, the number 
of acres of land, of each man, the amount of stock, the number of 
negroes and their ages, etc., and at the end there is a total of the entire 
property, which amounted to $202,384, and also 3-4 carriage wheels. 


Hyde County was formed in 1705 from Bath. Was called Wiekham until 
about 1712. It was named in honor of Governor Edward Hyde, of North 
Carolina, a grandson of the Earl of Clarendon. The Earl was one of the Lords 
Proprietors. Governor Hyde was a first cousin of Queen Anne. 

The material from this county is in bad condition and there is very 
little of it. There are several copies of pamphlet-like volumes of County 
Court Minutes, one pamphlet-like volume of wills and inventories of 
estates, and one volume of land entries. 

The County Court Minutes are in a worse condition than the others. 
Among these books is one dated about 1750, and which contains forms 
of oaths of various kinds, such as the oath of a creditor to be adminis- 
tered by a magistrate, the clerk's oath, grand and petit jurors' oath3, 
administrators' oaths, Quakers' affirmation, oaths for return of inven- 
tories of estate, marriage bonds and marriage licenses. The County 
Court Minutes are dated 178o to 1707 in one box, and in the other box 
1804 to 1S2S. They do not contain any unusual material, there being 
such things as lists of the Justices of the Peace and jurors; acknowl- 
edgments of deeds; court orders for the sale of negroes; petitions of 
different kinds; a few court cases, acknowledgments of bills of sale, 
and material of like nature. 

The book of land entries is dated 177S-1795, and contains several 
hundred entries for land. This book gives the names, the number of 
acres of land listed, and the date. 

30 Xortii Carolina Histoeical Com Mission 

There is a small pamphlet-like volume dated 1731-1785, which con- 
tains wills and inventories of estates. 

There are no marriage bonds from this county. 


Jackson County was formed in 1851 from Haywood and Macon. Was 
named in honor of Andrew Jackson, who was born in Mecklenburg County 
(the site of his birthplace is now in Union) and who won the brilliant 
victory over the British at New Orleans in 1815, and was twice elected 
President of the United States. 

There is very little material from this county, since it is such, a 
young county. There is one volume of County Court Minutes, and 
one volume of marriage records. 

The volume of County Court Minutes dates 1853-1868, and contains 
the material ordinarily in such records. At the first part of the book 
there are recorded, the elections of the county officers, and their filing 
the necessary bonds to assume the duties of their respective offices. 
There are recorded the names of the Justices of the Peace, and the 
jurors for each term of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions; 
acknowledgments of deeds, probation of wills, appointments of many 
kinds, various court cases and the disposition of them, and other things 
of like nature. There are several wills recorded in this book, but in 
one case the will was recorded because of a protest on the part of the 
heirs and because that protest developed into a suit. 

The book of marriage records is dated 1853-1874. In the first of this 
book the names of the couples married, the date of marriage, and the 
name of the person officiating are recorded. Later in the book, there 
are recorded the names of the parents of the couple married, the age, 
the color, the date of marriage, the date of issuing the license, the 
place of marriage, and the name of the person officiating, as well as 
his title. 


Jones County was formed in 177S from Craven. Was named in honor 

of Willie Jones of Halifax. He was one of the leading Patriots of the 

Revolution, was President of the Council of Safety, and was opposed to the 

adoption of the Constitution of the United States. 

There are only 8 volumes of material from this county, and they 
are County Court Minutes, which date as follows: 1807-1816, > 3- 
1810, 1816-1855, 1826-1832, 1833-1841, 1841-1851, 1851-1860, 1860- 

1868. These books contain material as was ordinarily recorded in court 
minutes. There are lists of the Justices of the Peace and the jurors for 
the different terms of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, ac- 
knowledgments of deeds, probation of wills, the records of filing inven- 

Handbook op Cottfty Rh o 

tories of estates, petitions of many kinds, orders far the providing of 

year's provisions, and for dowers, and things of like natfl 

There is also one book of Inventories of Estates. This book contain.-; 

inventories filed during the years 1808-1825. 
There is no other material from this county. 


Lenoir County was formed in 1791 from Dobbs and Craven. Was named 
in honor of General William Lenoir, one of the heroes of Kings Mountain. 

There are only three volumes of material from this county, and 
they were bound by the Historical Commission, The papers included 
in these three volumes were collected by Lovit Hines of Kinston. They 
date from 1737 to 1914, and include some that are undated. They con- 
sist of grants from both George II and George III, deeds, bonds, a few 
letters, a few pencil-drawn plats of land (most of the deeds and grants 
have drawings on them), bills of sale, and papers of like nature. By 
far the most numerous are the deeds, which include grants or deeds 
from the State, as well as from individuals. There are a few quitclaim 


Martin County was formed in 1774 from Halifax and Tyrrell. Was named 
in honor of Josiah Martin, the last of the royal governors of Xorth Carolina. 
It is probable that this name would have been changed like those of Dobbs 
and Tryon, but for the popularity of Alexander Martin, who was governor 
in 1782 and again in 1790. 

There is very little material from this county, and what volumes 
there are have been through a fire. 

There is a pamphlet-like volume of the County Court of Equity, 
which is dated 1807-1829. The bottom of this book is burned, and it 
is in bad condition. It has only the proceedings of the Court of Equity 
in it. 

There is another pamphlet-like volume of County Court Minutes for 
the year 1847. There is very little material in this volume, but what 
there is consists of what is ordinarily recorded in such records. 

There is one large volume of deeds which dates 1774-1787. This 
book is in bad condition also. The leaves are badly worn and many 
of them are completely out. On account of the ragged leaves and 
those torn out, it is almost impossible to read all of the deeds. 


Mitchell County was formed in 1S61 from Yancey, Watauga, Caldwell, 
Burke, and McDowell. Was named in honor of Elisha Mitchell, a professor 
in the University of North Carolina. While on an exploring expedition on 

32 Nobth Carolina Historical Commission 

Mount Mitchell, the highest peak east of the Rocky Mountains, Dr. Mitchell 
fell from a high peak and was killed. His body was buried on the top of 
this lofty mountain. 

The only material from this county is one volume of County Court 
Minutes, which is dated 1SC1 to 1808. The material is that which was 
ordinarily recorded in court minutes. This county is a young county, 
and many of the books are still in use, and for that reason there is only 
one in the Historical Commission collections. 


Nash County was formed in 1777 from Edgecombe. Was named in honor 
of General Francis Nash, a. soldier of the Revolution, who was mortally 
wounded while fighting under Washington at Germantown. The United 
States has erected a monument in his honor at the Guilford Battleground 
near Greensboro. 

The material from this county consists of County Court Minutes and 
marriage bonds. The County Court Minutes as a whole are in very 
good condition, and run from 1778 to 1868, consecutively. They con- 
tain the material ordinarily recorded in court records. The things 
recorded are lists of the Justices of the Peace and the jurors for the 
different terms of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, acknowledg- 
ments of deeds, probation of wills, record of tiling inventories of estates, 
appointments of road overseers, apprenticing of orphans, court cases, 
and there are a few wills, besides many kinds of petitions. There are 
also orders for the payment of bills, etc. 

There are seven boxes of marriage bonds, which are arranged alpha- 


New Hanover County was formed in 1729 from Bath. Was named after 
Hanover, a country in Europe whose ruler became King of England with 
the title of George I. 

The majority of material from this county consists of County Court 
Minutes, of which, there are 19 large volumes, besides 13 small parn- 
phlet-like volumes. Theie are lists of taxables. and inventories of 
estates, "Wilmington District Superior Court Trial Dockets, Execution 
Docket, Court Docket, Reference Docket, Sheriffs' bonds, lists of county 
officers, and lists of all ofiieials. There are also 13 boxes of marriage 
bonds, one box of negro cohabitation certificates and marriage bonds, 
and one box with four small memorandum books in it, in which are 
recorded the names of men who were married and the year. These 
books run from 1791 to 1S67. 

The County Court Minutes begin as far back as 1737, and run to 
1866. However, there are a few breaks in them. Besides the things 

Handbook of County Records 33 


ordinarily recorded in them, there arc a L r '«") many oaths of allegiance 

and certificates of desirability to become American citizens. There are 

more of them in this county than in any other county observed. 

In the box labeled "Lists of taxables and Inventories,'' i 
interesting material. There is a bond of security of ( I - ■'•'. Davis, 
who was appointed inspector of lumber and timber for 1843. '. 
are inventories of estates, some of which include the libraries of the 
deceased person as well as his personal property. There is a list of 
taxables for the year 17S2. This list gives the name of the pen 
the number of acres of land, the number of negroes and their ages, the 
number of horses and mules, the cattle, the amount of stock in trade, 
carriage wheels, houses and lots, value of each person's property, and 
the total amount carried out. At the end of the list is a recapitulation 
of the whole list. 

There is a trial docket for the "Wilmington District Superior Court 
for the year 1756-58. There is a copy of the Wilmington District Execu- 
tion Docket for the years 1786-1797. There is a copy of the Wilming- 
ton District Superior Court Trial Docket for the year 1786. There is 
also another for the year 17S9, and still another for the year 1818. 

There is a copy of the Wilmington District Court proceedings for 
the years 1789-1795. 

There is a book which contains the bonds of the sheriffs for the years 
1766-1775. This is the first book observed of this nature. 

There is a small pamphlet-like volume which contains a list of the 
county officials for the year 1774-1790. The officers listed are magis- 
trates, constables, searchers, overseers, and patrolmen. Opposite the 
name is recorded the district over which that person had charge. 

There is a criminal and civil docket for the years 1796-1820. There 
is also a criminal docket for the years 1821-1828. 

There is a small volume which contains the officers of all kinds for the 
years 1807-1812. 

In addition to all these there is one box of negro cohabitation certi- 
ficates and marriage bonds for the years 1866-1867. 

There are 13 boxes of white marriage bonds, which are arranged 

There are four small memorandum books in a box, which contain 
the names of some men who were married in certain years. These 
books extend from 1791 to 1867, but they are not complete. 

In the volume of County Court Minutes, dated 1863-1866, in the 
front part is pasted the list of articles and papers which required 
revenue stamps. 

34 North Carolina Historical Commission 


Northampton County was formed in 1741 from Bertie. Was named in 
honor of George, Earl of Northampton, an English nobleman. His son, 
Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, was high in office when Gabriel 
Johnston was governor of North Carolina, and had the town of Wilmington 
named in his honor. 

There are 12 volumes of County Court Minutes, one volume of 
orphans' estates, and two volumes of inventories of estates from this 
county, besides 11 boxes marriage bonds. 

The County Court Minutes are dated as follows: 1792-1709, 1813- 
1816, 1817-1821, 1825-1829, 1829-1835, 1835-1839, 1839-1845, 1843- 
1844, 1856-1853, 1859-1863, 1863-1867, 1867-1863. These volumes con- 
tain such material as lists of Justices of the Peace and the jurors, both 
petit and grand, for the different terms of the Court of Pleas and 
Quarter Sessions; acknowledgment of deeds; probation of wills; ap- 
pointments of different kinds; petitions for various things; court cases 
and their disposition, etc. In the minutes of 1865 is recorded the 
proclamation of *W. W". Holden, provisional governor of North Carolina. 

The two volumes of inventories of estates are dated 1781-1792 and 
1787-1801, the last of which is properly indexed in the back. There is 
a detached index to the one dated 1781-1792. 

There is a volume of orphans' estates, which is dated 1781-1801, and 
there is a detached index for it. 

There are 11 boxes of marriage bonds, which are arranged alpha- 


Onslow County was formed in 1734 from Bath. Was named in honor of 
Arthus Onslow, who for more than 30 years was Speaker of the House of 
Commons of the British Parliament. 

The material from this county consists mostly of County Court Min- 
utes, but there are a few wills, 6 boxes of marriage bonds, and one box 
of miscellaneous material, which consists of inventories of estates, land 
entries, and court papers. 

The County Court Minutes begin at 1734 and run up to 1863. Most 
of these records are in pamphlet-like volumes, and some are in bad con- 
dition. They contain the material recorded in regular court minutes, 
which consists of such as follows: Lists of Justices of the Peace and 
the petit and grand jurors for the different terms of the Court of Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions; acknowledgments of deeds, probation of wills, 
appointments of various kinds, court cases, petitions for dowers, for 
year's provisions, petitions for partitions of land, sundry court orders, 
such as order for bridges to be repaired, etc. 

Handbook of County Recoxm 

There are two ' . . of wills. These wills have been r and 

bound by the Commission. They date from 1757 to 1790, 
them there are some inventories of estates and sheets belo the 

index of inventories. 

There is a box labeled "Inventories, Land Entries, Court Papei ." 
which contains the Crown Docket for the years 1763-1766. Therf 
tax lists for the years 1825-1827, land entries for 1785-1792, 170:;-! 706. 
writs for the years 1745-17-16, 1754-1750, 1752-1750, 1762; inventories 
of estates, 1785; and loose leaves of court papers for 1746-1764. 

There are 6 boxes of marriage bonds, which are arranged alpha- 

One of the most interesting things is the way the officers obtained 
record books. They would secure the paper and then get newspapers 
and make the covers for them by pasting several papers together. Thf-re 
is part of a London paper serving as the cover of one volume. This 
paper is dateel 1761. There is part of a 2s~orth Carolina paper dated 
1791 on another, and part of a iSTorth Carolina paper dated 1793 on still 
another volume. All of these made pamphlet-like volumes for the 


Orange County was formed in 1753 from Granville, Johnston, and Eladen. 
Was named in honor of William of Orange, who became King William III 
of England. He was one of the greatest of the Kings of England, and 
saved the English people from the tyranny of James II. His name is held 
in honor wherever English liberty is enjoyed. 

There is a great deal of materal from this county. In fact, there 
are few counties of which there is as much. There are 19 volumes of 
County Court Minutes, lists of taxables, a good many wills, negro 
cohabitation records, marriage bonds, and other material. 

The County Court Minutes begin September 1752 and run to 1S57. 
There are 19 of these volumes, which contain lists of the Justices of 
the Peace, lists of jurors both petit and grand, acknowledgment of 
deeds, probation of wills, appointments of various natures, many kinds 
of court orders for the payment of debts, etc., petitions for partition of 
land, for year's provision, and for dowers, records of return of inven- 
tories of estate, apprenticing of orphans, and many other things of 
like nature. These books are dated as follows: 1752-1762, 1762-1766, 
1777-1788, 1787-1795, 1795-1800, 1800-1804^ 1805-1809, 1810-1814, 
1815-1817, 1818-1822, 1822-1820, 1826-1S31, 1831-1835, 1836-1839, 
1840-1845, 1845-1847, 1847-1851, 1854-1857. 

There is one volume of negro cohabitation records, which is dated 
1866-1868. This is the first volume found which had the certificate 
recorded. Such certificates in other counties have been only sheets of 
paper. • 

36 Nobth Carolina Historical Commission 

There are four boxes of loosp, wills. T^ r - ri wills are arranged alpha- 
betically, rather than chronologically. 

There are several boxes which contain lists of taxable. From the 
standpoint of quantity there is a good collection of the lists of taxables 
from this county. They are for the years 1780, 1781, 1782, 1783, 1784, 
1785, 1786, 1787, 1788, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, 1795, 1790. 1797, 1799, 
1801, 1818. 

There is a box labeled "Orange Letters and Printed Matter." Thi3 
box contains such things as articles entitled "Waste of People's Money — 
Radical Extravagance,'' which is a comparison of expenditures for the 
years 1866-67 and 1S6S-69, letters from pension agents soliciting infor- 
mation for clients, personal letters, and a prospectus from John H. 
Wheeler for his History of Xorth Carolina, also one for "The Repub- 
lican," reports of the Comptroller of North Carolina for taxes collected, 
a circular letter sent out by citizens pleading for the non-division of 
Orange County.. There are also lists of the people who voted in 1864, 
giving account of their votes for governor, senator, commons, and 
sheriff. The candidates were not recorded, consequently it cannot be 
judged for whom each man voted. 

There is a small typewritten list of all material on this county, which 
is kept with the other material on this county, but the list is not good. 

There are 26 boxes of marriage bonds, which are arranged alpha- 

There i3 a book in which nothing is recorded except the acknowledg- 
ments of deeds. It contains the acknowledgments of deeds for the 
years 1742 to 1793. 


Pasquotank County was formed in 1672 from Albemarle. Was named for 
an Indian tribe of the eastern part of the State. They first held court at 
Broomfield, then at Nixonton, and now at Elizabeth City. 

There is more material from this county than from any county ob- 
served, and in addition to the quantity, there is a good variety in case 
a complete study of the county is to be made. The county is one of the 
oldest, and the material is likewise old. The material consists of County 
Court Minutes, Superior Court Minutes, Lists of Taxables, wills, deeds, 
patents, land entries, inventories of estates, commissions of various na- 
tures, settlements of estates, apprentice bonds for negroes, records of 
births, marriages, deaths, flesh marks, and cattle brands. Orphans' 
Court Minutes, records of the wardens of the poor, and marriage bonds. 

The County Court Minutes are dated from 1741 to 1868, but they 
are not absolutely complete. However, they are nearly so. Some of 
the earlier minutes contain records of the reference dockets as well as 
records ordinarily recorded in such books. There are 12 large volumes 
of these recoro;s, which date from 1765 to 1868. From 1701 to 1568 

Handbook of County Records 37 

t"hp records are onmnlefp and in good condition. These records do 
seem to have any unusual material recorded in them. There 
records as lists of the Justices of the Peace, the names of the jui 

both grand and petit, for the different terms of the Court of Pleas and 
Quarter Sessions, acknowledgment of deeds and bills of sale, probation 
of wills, various court orders, appointment of road overseers and of men 
to fill office, record of the sale of negroes for court cost, records of ap- 
prenticing children, records of the appointment of guardians and the 
replacement of them, records of oath of naturalization, and bonds to 
protect the wardens of the poor from the care of certain freed negroes, 
records of administrators qualifying, giving bond and returning inven- 
tories of estates, many court cases and the disposition of them, records of 
land to be sold for taxes, and many other things of like nature. 

There are two volumes of Superior Court Minutes. These records 
are for the terms beginning March 1807 and ending in the spring term 
of 1828, and beginning at the fall term of 1852 and ending at the spring 
term of 1869. These records list jurors, both grand and petit, names 
of the constables, names of the presiding judges, and many decisions 
of the court, including some fines. 

There are two boxes labeled "Lists of taxables/' but there are other 
things included in one of these boxes, such as indentures of apprentic- 
ing, inventories of estates, personal letters, royal commissions for Jus- 
tices of the Peace, attachments of goods by court orders, peace war- 
rants, promissory notes, as well as tax lists. The tax lists are for differ- 
ent districts and cover different years. 

There is a case labeled "Patents, Deeds, Land Entries, 1742-1757." 
This box contains material that is somewhat miscellaneous, since there 
are royal commissions of the Justices of the Peace, a bill for ministerial 
service by Dan Earl, and other things of like interest. 

The collection of deeds for this county is larger than is usually found. 
There is a box with loose or original deeds which are dated 1732-1785. 
And in addition to this box, there are six volumes of copied deeds. 
Of course these are the regular record books, and they run from 1700 
to 1785, with some years missing. In most of these volumes are indexes 
for the volumes which facilitate the finding of desired deeds. 

There is a box of miscellaneous court papers, which contains war- 
rants, bonds, lists of the jurors as they were drawn from the box, ad- 
ministrators' bonds, court executions, appearance bonds, powers of at- 
torney and appearances. 

There is a box labeled, ''Records of slave matter. Emancipation, 
schools, processions." But as a fact there are in this box bonds of freed 
negroes, papers of the wardens of the poor, trials of negroes and the 
decision of the court, appearance bonds, a book of oaths, apprentice 
bonds, land possessions, etc. 

38 North Historical Commission 

There, is a box of niiseel] docui c >mmis- 

sions of Justices of the Peace by Governor- C ■ ■. S auel and 
Gabriel Johnston, Alexander Martin, George Burrington; ordinance 

for courts by James Glasgow, commissions as clerk by Nathaniel Kice, 
sheriffs' bonds, etc. These papers are dated from 1724 to 1789. 

There is a box of settlements of estates, which are inventories of 
deceased persons. In addition to this box, there are two volumes of 
like material. These volumes are dated 1777-1702, and 1702-1 70S. In 
the back of each is the index by which you can find any particular 
settlement in which you are interested. 

The next book of interest is the orphans' court minutes, which is 
dated 1757-1735. This book contains merely statements of the accounts 
of the orphans, some of which are rather in details while others contain 
just a few items with the balance due. 

There is a box labeled ''Inventories of Estates." It contains inven- 
tories of estates, divisions of land,, a copy written by a teacher for her 
pupil to practice, court opinion against freeing slaves, letters, store 
accounts which are itemized, promissory notes, claims for right of way 
for road, attachments of property, bonds for keeping an ordinary, bills 
of sale, and marriage settlements. 

There is a book of the wardens of the poor records. This book con- 
tains the records between 1S07 and 1831, and the records are recorded 
according to the district of the county. All amounts paid either to 
wardens or individuals for particular persons were ordered at court 
at the term of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, and recorded as such. 

There is a book of apprentice bonds, which is dated 1855-1861. This 
book has the printed form and it was only necessary to nil out the form 
to give bond to apprentice a negro by permission of the court. This 
is the first book found of this exact nature. 

This is the first county of which there was kept a record of births, 
marriages, and deaths. There are two volumes of these, which date 
1691-1797 and 1795-1S22, and the last also contains records of flesh 
marks and cattle brands. 

An example of the marriage and birth records is as follows : 

Jon Baley and Penolopee Rapper Singlor were joined together in the holy 
estate of matrimony the 14th day of Dec. 1726. 

John son of the said John and Penolopee was born the 27th day of Dec. 

Mary daughter of the said John and Penolopee was born the 14th day of 
Dec. 1733. 

Henry son of the said John and Penolopee was born the Sth dav of Jan. 

In the back of the last volume is the account of the county trustee 
for the year 1794, and further on in the back of the book there are 

Handbook of Cocnty Records 39 

records of various claims against the county for years from 17 

There are three will hooks dating from 1762 to 1793. Tn the back of 
each book is an index. 

There are 8 boxes of marriage bonds, which are alphabetically ar- 



Perquimans County was formed in 1672 from Albemarle. Was named after 
a tribe of Indians. 

There is a large collection of material from this county, but most 
of it consists of inventories of estates. There are three volumes of 
County Court Minute3 and two boxes which contain County Court 
Minutes. All the material, with the exception of the three volumes of 
County Court Minutes are in boxes. There are two boxes of deeds 
dating from 1737 to 1794. 

There are four boxes of wills, dating from 1711 to 1S08. These wills 
are arranged alphabetically. 

There are twelve boxes of inventories of estates, none of which are 
later than 1800. 

There are two boxes of taxables, which date from 1743 to 1836. 

There is a box which has the register of births, marriages and deaths, 
dating from 165S to 1820. 

A box of precinct court records, dated 1688-1693 and 173 5-1 73 S, is 
the entire material of this nature. 

The Court Papers, of which there are two boxes, are dated 1702-1 51 6. 
and the papers are miscellaneous. 

There is one box of material labeled "miscellaneous." This material 
consists of petitions, bonds, inventories of estates, etc. 

In addition to this material, there are ten boxes of marriage bonds, 
which are arranged alphabetically. 

The County Court Minutes contain the material usually recorded 
in such records. There are lists of the Justices of the Peace, lists of 
the jurors both grand and petit, acknowledgments of deeds, probation 
of wills, records of filing inventories of estates appointments of many 
kinds, etc. 


Pitt County was formed in 1760 from Beaufort. Was named in honor of 
William Pitt. 

There is very little material from this county. There have been two 
fires in which most of the material was destroyed. There is. however, 
one box of county court papers, which date from 1761 to 1S59. There 
is a list of a few persons who served in the Revolution and their length 
of service, a ftw lists of taxables and inventories of estates. 


40 North Carolina Historical Commission 

Ther an tl - volumes of County Court Minutes, which are dated 
as follows: 1858-1861, 1882-1867, and 1867-1868. These volumes con- 
tain the material ordinarily recorded in County Court Minutes. There 
are lists of the Justices of the Peace, the lists of jurors, court orders, 
cases tried, appointments of different kinds, and things of such nature. 

There are only four marriage bonds from this county. 


Polk County was formed in 1855 from Rutherford and Henderson. Was 
named in honor of Colonel William Polk, who took part in Revolution at 
Germantown, Brandywine and Eutaw. 

There is only one volume of County Court Minutes from this county, 
and it is dated 1S47-4S and 1866-63. This book has very little material 
in it and nothing out of the ordinary. 

There are two boxes of marriage bonds, which are arranged alpha- 


Richmond County was formed in 1779 from Anson. Was named in honor 
of Charles Lenox, Duke of Richmond, principal Secretary of State in William 
Pitt's second administration. He was a strong friend of the American 
Colonies and made the motion in the House of Lords that they be granted 
their independence. 

The material from this county is not great by any means. In fact, 
the entire collection consists of 10 volumes of County Court Minutes, 
which are dated as follows: 1779-1786, 1786-1792, 1800-1804, 1804- 
1808, 1809-1819, 1830-1838, 1838-1843, 1343-1847, 1S47-1S50, 1866- 

These records contain lists of the Justices of the Peace, jurors both 
grand and petit, appointments, acknowledgments of deeds, probation of 
wills, records of filing inventories of estates, and various court cases 
and their disposition, and the jury sitting on the cases. Xothing un- 
usual seems to be recorded. There is one box of white marriage honds, 
which date from 1S5S to 1868; and there is also a case of negro mar- 
riage bonds which date from 1866 to 1868. 


Rowan County was formed in 1753 from Anson. Was named in honor of 
Mathew Rowan, a prominent leader before the Revolution, and for a short 
time after the death of Gabriel Johnston, acting governor. 

There is almost no material from this county, there being only one 
box of County Court Minutes, which are dated 1750 to 1810, and the 
marriage bonds. 

Handbook of County Records 41 

There are 11 boxes of wills from this county, which are arru' 
alphabetically. These wills are the originals, and are dated from 1757 
to 1863. 


Rockingham County was formed in 1785 from Guilford. Was named in 
honor of Charles Watson Wentworth, Marquis of Rockingham, who 
the leader of the party in the British Parliament that advocated Am*-, 
independence. He was Prime Minister when the Stamp Act was repealed. 

There is very little material from this county. There are only three 
volumes of County Court Minutes and the marriage bonds. 

The County Court Minutes date as follows: 1786-1795, 1796-18 

1804-1808. There is nothing unusual recorded in these books. 


Rutherford County was formed in 1779 from Tryon and Burke. Was 
named in honor of General Griffith Rutherford, one of the most prominent 
of the Revolutionary patriots. He led the expedition that crushed the 
Cherokees in 1776, and rendered other important services, both in the Legis- 
lature and on the battlefield. 

There is just a small amount of material from this county, and there 
is nothing of variety in the collections.. There are County Court Min- 
utes, land entries, guardians' accounts, and marriage bonds. 

The land entries are in a box and are dated from 1791 to 1803. There 
are two volumes of these books, besides a few leaves from another one. 

There is one volume of guardians'' accounts, which are for the years 
between 1S40 and 1850. Some of these accounts are itemized, while 
others have just the totals with the proper oaths attached. 

The collection of County Court Minutes is by far the greatest part 
of that material. There are 12 volumes, besides some that are unfit to 
be on the shelf, except they be in boxes. These minutes date from 1780 
to 1868. However, there are some volumes missing in the collection. 
There are lists of the Justices of the Peace, the jurors both grand and 
petit for the different terms of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Ses- 
sions, acknowledgments of deeds, probation of wills, records of filing 
inventories of estates, many court cases, and there are oaths to obtain 
credit for Revolutionary service according to an Act of the General 
Assembly of 1S32. These oaths give the age and names of the appli- 
cants for the credit. 

There are marriage bonds from this county. 


Robeson County was formed in 1786 from Bladen. Was named in honor 
of Colonel Thomas Robeson, a soldier of the Revolution. He was one of the 
leaders at the battle of Elizabethtown. which was fougrht September 1781. 

42 North Carolina Historical ( 

r>.. -ur. battle * 1 ^ Tories In ,v - southeastern part of the Stale were '-rushed 
forever. The commander of the Whigs was Colonel Thomas Brown. 

This is another county from which there is very little material. There 
is one box with a few wills in it, but there are not many. These wills 
are abstracted, and are dated from 17S4 to 1S06. 

There is also one box of miscellaneous material. This box contains 
letters, bonds, tax returns to the Comptroller general, notices, etc. 

There are also marriage bonds, which are arranged alphabetically. 


Stokes County was formed in 1798 from Surry. Was named in honor of 
Colonel John Stokes, a brave soldier of the Revolution, who was desperately 
wounded at the Waxhaw massacre, when Colonel Buford's regiment was 
cut to pieces by Tarleton. After the war Washington appointed him a judge 
of the United States Court in North Carolina. 

The material from this county is somewhat scanty. There are four 
volumes of County Court Minutes, which cover a period of ten years. 
They are dated as'follows: 1790-1793, 1793-1795, 1795-1798, and 1798- 
1S00. There is no unusual material in these volumes. There is a record 
of the Justices of the Peace, the jurors, probation of wills, deeds, mort- 
gages, etc., petitions of various kinds, appointments, etc. 

There is one volume of inventories of estates, which is dated 1790 
to 1S09. There is an index to this volume by which can be located the 
estate sought. This index is detached from the volume. 

There is one volume of Road Records, which is dated from 1806 to 
1821. It gives the appointments of the road overseers and the roads 
over which they had charge. The appointments were made at the terms 
of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions. 

There are two volumes of lists of taxables. They are dated as fol- 
lows: 1790-1800, and 1S00-1806. They contain the citizen's name, 
number of acres of land, number of polls, both white and black, and the 
total of his taxes. At the end of each year there is a recapitulation of 
of the entire tax returns and a list of insolvents. 

There are 21 boxes of marriage bonds, which are arranged alpha- 


Surry County was formed in 1770 from Rowan. Was named in honor of 
Lord Surry, a prominent member of Parliament who opposed the taxation 
of the American colonies by Parliament. 

The only material from this county is one box of officers bonds. This 
box contains only a few bonds which date from 17S6 to 1803. 

Handbook of County Recobm 43 


Tyrrell County was formed in 1729 from Albemarle. Was named in honor 
of Sir John Tyrrell, who at one time was one of the Lords Proprietors. 

The material from this county consists of County Court Minutes, 
marriage bonds, deeds, miscellaneous court records, and land err 

The County Court Minutes begin in 1735 and run to 1868, but some 
of the minutes are missing. "What we have are dated as follows : 1735- 
1761, 1758 (for September only), 1761-1770, 1770-1782, 1761-17-'. 
1783-1794, 1798-1811, 1819-1849, 1841-1865, 1865-1 

There is no very unusual material on this county. The Minutes con- 
tain such things as lists of the Justices of the Peace, lists of the jurors 
both grand and petit for the different terms of the Court of Pleas and 
Quarter Sessions, acknowledgments of deeds, probation of wills, ap- 
pointments of overseers, guardians, etc., special court orders, petitions 
of many kinds,' granting licenses for operating ordinaries and selling 
liquors, etc. 

There are few land entries for the years between 1778 and 1796. 

There are a good many deeds of this county, which are dated from 
1735 to 1819. There are two volumes and three boxes of these deeds 
and two boxes which contain deeds with other material. 

There are 12 boxes of marriage bonds, which are arranged alphabet- 

There is also one box of miscellaneous court records, dated 1756-1786, 
and a tax list dated 1783. 


"Warren County was formed in 1779 from Bute. Was named in honor of 
General Joseph Warren, a brave Massachusetts soldier who fell while fight- 
ing the battle of Bunker Hill. 

The material from this county consists of County Court Minutes, 
court-martial minutes, wills, inventories of estates, and marriage bonds. 

The County Court Minutes are dated 1783 to 1854, but all the 
volumes do not run in chronological order. There are nine volumes of 

There is one volume of court-martial minutes, which is dated 1791- 
1815. This book contains the names of the persons present at the 
regimental court martials and their titles, if such they had. It also 
has the proceedings of the regular business of the court and the record 
of the officers qualifying. 

There are four boxes of inventories of estates, which date between 
1779 and 1800. 

Mto«mnr«nm«i «.* — jmwu ■ www ar.atflwa w **** ** 

44 North Carolina Historical Commission 

There arc also , .. I s )f , .lis, which are dated between 1779 and 

There are 23 boxes of marriage bonds, which are arranged alpha- 


Washington County was formed in 1799 from Tyrrell. Was named in 
honor of George Washington. 

There is only one volume of material from this county, and it is a 
volume of deeds, which is dated for the years between 1800 and 1801. 


Wayne County was formed in 1779 from Dobbs and Craven. Was named 
in honor of General Anthony Wayne., one of Washington's most trusted 
soldiers. His courage was so great as to amount almost to rashness, and 
his soldiers called him "Mad Anthony Wayne." 

There is not as much material from this county as there is from 
some others, and neither is there a variety. There are a few County 
Court Minutes, a very few marriage bonds, inventories of estates, wills, 
and miscellaneous court papers. 

The County Court Minutes date from 1787 to 17S8. There is no 
unusual material in this set of minutes. There are lists of the Justices 
of the Peace, lists of jurors, court orders, petitions of many kinds, ap- 
pointments of road overseers, etc. 

There are five boxes of inventories of estates, which are dated 17 SO 
to 1800. 

There is one box of original wills, which are dated from 1752 to 
1805. There are also nine small volumes of wills and inventories of 
estates, which are dated from 1782 to 1808. 

There are two volumes of marriage bonds, each of which is indexed. 
Besides these, there are five marriage bonds in a case. 

There is one box of miscellaneous court papers, which is dated 1780 
to 1800. 


Wilkes County was formed in 1777 from Surry and Burke. Was named 
in honor of John Wilkes. Wilkes was a violent opponent of the Tory party 
in England, who would not let him take his seat in Parliament to which he 
had been elected. The Americans imagined that he was suffering in the 
cause of liberty and named this county in his honor. 

There is very little material from this county. There are a few 
County Court Minutes and the marriage bonds. 

The County Court Minutes date from 1778 to 1797, but there is no 
unusual material recorded. 

Handbook of County Kecoed3 45 

There is one volume of court records, which, is dated 1778 to 1709. 
This volume cor. tains bonds of many kinds, inventories of estates, pow- 
ers of attorney, bills of sale, wills, contracts, etc. 

There are 10 boxes of marriage bonds, which are arranged alpha- 


Yadkin County was formed in 1S50 from Surry. Its name is derived from 
the Yadkin River, which runs through it. It is supposed to be an Indian 

There is very little material from, this county. There are only two 
volumes of County Court Minutes, and the marriage bonds. 

The County Court Minutes date from 1856 to 1853 and from 1558 
to 1S68. There is no unusual material recorded in these volumes. 
There are lists of the Justices of the Peace, lists of the jurors both 
grand and petit, appointmeiits, probation of wills, appointments of 
guardians, road overseers, and petitions of various kinds. 

The marriage bonds are arranged alphabetically.